Interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Meat intake is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in order to identify biological pathways involved in meat carcinogenesis. We performed a literature search of PubMed and Embase using "interaction", "meat", "polymorphisms", and "colorectal cancer", and data on meat-gene interactions were extracted. The studies were divided according to whether information on meat intake was collected prospectively or retrospectively. In prospective studies, interactions between meat intake and polymorphisms in PTGS2 (encoding COX-2), ABCB1, IL10, NFKB1, MSH3, XPC (P int = 0.006, 0.01, 0.04, 0.03, 0.002, 0.01, respectively), but not IL1B, HMOX1, ABCC2, ABCG2, NR1I2 (encoding PXR), NR1H2 (encoding LXR), NAT1, NAT2, MSH6, or MLH1 in relation to CRC were found. Interaction between a polymorphism in XPC and meat was found in one prospective and one case-control study; however, the directions of the risk estimates were opposite. Thus, none of the findings were replicated. The results from this systematic review suggest that genetic variation in the inflammatory response and DNA repair pathway is involved in meat-related colorectal carcinogenesis, whereas no support for the involvement of heme and iron from meat or cooking mutagens was found. Further studies assessing interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to CRC in large well-characterised prospective cohorts with relevant meat exposure are warranted.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diet contributes significantly to colorectal cancer (CRC) aetiology and may be potentially modifiable.<h4>Aim</h4>To review diet-gene interactions, aiming to further the understanding of the underlying biological pathways in CRC development.<h4>Methods</h4>The PubMed and Medline were systematically searched for prospective studies in relation to diet, colorectal cancer and genetics.<h4>Results</h4>In a meta-analysis, no interaction between NAT1 phenotypes and meat intake in relation to risk of CRC was found (P-value for interaction 0.95). We found a trend towards interaction between NAT2 phenotypes and meat intake in relation to risk of CRC. High meat intake was not associated with risk of CRC among carriers of the slow NAT2 phenotype, whereas NAT2 fast acetylators with high meat intake were at increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-2.01) compared with slow acetylators with low meat intake (reference), P-value for interaction = 0.07. Low meat intake in the studied populations may influence the result. Interactions between meat, cruciferous vegetables, fibres, calcium, vitamins, and alcohol and ABCB1, NFKB1, GSTM1, GSTT1, CCND1, VDR, MGTM, IL10 and PPARG are suggested.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A number of interactions between genetic variation and diet are suggested, but the findings need replication in independent, prospective, and well-characterised cohorts before conclusions regarding the underlying biological mechanisms can be reached. When the above criteria are met, studies on diet-gene interactions may contribute valuable insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the role of various dietary items in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Diet contributes to colorectal cancer development and may be potentially modified. We wanted to identify the biological mechanisms underlying colorectal carcinogenesis by assessment of diet-gene interactions. METHODS:The polymorphisms IL10 C-592A (rs1800872), C-rs3024505-T, IL1b C-3737T (rs4848306), G-1464C (rs1143623), T-31C (rs1143627) and PTGS2 (encoding COX-2) A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), and T8473C (rs5275) were assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interaction with diet (red meat, fish, fibre, cereals, fruit and vegetables) and lifestyle (non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug use and smoking status) was assessed in a nested case-cohort study of nine hundred and seventy CRC cases and 1789 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. RESULTS:IL1b C-3737T, G-1464C and PTGS2 T8473C variant genotypes were associated with risk of CRC compared to the homozygous wildtype genotype (IRR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97, p=0.02, and IRR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.44, p=0.02, IRR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.57-0.99, p=0.04, respectively). Interactions were found between diet and IL10 rs3024505 (P-value for interaction (P(int)); meat=0.04, fish=0.007, fibre=0.0008, vegetables=0.0005), C-592A (P(int); fibre=0.025), IL1b C-3737T (Pint; vegetables=0.030, NSAID use=0.040) and PTGS2 genotypes G-765C (P(int); meat=0.006, fibre=0.0003, fruit 0.004), and T8473C (P(int); meat 0.049, fruit=0.03) and A-1195G (P(int); meat 0.038, fibre 0.040, fruit=0.059, vegetables=0.025, and current smoking=0.046). CONCLUSIONS:Genetically determined low COX-2 and high IL-1? activity were associated with increased risk of CRC in this northern Caucasian cohort. Furthermore, interactions were found between IL10, IL1b, and PTGS2 and diet and lifestyle factors in relation to CRC. The present study demonstrates that gene-environment interactions may identify genes and environmental factors involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872) and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction?=?0.01). IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10?g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88) whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction?=?0.02). Among those eating <17.0 grams of fibre per day, carriers of an C-592A variant allele had a statistically significantly higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to homozygous wildtypes. No significant differences in colorectal cancer risk were observed between the reference group (CC and <17.0?g/day) and carriers of one C-592A variant allele eating 17.0 or more grams of dietary fibre per day. This suggests that the increased risk due to carrying the variant allele can be overcome by higher fibre intake. No interactions between IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or between IL10 rs3024505 and smoking or NSAID use were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this northern Caucasian cohort we found interaction between IL10 and dietary fibre in CRC carcinogenesis. High intake of fibre seems to protect against CRC among individuals with IL10 related genetic susceptibility to CRC. This finding should be evaluated in other prospective and population-based cohorts with different ethnic groups.
Project description:Red and processed meat have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), whereas long-term use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the risk. The aim was to investigate potential interactions between meat intake, NSAID use, and gene variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways in relation to the risk of CRC. A nested case-cohort study of 1038 CRC cases and 1857 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Gene variants in SLC25A20, PRKAB1, LPCAT1, PLA2G4A, ALOX5, PTGER3, TP53, CCAT2, TCF7L2, and BCL2 were investigated. CCAT2 rs6983267 was associated with the risk of CRC per se (p < 0.01). Statistically significant interactions were found between intake of red and processed meat and CCAT2 rs6983267, TP53 rs1042522, LPCAT1 rs7737692, SLC25A20 rs7623023 (pinteraction = 0.04, 0.04, 0.02, 0.03, respectively), and the use of NSAID and alcohol intake and TP53 rs1042522 (pinteraction = 0.04, 0.04, respectively) in relation to the risk of CRC. No other consistent associations or interactions were found. This study replicated an association of CCAT2 rs6983267 with CRC and an interaction between TP53 rs1042522 and NSAID in relation to CRC. Interactions between genetic variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways and the intake of red and processed meat were found. Our results suggest that meat intake and NSAID use affect the same carcinogenic mechanisms. All new findings should be sought replicated in independent prospective studies. Future studies on the cancer-protective effects of aspirin/NSAID should include gene and meat assessments.
Project description:A diet high in red meat is an established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factor. Carcinogens generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents and can induce oxidative DNA damage, which elicits repair by the base excision repair (BER) pathway.Using a family-based study, we investigated the role of polymorphisms in 4 BER genes (APEX1 Gln51His, Asp148Glu; OGG1 Ser236Cys; PARP Val742Ala; and XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln) as potential CRC risk factors and modifiers of the association between diets high in red meat or poultry and CRC risk. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (n = 577) and compared statistically significant results with those obtained using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (n = 307 sibships).Carriers of the APEX1 codon 51 Gln/His genotype had a reduced CRC risk compared with carriers of the Gln/Gln genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.03-0.69, P = 0.015). The association between higher red meat intake (>3 servings per week) and CRC was modified by the PARP Val762Ala single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; case-only interaction P = 0.026). This SNP also modified the association between higher intake of high-temperature cooked red meat (case-only interaction P = 0.0009).We report evidence that the BER pathway PARP gene modifies the association of diets high in red meat cooked at high temperatures with risk of CRC.Our findings suggest a contribution to colorectal carcinogenesis of free radical damage as one of the possible harmful effects of a diet high in red meat.
Project description:Diets high in red meat have been consistently associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and may result in exposure to carcinogens that cause DNA damage [i.e polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and N-nitroso compounds]. Using a family-based study, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) (ERCC1 3' untranslated region (UTR) G/T, XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln, XPC intron 11 C/A, XPA 5' UTR C/T, XPF Arg415Gln and XPG Asp1104His) and mismatch repair (MLH1 Ile219Val and MSH2 Gly322Asp) pathways modified the association with red meat and poultry intake. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (n = 577) and compared the results using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (n = 307 sibships). Increased risk of CRC was observed for intake of more than or equal to three servings per week of red meat [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-2.5)] or high-temperature cooked red meat (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2). Intake of red meat heavily brown on the outside or inside increased CRC risk only among subjects who carried the XPD codon 751 Lys/Lys genotype (case-only interaction P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively, for doneness outside or inside) or the XPD codon 312 Asp/Asp genotype (case-only interaction P = 0.090 and P < 0.001, respectively). These interactions were stronger for rectal cancer cases (heterogeneity test P = 0.002 for XPD Asp312Asn and P = 0.03 for XPD Lys751Gln) and remained statistically significant after accounting for multiple testing. Case-unaffected sibling analyses were generally supportive of the case-only results. These findings highlight the possible contribution of diets high in red meat to the formation of lesions that elicit the NER pathway, such as carcinogen-induced bulky adducts.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness.The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. METHODS: The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642) in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142), the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466) and G-765C (rs20417) in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. RESULTS: Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12-2.06). Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00)). There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16) whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02). COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T8473C (p-values for interaction 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Two polymorphisms in MDR1 were associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between these polymorphisms and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. Our results suggest that MDR1 polymorphisms affect the relationship between meat and CRC risk.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although experimental studies suggested beneficial role of garlic intake on colorectal carcinogenesis, limited prospective cohort studies have evaluated garlic intake in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence.<h4>Methods</h4>We followed 76,208 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 45,592 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for up to 24 years and examined garlic intake and garlic supplement use in relation to CRC risk. Information on garlic intake and supplement use was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the multivariable hazard ratio (MV-HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).<h4>Results</h4>We documented 2368 (1339 women and 1029 men) incident CRC cases and fo und no association between garlic intake and CRC risk; the MV-HRs (95% CIs) associated with garlic (1 clove or 4 shakes per serving) intake ? 1/day compared with < 1/month were 1.21 (0.94-1.57; p-trend = 0.14) for women and 1.00 (0.71-1.42; p-trend = 0.89) for men. The MV-HRs (95% CIs) of CRC for garlic supplement use, which was used in 6% of the participants in each study, were 0.72 (0.48-1.07) for women and 1.22 (0.83-1.78) for men.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our prospective data do not support an important role of garlic intake or garlic supplement use in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (P for heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospective studies and explore whether there is a non-linear association of red and processed meats with colorectal cancer risk.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>Relevant prospective studies were identified in PubMed until March 2011. For each study, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled with a random-effects model, weighting for the inverse of the variance, in highest versus lowest intake comparison, and dose-response meta-analyses. Red and processed meats intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. The summary relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.11-1.34) and the RR for every 100 g/day increase was 1.14 (95% CI = 1.04-1.24). Non-linear dose-response meta-analyses revealed that colorectal cancer risk increases approximately linearly with increasing intake of red and processed meats up to approximately 140 g/day, where the curve approaches its plateau. The associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer risk. When analyzed separately, colorectal cancer risk was related to intake of fresh red meat (RR(for 100 g/day increase) = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31) and processed meat (RR (for 50 g/day increase) = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.10-1.28). Similar results were observed for colon cancer, but for rectal cancer, no significant associations were observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>High intake of red and processed meat is associated with significant increased risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers. The overall evidence of prospective studies supports limiting red and processed meat consumption as one of the dietary recommendations for the prevention of colorectal cancer.