Electrostatic effects in the folding of the SH3 domain of the c-Src tyrosine kinase: pH-dependence in 3D-domain swapping and amyloid formation.
ABSTRACT: The SH3 domain of the c-Src tyrosine kinase (c-Src-SH3) aggregates to form intertwined dimers and amyloid fibrils at mild acid pHs. In this work, we show that a single mutation of residue Gln128 of this SH3 domain has a significant effect on: (i) its thermal stability; and (ii) its propensity to form amyloid fibrils. The Gln128Glu mutant forms amyloid fibrils at neutral pH but not at mild acid pH, while Gln128Lys and Gln128Arg mutants do not form these aggregates under any of the conditions assayed. We have also solved the crystallographic structures of the wild-type (WT) and Gln128Glu, Gln128Lys and Gln128Arg mutants from crystals obtained at different pHs. At pH 5.0, crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6?22 and the asymmetric unit is formed by one chain of the protomer of the c-Src-SH3 domain in an open conformation. At pH 7.0, crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with two molecules at the asymmetric unit showing the characteristic fold of the SH3 domain. Analysis of these crystallographic structures shows that the residue at position 128 is connected to Glu106 at the diverging ?-turn through a cluster of water molecules. Changes in this hydrogen-bond network lead to the displacement of the c-Src-SH3 distal loop, resulting also in conformational changes of Leu100 that might be related to the binding of proline rich motifs. Our findings show that electrostatic interactions and solvation of residues close to the folding nucleation site of the c-Src-SH3 domain might play an important role during the folding reaction and the amyloid fibril formation.
Project description:The SH3 domain of Eps8 was previously found to form an intertwined, domain-swapped dimer. We report here a monomeric structure of the EPS8 SH3 domain obtained from crystals grown at low pH, as well as an improved domain-swapped dimer structure at 1.8 A resolution. In the domain-swapped dimer the asymmetric unit contains two "hybrid-monomers." In the low pH form there are two independently folded SH3 molecules per asymmetric unit. The formation of intermolecular salt bridges is thought to be the reason for the formation of the dimer. On the basis of the monomer SH3 structure, it is argued that Eps8 SH3 should, in principle, bind to peptides containing a PxxP motif. Recently it was reported that Eps8 SH3 binds to a peptide with a PxxDY motif. Because the "SH3 fold" is conserved, alternate binding sites may be possible for the PxxDY motif to bind. The strand exchange or domain swap occurs at the n-src loops because the n-src loops are flexible. The thermal b-factors also indicate the flexible nature of n-src loops and a possible handle for domain swap initiation. Despite the loop swapping, the typical SH3 fold in both forms is conserved structurally. The interface of the acidic form of SH3 is stabilized by a tetragonal network of water molecules above hydrophobic residues. The intertwined dimer interface is stabilized by hydrophobic and aromatic stacking interactions in the core and by hydrophilic interactions on the surface.
Project description:To understand and tackle amyloid-related diseases, it is crucial to investigate the factors that modulate amyloid formation of proteins. Our previous studies proved that the N47A mutant of the ?-spectrin SH3 (Spc-SH3) domain forms amyloid fibrils quickly under mildly acidic conditions. Here, we analyze how experimental conditions influence the kinetics of assembly and the final morphology of the fibrils. Early formation of curly fibrils occurs after a considerable conformational change of the protein and the concomitant formation of small oligomers. These processes are strongly accelerated by an increase in salt concentration and temperature, and to a lesser extent by a reduction in pH. The rate-limiting step in these events has a high activation enthalpy, which is significantly reduced by an increase in NaCl concentration. At low-to-moderate NaCl concentrations, the curly fibrils convert to straight and twisted amyloid fibrils after long incubation times, but only in the presence of soluble species in the mixture, which suggests that the curly fibrils and the twisted amyloid fibrils are diverging assembly pathways. The results suggest that the influence of environmental variables on protein solvation is crucial in determining the nucleation kinetics, the pathway of assembly, and the final fibril morphology.
Project description:High resolution structural information on amyloid fibrils is crucial for the understanding of their formation mechanisms and for the rational design of amyloid inhibitors in the context of protein misfolding diseases. The Src-homology 3 domain of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K-SH3) is a model amyloid system that plays a pivotal role in our basic understanding of protein misfolding and aggregation. Here, we present the atomic model of the PI3K-SH3 amyloid fibril with a resolution determined to 3.4?Å by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The fibril is composed of two intertwined protofilaments that create an interface spanning 13 residues from each monomer. The model comprises residues 1-77 out of 86 amino acids in total, with the missing residues located in the highly flexible C-terminus. The fibril structure allows us to rationalise the effects of chemically conservative point mutations as well as of the previously reported sequence perturbations on PI3K-SH3 fibril formation and growth.
Project description:By far most macromolecular crystallographic data collection and experimental phasing is nowadays carried out using synchrotron radiation. Here, we present two crystallographic datasets collected on a home-source X-ray diffractometer, which can per se be use to experimentally solve the atomic-resolution crystal structure of the Src homology 3(SH3)-like domain from the postsynaptic protein Shank3. The refined structure was described in the article "Structure of an unconventional SH3 domain from the postsynaptic density protein Shank3 at ultrahigh resolution" (Ponna et al., 2017) . Crystals of the Shank3 SH3 domain were derivatized through soaking in 1?M sodium iodide prior to diffraction data collection at a wavelength of 1.54?Å. High-resolution data are reported for a native crystal to 1.01?Å and an iodide-derivatized one to 1.60?Å. The crystals suffered from several anomalies affecting experimental phasing: a high fraction (34-40%) of pseudomerohedral twinning, significant pseudotranslational symmetry (>?15%) with the operator 0.5,0,0.5, and a low solvent content. Twinning with the operator h,-k,-l is made possible by the space group P21 coupled with a unit cell ? angle of 90.0°. The data can be used to repeat and optimize derivatization and phasing procedures, to understand halide interactions with protein surfaces, to promote the use of home X-ray sources for protein structure determination, as well as for educational purposes and protocol development.
Project description:Protein misfolding and deposition underlie an increasing number of debilitating human disorders. We have shown that model proteins unrelated to disease, such as the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of the p58alpha subunit of bovine phosphatidyl-inositol-3'-kinase (PI3-SH3), can be converted in vitro into assemblies with structural and cytotoxic properties similar to those of pathological aggregates. By contrast, homologous proteins, such as alpha-spectrin-SH3, lack the capability of forming amyloid fibrils at a measurable rate under any of the conditions we have so far examined. However, transplanting a small sequence stretch (6 aa) from PI3-SH3 to alpha-spectrin-SH3, comprising residues of the diverging turn and adjacent RT loop, creates an amyloidogenic protein closely similar in its behavior to the original PI3-SH3. Analysis of specific PI3-SH3 mutants further confirms the involvement of this region in conferring amyloidogenic properties to this domain. Moreover, the inclusion in this stretch of two consensus residues favored in SH3 sequences substantially inhibits aggregation. These findings show that short specific amino acid stretches can act as mediators or facilitators in the incorporation of globular proteins into amyloid structures, and they support the suggestion that natural protein sequences have evolved in part to code for structural characteristics other than those included in the native fold, such as avoidance of aggregation.
Project description:Protein aggregation, linked to many of diseases, is initiated when monomers access rogue conformations that are poised to form amyloid fibrils. We show, using simulations of src SH3 domain, that mechanical force enhances the population of the aggregation-prone (N(?)) states, which are rarely populated under force free native conditions but are encoded in the spectrum of native fluctuations. The folding phase diagrams of SH3 as a function of denaturant concentration ([C]), mechanical force (f), and temperature exhibit an apparent two-state behavior, without revealing the presence of the elusive N(?) states. Interestingly, the phase boundaries separating the folded and unfolded states at all [C] and f fall on a master curve, which can be quantitatively described using an analogy to superconductors in a magnetic field. The free energy profiles as a function of the molecular extension (R), which are accessible in pulling experiments, (R), reveal the presence of a native-like N(?) with a disordered solvent-exposed amino-terminal ?-strand. The structure of the N(?) state is identical with that found in Fyn SH3 by NMR dispersion experiments. We show that the timescale for fibril formation can be estimated from the population of the N(?) state, determined by the free energy gap separating the native structure and the N(?) state, a finding that can be used to assess fibril forming tendencies of proteins. The structures of the N(?) state are used to show that oligomer formation and likely route to fibrils occur by a domain-swap mechanism in SH3 domain.
Project description:The SH3 domain of the PI3 kinase (PI3-SH3 or PI3K-SH3) readily aggregates into fibrils in vitro and has served as an important model system in the investigation of the molecular properties and mechanism of formation of amyloid fibrils. We describe the molecular conformation of PI3-SH3 in amyloid fibril form as revealed by magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The MAS NMR spectra of these fibrils display excellent resolution, with narrow (13)C and (15)N line widths, representing a high degree of structural order and the absence of extensive molecular motion for the majority of the polypeptide chain. We have identified the spin systems of 82 of the 86 residues in the protein and obtained sequential resonance assignments for 75 of them. Chemical shift analysis indicates that the protein subunits making up the fibril adopt a compact conformation consisting of four well-defined beta-sheet regions and four random-coil elements with varying degrees of local dynamics or disorder. The backbone conformation of PI3-SH3 in fibril form differs significantly from that of the native state of the protein, both in secondary structure and in the location of dynamic or disordered segments. The site-specific MAS NMR analysis of PI3-SH3 fibrils we report here is compared with previously published mechanistic and structural data, resulting in a detailed interpretation of the factors that mediate fibril formation by PI3-SH3 and allowing us to propose a possible model of the core structure of the fibrils. Our results confirm the structural similarities between PI3-SH3 fibrils and amyloid assemblies directly related to degenerative and infectious diseases.
Project description:Membrane trafficking is regulated in part by small GTP-binding proteins of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family. Arf function depends on the controlled exchange and hydrolysis of GTP. We have purified and cloned two variants of a 130-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate (PIP2)-dependent Arf1 GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which we call ASAP1a and ASAP1b. Both contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a zinc finger similar to that found in another Arf GAP, three ankyrin (ANK) repeats, a proline-rich region with alternative splicing and SH3 binding motifs, eight repeats of the sequence E/DLPPKP, and an SH3 domain. Together, the PH, zinc finger, and ANK repeat regions possess PIP2-dependent GAP activity on Arf1 and Arf5, less activity on Arf6, and no detectable activity on Arl2 in vitro. The cDNA for ASAP1 was independently identified in a screen for proteins that interact with the SH3 domain of the tyrosine kinase Src. ASAP1 associates in vitro with the SH3 domains of Src family members and with the Crk adapter protein. ASAP1 coprecipitates with Src from cell lysates and is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in cells expressing activated Src. Both coimmunoprecipitation and tyrosine phosphorylation depend on the same proline-rich class II Src SH3 binding site required for in vitro association. By directly interacting with both Arfs and tyrosine kinases involved in regulating cell growth and cytoskeletal organization, ASAP1 could coordinate membrane remodeling events with these processes.
Project description:Although amyloid fibrils deposit with various proteins, the comprehensive mechanism by which they form remains unclear. We studied the formation of fibrils of human islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes in the presence of various concentrations of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) under acidic and neutral pH conditions using CD, amyloid-specific thioflavin T fluorescence, fluorescence imaging with thioflavin T, and atomic force microscopy. At low pH, the formation of fibrils was promoted by HFIP with an optimum at 5% (v/v). At neutral pH in the absence of HFIP, significant amounts of amorphous aggregates formed in addition to the fibrils. The addition of HFIP suppressed the formation of amorphous aggregates, leading to a predominance of fibrils with an optimum effect at 25% (v/v). Under both conditions, higher concentrations of HFIP dissolved the fibrils and stabilized the α-helical structure. The results indicate that fibrils and amorphous aggregates are different types of precipitates formed by exclusion from water-HFIP mixtures. The exclusion occurs through the combined effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic interactions, both of which are strengthened by low concentrations of HFIP, and a subtle balance between the two types of interactions determines whether the fibrils or amorphous aggregates dominate. We suggest a general view of how the structure of precipitates varies dramatically from single crystals to amyloid fibrils and amorphous aggregates.
Project description:We describe magic-angle spinning NMR experiments designed to elucidate the interstrand architecture of amyloid fibrils. Three methods are introduced for this purpose, two being based on the analysis of long-range (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra and the third based on the identification of intermolecular interactions in (13)C-(15)N spectra. We show, in studies of fibrils formed by the 86-residue SH3 domain of PI3 kinase (PI3-SH3 or PI3K-SH3), that efficient (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra display a resonance degeneracy that establishes a parallel, in-register alignment of the proteins in the amyloid fibrils. In addition, this degeneracy can be circumvented to yield direct intermolecular constraints. The (13)C-(13)C experiments are corroborated by (15)N-(13)C correlation spectra obtained from a mixed [(15)N,(12)C]/[(14)N,(13)C] sample which directly quantify interstrand distances. Furthermore, when the spectra are recorded with signal enhancement provided by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 100 K, we demonstrate a dramatic increase (from 23 to 52) in the number of intermolecular (15)N-(13)C constraints detectable in the spectra. The increase in the information content is due to the enhanced signal intensities and to the fact that dynamic processes, leading to spectral intensity losses, are quenched at low temperatures. Thus, acquisition of low temperature spectra addresses a problem that is frequently encountered in MAS spectra of proteins. In total, the experiments provide 111 intermolecular (13)C-(13)C and (15)N-(13)C constraints that establish that the PI3-SH3 protein strands are aligned in a parallel, in-register arrangement within the amyloid fibril.