B-RafV600E inhibits sodium iodide symporter expression via regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1.
ABSTRACT: B-RafV600E mutant is found in 40-70% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and B-RafV600E has been known to be associated with the loss of NIS expression. In this study, we found that B-RafV600E inhibited NIS expression by the upregulation of its promoter methylation, and that specific regions of CpG islands of NIS promoter in B-RafV600E harboring PTC were highly methylated compared with surrounding normal tissue. Although DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b (DNMT3a,3b) were not increased by B-RafV600E, DNMT1 expression was markedly upregulated in PTC and B-RafV600E expressing thyrocytes. Furthermore, DNMT1 expression was upregulated by B-RafV600E induced NF-?B activation. These results led us to conclude that NIS promoter methylation, which was induced by B-RafV600E, is one of the possible mechanisms involved in NIS downregulation in PTC.
Project description:B-RafV600E oncogene mutation occurs most commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and is associated with tumor initiation. However, a genetic modification by B-RafV600E in thyrocytes results in oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). In the present study, we explored the factors involved in the senescence overcome program in PTC. First of all, we observed down-regulation of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and up-regulation of dual specific phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) in the PTC with B-RafV600E mutation. DUSP6 overexpression in vitro induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 dephosphorylation and inhibited B-RafV600E-induced senescence in thyrocytes. Although DUSP6 protein was degraded by B-RafV600E-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stabilized DUSP6 protein by increasing Mn superoxide dismutase expression and inhibited B-RafV600E-induced senescence. Although serum TSH was not increased, its receptor was markedly upregulated in PTC with B-RafV600E. Furthermore, TSH together with DUSP6 reactivated Ras signaling, resulted in activation of Ras/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3?, and stabilized c-Myc protein by inhibiting its degradation. These observations led us to conclude that increased TSH signaling overcomes OIS and is essential for B-RafV600E-induced papillary thyroid carcinogenesis.
Project description:The uptake of iodide into the thyroid, an essential step in thyroid hormone synthesis, is an active process mediated by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Despite its strong dependence on TSH, the master regulator of the thyroid, the NIS gene was also reported to be regulated by non-TSH signaling pathways. In the present study we provide evidence that the rat NIS gene is subject to regulation by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which were initially identified as master transcriptional regulators of lipid biosynthesis and uptake. Studies in FRTL-5 thyrocytes revealed that TSH stimulates expression and maturation of SREBPs and expression of classical SREBP target genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and uptake. Almost identical effects were observed when the cAMP agonist forskolin was used instead of TSH. In TSH receptor-deficient mice, in which TSH/cAMP-dependent gene regulation is blocked, the expression of SREBP isoforms in the thyroid was markedly reduced when compared with wild-type mice. Sterol-mediated inhibition of SREBP maturation and/or RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SREBPs reduced expression of NIS and NIS-specific iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells. Conversely, overexpression of active SREBPs caused a strong activation of the 5'-flanking region of the rat NIS gene mediated by binding to a functional SREBP binding site located in the 5'-untranslated region of the rat NIS gene. These findings show that TSH acts as a regulator of SREBP expression and maturation in thyroid epithelial cells and that SREBPs are novel transcriptional regulators of NIS.
Project description:Absorption of dietary iodide, presumably in the small intestine, is the first step in iodide (I(-)) utilization. From the bloodstream, I(-) is actively taken up via the Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) in the thyroid for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and in such other tissues as lactating breast, which supplies I(-) to the newborn in the milk. The molecular basis for intestinal I(-) absorption is unknown. We sought to determine whether I(-) is actively accumulated by enterocytes and, if so, whether this process is mediated by NIS and regulated by I(-) itself. NIS expression was localized exclusively at the apical surface of rat and mouse enterocytes. In vivo intestine-to-blood transport of pertechnetate, a NIS substrate, was sensitive to the NIS inhibitor perchlorate. Brush border membrane vesicles accumulated I(-) in a sodium-dependent, perchlorate-sensitive manner with kinetic parameters similar to those of thyroid cells. NIS was expressed in intestinal epithelial cell line 6, and I(-) uptake in these cells was also kinetically similar to that in thyrocytes. I(-) downregulated NIS protein expression and its own NIS-mediated transport both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that NIS is functionally expressed on the apical surface of enterocytes, where it mediates active I(-) accumulation. Therefore, NIS is a significant and possibly central component of the I(-) absorption system in the small intestine, a system of key importance for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and thus systemic intermediary metabolism.
Project description:The BRAFV600E oncogene, reported in 40%-60% of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. It is associated with the loss of thyroid iodide-metabolizing genes, such as sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), and therefore with radioiodine refractoriness. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, constitutively activated by BRAFV600E, is not always efficient in resistant tumors suggesting that other compensatory mechanisms contribute to a BRAFV600E adaptive resistance. Recent studies pointed to a key role of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) in BRAFV600E-induced effects. The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating NADPH oxidase NOX4, which is increased in PTC, has been identified as a new key effector of TGF-? in cancer, suggestive of a potential role in BRAFV600E-induced thyroid tumors.Here, using two human BRAFV600E-mutated thyroid cell lines and a rat thyroid cell line expressing BRAFV600E in a conditional manner, we show that NOX4 upregulation is controlled at the transcriptional level by the oncogene via the TGF-?/Smad3 signaling pathway. Importantly, treatment of cells with NOX4-targeted siRNA downregulates BRAFV600E-induced NIS repression. Innovation and Conclusion: Our results establish a link between BRAFV600E and NOX4, which is confirmed by a comparative analysis of NOX4 expression in human (TCGA) and mouse thyroid cancers. Remarkably, analysis of human and murine BRAFV600E-mutated thyroid tumors highlights that the level of NOX4 expression is inversely correlated to thyroid differentiation suggesting that other genes involved in thyroid differentiation in addition to NIS might be silenced by a mechanism controlled by NOX4-derived ROS. This study opens a new opportunity to optimize thyroid cancer therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 864-877.
Project description:Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy. Genetic and epigenetic alterations play a decisive role in the onset of several human neoplasms. Mutations and polymorphisms are two frequent genetic alterations. Located on chromosome 19 (19p13.11), the NIS SLC5A5 (solute carrier family 5 member 5) gene encodes a highly specialized and efficient 80-90?kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates active transport of iodide from the bloodstream into the follicular cells. Given the highly significant role of NIS in the physiology and the cancer pathogenesis process, this paper's objective is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the associations between NIS gene and protein with papillary thyroid cancer.
Project description:Although it is well known that an excess of iodide suppresses thyroid function and blood flow in vivo, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully known. The functional effect of iodide occurs at multiple steps, which include inhibition of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression, transient block of organification, and inhibition of hormonal release. The vascular effect likely involves suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. In this report, we show that excess iodide coordinately suppresses the expression of the NIS and VEGF genes in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. We also demonstrate that the mechanism of iodide suppression of NIS gene expression is transcriptional, which is synergized by the addition of thyroglobulin. Based on the findings of reporter gene assays and electrophoretic gel mobility shift analysis, we also report two novel DNA binding proteins that responded specifically to iodide and modulated NIS promoter activity. The results suggest that excess iodide affects thyroid vascular function in addition to iodide uptake. This study provides additional insights into the mechanism of action of excess iodide on thyroid function.
Project description:Thyroid iodide accumulation via the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) has been the basis for the longtime use of radio-iodide in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancers. NIS is also expressed, but poorly functional, in some non-thyroid human cancers. In particular, it is much more strongly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines than in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The transcription factors and signaling pathways that control NIS overexpression in these cancers is largely unknown. We identified two putative regulatory clusters of p53-responsive elements (p53REs) in the NIS core promoter, and investigated the regulation of NIS transcription by p53-family members in liver cancer cells. NIS promoter activity and endogenous NIS mRNA expression are stimulated by exogenously expressed p53-family members and significantly reduced by member-specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the p53-REs clusters in the NIS promoter are differentially occupied by the p53-family members to regulate basal and DNA damage-induced NIS transcription. Doxorubicin strongly induces p53 and p73 binding to the NIS promoter, leading to an increased expression of endogenous NIS mRNA and protein in HCC and CCA cells, but not in PHH. Silencing NIS expression reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, pointing to a possible role of a p53-family-dependent expression of NIS in apoptotic cell death. Altogether, these results indicate that the NIS gene is a direct target of the p53 family and suggests that the modulation of NIS by DNA-damaging agents is potentially exploitable to boost NIS upregulation in vivo.
Project description:Amiodarone reversibly decreases sodium-iodide symporter mRNA expression at therapeutic concentrations and induces antioxidant responses at supraphysiological concentrations in cultured human thyroid follicles Amiodarone, a potent antiarrhythmic agent, is a highly active oxidant, exerting cytotoxic effects on thyrocytes at pharmacological concentrations. Patients receiving amiodarone usually remain euthyroid, but occasionally develop thyroid dysfunction, such as amiodarone-associated hypothyroidism or amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. To elucidate the mechanism by which amiodarone elicits thyroid dysfunction, human thyroid follicles were cultured with TSH and amiodarone at therapeutic (1-2 microM) and pharmacological (10-20microM) concentrations, and the drug-induced effect on whole human gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Amiodarone at 1-2microM decreased the expression level of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) to nearly half, but did not affect genes participating in thyroid hormonogenesis (thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, pendrin, NADPH oxidase). Higher concentrations (10-20 microM) decreased the expression of all these genes, accompanied by increased expression of antioxidant proteins such as heme oxygenase 1 and ferritin. When thyroid follicles obtained from a patient with Graves’ disease who had been treated with amiodarone for 2 months before thyroidectomy were cultured in amiodarone-free medium, TSH-induced thyroid function was intact, suggesting that amiodarone at a maintenance dose did not elicit any cytotoxic effect on thyrocytes. The ultrastructural features of cultured thyroid follicles were compatible with these in vitro findings. These in vitro and ex vivo findings suggest that patients taking maintenance doses of amiodarone usually remain euthyroid, probably due to escape from the Wolff-Chaikoff effect mediated by decreased expression of NIS mRNA. Furthermore, amiodarone is not cytotoxic for thyrocytes at therapeutic concentrations but elicits cytotoxicity through oxidant activity at supra-physiological concentrations. Keywords: Cultured human thyroid follicles Overall design: Two condition experiment, control vs. Amiodarone 1 and 10 microM, cultured for 5 days
Project description:Major regulation of thyroid gland function is mediated by thyrotropin (TSH) activating the TSH receptor (TSHR) and inducing upregulation of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) may play a role in regulating TSHR functional effects. This study examined the potential role of TSHR/IGF-1R crosstalk in primary cultures of human thyrocytes.TSH/IGF-1 co-treatment elicited additive effects on thyroglobulin (TG), thyroperoxidase (TPO), and deiodinase type 2 (DIO2) mRNA levels but synergistic effects on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA. Similar cooperativity was seen on the level of TG protein secretion (additive) and NIS protein expression (synergistic). The IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor linsitinib inhibited TSH-stimulated upregulation of NIS but not TG, indicating that NIS regulation is in part IGF-1R dependent and occurs via receptor crosstalk. Cooperativity was not seen at the level of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, IGF-1R phosphorylation, or Akt activation. However, TSH and IGF-1 synergistically activated ERK1/2. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and of Akt by MK-2206 virtually abolished NIS stimulation by TSH and the synergistic effect of IGF-1.As linsitinib inhibited upregulation of NIS stimulated by TSH alone, it is concluded that crosstalk between TSHR and IGF-1R, without agonist activation of IGF-1R, plays a role in NIS regulation in human thyrocytes via a mechanism involving ERK1/2 and/or Akt. Fully understanding the nature of this crosstalk has clinical implications for the treatment of thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer.
Project description:Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide uptake in thyroid follicular cells is the basis of clinical utilization of radioiodines. The cloning of the NIS gene enabled applications of NIS as a reporter gene in both preclinical and translational research. Non-invasive NIS imaging with radioactive iodides and iodide analogs has gained much interest in recent years for evaluation of thyroid cancer and NIS reporter expression. Although radioiodines and [99mTc]pertechnetate ([99mTc]TcO4-) have been utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), they may suffer from limitations of availability, undesirable decay properties or imaging sensitivity (SPECT versus PET). Recently, [18F]tetrafluoroborate ([18F]TFB or [18F]BF4-) and other fluorine-18 labeled iodide analogs have emerged as a promising iodide analog for PET imaging. These fluorine-18 labeled probes have practical radiosyntheses and biochemical properties that allow them to closely mimic iodide transport by NIS in thyroid, as well as in other NIS-expressing tissues. Unlike radioiodides, they do not undergo organification in thyroid cells, which results in an advantage of relatively lower uptake in normal thyroid tissue. Initial clinical trials of [18F]TFB have been completed in healthy human subjects and thyroid cancer patients. The excellent imaging properties of [18F]TFB for evaluation of NIS-expressing tissues indicate its bright future in PET NIS imaging. This review focuses on the recent evolution of [18F]TFB and other iodide analogs and their potential value in research and clinical practice.