Comparative proteomic analysis of indica and japonica rice varieties.
ABSTRACT: Indica and japonica are two main subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that differ clearly in morphological and agronomic traits, in physiological and biochemical characteristics and in their genomic structure. However, the proteins and genes responsible for these differences remain poorly characterized. In this study, proteomic tools, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, were used to globally identify proteins that differed between two sequenced rice varieties (93-11 and Nipponbare). In all, 47 proteins that differed significantly between 93-11 and Nipponbare were identified using mass spectrometry and database searches. Interestingly, seven proteins were expressed only in Nipponbare and one protein was expressed specifically in 93-11; these differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and proteomic analysis of other indica and japonica rice varieties. This is the first report to successfully demonstrate differences in the protein composition of indica and japonica rice varieties and to identify candidate proteins and genes for future investigation of their roles in the differentiation of indica and japonica rice.
Project description:Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases. The two major subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), indica and japonica, have shown obvious differences in rice blast resistance, but the genomic basis that underlies the difference is not clear. We performed a genomewide comparison of the major class of resistant gene family, the nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) gene family, between 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica) with a focus on their pseudogene members. We found great differences in either constitution or distribution of pseudogenes between the two genomes. According to this comparison, we designed the PCR-based molecular markers specific to the Nipponbare NBS-LRR pseudogene alleles and used them as cosegregation markers for blast susceptibility in a segregation population from a cross between a rice blast-resistant indica variety and a susceptible japonica variety. Through this approach, we identified a new blast resistance gene, Pid3, in the indica variety, Digu. The allelic Pid3 loci in most of the tested japonica varieties were identified as pseudogenes due to a nonsense mutation at the nucleotide position 2208 starting from the translation initiation site. However, this mutation was not found in any of the tested indica varieties, African cultivated rice varieties, or AA genome-containing wild rice species. These results suggest that the pseudogenization of Pid3 in japonica occurred after the divergence of indica and japonica.
Project description:In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), aroma is one of the most valuable traits in grain quality and 2-ACP is the main volatile compound contributing to the characteristic popcorn-like odour of aromatic rices. Although the major locus for grain fragrance (frg gene) has been described recently in Basmati rice, this gene has not been characterised in true japonica varieties and molecular information available on the genetic diversity and evolutionary origin of this gene among the different varieties is still limited. Here we report on characterisation of the frg gene in the Azucena variety, one of the few aromatic japonica cultivars. We used a RIL population from a cross between Azucena and IR64, a non-aromatic indica, the reference genomic sequence of Nipponbare (japonica) and 93-11 (indica) as well as an Azucena BAC library, to identify the major fragance gene in Azucena. We thus identified a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, badh2, as the candidate locus responsible for aroma, which presented exactly the same mutation as that identified in Basmati and Jasmine-like rices. Comparative genomic analyses showed very high sequence conservation between Azucena and Nipponbare BADH2, and a MITE was identified in the promotor region of the BADH2 allele in 93-11. The badh2 mutation and MITE were surveyed in a representative rice collection, including traditional aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties, and strongly suggested a monophylogenetic origin of this badh2 mutation in Asian cultivated rices. Altogether these new data are discussed here in the light of current hypotheses on the origin of rice genetic diversity.
Project description:This research reports genome-wide measurements of genetic and epigenetic patterns of inheritance through an integrative analysis of BS-seq, RNA-seq, and siRNA-seq data in two inbred parents of the Nipponbare (NPB) and Indica (93-11) variety of rice and their hybrid offspring. We generated integrative maps of whole genome cytosine methylation profiles (BS-Seq), transcriptional profiles (RNA-seq), and small RNA profiles (sRNA-seq) to characterize two rice subspecies, Oryza sativa spp japonica (Nipponbare) and Oryza sativa spp indica (93-11) and their two reciprocal hybrid offspring using Illumina's sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) platform .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV) is a tentative new Cytorhabdovirus species in family Rhabdoviridae transmitted by the leafhopper Recilia dorsalis. Although the virus was first detected in southern China in 2015, few studies have investigated rice symptoms and yield losses caused by RSMV infection. METHODS:In this study, we observed and systematically compared symptoms of three virally infected, representative varieties of indica, hybrid and japonica rice and determined the yield parameters of the artificially inoculated plants. RESULTS:The three RSMV-infected cultivated rice varieties exhibited slight dwarfing, striped mosaicism, stiff, crinkled or even twisted leaves, an increased number of tillers, delayed heading, cluster-shaped shortening of panicles and mostly unfilled grains. Slight differences in symptom occurrence time were observed under different environmental conditions. For example, mosaic symptoms appeared earlier and crinkling symptoms appeared later, with both symptoms later receding in some infected plants. Yield losses due to RSMV also differed among varieties. The most serious yield reduction was experienced by indica rice (cv. Meixiangzhan), followed by hybrid indica rice (cv. Wuyou 1179) and then japonica (cv. Nipponbare). Single panicle weight, seed setting rate and 1000-kernel weight were reduced in the three infected varieties compared with healthy plants-by 85.42, 94.85 and 31.56% in Meixiangzhan; 52.43, 53.06 and 25.65% in Wuyou 1179 and 25.53, 49.32 and 23.86% in Nipponbare, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings contribute basic data for field investigations, formulation of prevention and control strategies and further study of the pathogenesis of RSMV.
Project description:Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP), which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.
Project description:To investigate the selective pressures acting on the protein-coding genes during the differentiation of indica and japonica, all of the possible orthologous genes between the Nipponbare and 93-11 genomes were identified and compared with each other. Among these genes, 8,530 pairs had identical sequences, and 27,384 pairs shared more than 90% sequence identity. Only 2,678 pairs of genes displaying a Ka/Ks ratio significantly greater than one were revealed, and most of these genes contained only nonsynonymous sites. The genes without synonymous site were further analyzed with the SNP data of 1529 O. sativa and O. rufipogon accessions, and 1068 genes were identified to be under positive selection during the differentiation of indica and temperate japonica. The positively selected genes (PSGs) are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes, and the proteins encoded by the PSGs are dominant with binding, transferase and hydrolase activities, and especially enriched in the plant responses to stimuli, biological regulations, and transport processes. Meanwhile, the most PSGs of the known function and/or expression were involved in the regulation of biotic/abiotic stresses. The evidence of pervasive positive selection suggested that many factors drove the differentiation of indica and japonica, which has already started in wild rice but is much lower than in cultivated rice. Lower differentiation and less PSGs revealed between the Or-It and Or-IIIt wild rice groups implied that artificial selection provides greater contribution on the differentiation than natural selection. In addition, the phylogenetic tree constructed with positively selected sites showed that the japonica varieties exhibited more diversity than indica on differentiation, and Or-III of O. rufipogon exhibited more than Or-I.
Project description:The publicly available genome sequence information of two rice strains, japonica cultivar Nipponbare and indica cultivar 93-11, opens a great opportunity for investigation of performances DNA genotyping by high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Here, we compare single feature polymorphism (SFP) detection performances between whole genome hybridization and transcript hybridization using Affymetrix Rice Expression Array and the two rice cultivars. Overall design: Total RNA from 3-4 week shoots and genomic DNA both Nipponbare and 93-11 were analyzed.
Project description:Basmati is considered a unique varietal group of rice (Oryza sativa L.) because of its aroma and superior grain quality. Previous genetic analyses of rice showed that most of the Basmati varieties are classified into the aromatic group. Despite various efforts, genomic relationship of Basmati rice with other varietal groups and genomic variation in Basmati rice are yet to be understood. In the present study, we resequenced the whole genome of three traditional Basmati varieties at a coverage of more than 25X using Illumina HiSeq2500 and mapped the obtained sequences to the reference genome sequences of Nipponbare (japonica rice), Kasalath (aus rice), and Zhenshan 97 (indica rice). Comparison of these sequences revealed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genic regions of three Basmati varieties. Analysis of these SNPs revealed that Basmati varieties showed fewer sequence variations compared with the aus group than with the japonica and indica groups. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that SNPs were present in genes with various biological, molecular, and cellular functions. Additionally, functional annotation of the Basmati mutated gene cluster shared by Nipponbare, Kasalath, and Zhenshan 97 was found to be associated with the metabolic process involved in the cellular aromatic compound, suggesting that aroma is an important specific genomic feature of Basmati varieties. Furthermore, 30 traditional Basmati varieties were classified into three different groups, aromatic (22 varieties), aus (four varieties), and indica (four varieties), based on genome-wide SNPs. All 22 aromatic Basmati varieties harbored the fragrant-inducing Badh2 allele. We also performed comparative analysis of 13 key agronomic and grain quality traits of Basmati rice and other rice varieties. Three traits including length-to-width ratio of grain (L/W ratio), panicle length (PL), and amylose content (AC) showed significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) differences between the aromatic and indica/aus groups. Comparative analysis of genome structure, based on genome sequence variation and GO analysis, revealed that the Basmati genome was derived mostly from the aus and japonica groups. Overall, whole-genome sequence data and genetic diversity information obtained in this study will serve as an important resource for molecular breeding and genetic analysis of Basmati varieties.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tongil (IR667-98-1-2) rice, developed in 1972, is a high-yield rice variety derived from a three-way cross between indica and japonica varieties. Tongil contributed to the self-sufficiency of staple food production in Korea during a period known as the 'Korean Green Revolution'. We analyzed the nucleotide-level genome structure of Tongil rice and compared it to those of the parental varieties. RESULTS:A total of 17.3 billion Illumina Hiseq reads, 47× genome coverage, were generated for Tongil rice. Three parental accessions of Tongil rice, two indica types and one japonica type, were also sequenced at approximately 30x genome coverage. A total of 2,149,991 SNPs were detected between Tongil and Nipponbare varieties. The average SNP frequency of Tongil was 5.77 per kb. Genome composition was determined based on SNP data by comparing Tongil with three parental genome sequences using the sliding window approach. Analyses revealed that 91.8% of the Tongil genome originated from the indica parents and 7.9% from the japonica parent. Copy numbers of SSR motifs, ORF gene distribution throughout the whole genome, gene ontology (GO) annotation, and some yield-related QTLs or gene locations were also comparatively analyzed between Tongil and parental varieties using sequence-based tools. Each genetic factor was transferred from the parents into Tongil rice in amounts that were in proportion to the whole genome composition. CONCLUSIONS:Tongil was derived from a three-way cross among two indica and one japonica varieties. Defining the genome structure of Tongil rice demonstrates that the Tongil genome is derived primarily from the indica genome with a small proportion of japonica genome introgression. Comparative gene distribution, SSR, GO, and yield-related gene analysis support the finding that the Tongil genome is primarily made up of the indica genome.
Project description:Rice is a very important food staple that feeds more than half the world's population. Two major Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, japonica and indica, show significant phenotypic variation in their stress responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic variation are still largely unknown. A common link among different stresses is that they produce an oxidative burst and result in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, methyl viologen (MV) as a ROS agent was applied to investigate the rice oxidative stress response. We observed that 93-11 (indica) seedlings exhibited leaf senescence with severe lesions under MV treatment compared to Nipponbare (japonica). Whole-genome microarray experiments were conducted, and 1,062 probe sets were identified with gene expression level polymorphisms between the two rice cultivars in addition to differential expression under MV treatment, which were assigned as Core Intersectional Probesets (CIPs). These CIPs were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) and highlighted with enrichment GO terms related to toxin and oxidative stress responses as well as other responses. These GO term-enriched genes of the CIPs include glutathine S-transferases (GSTs), P450, plant defense genes, and secondary metabolism related genes such as chalcone synthase (CHS). Further insertion/deletion (InDel) and regulatory element analyses for these identified CIPs suggested that there may be some eQTL hotspots related to oxidative stress in the rice genome, such as GST genes encoded on chromosome 10. In addition, we identified a group of marker genes individuating the japonica and indica subspecies. In summary, we developed a new strategy combining biological experiments and data mining to study the possible molecular mechanism of phenotypic variation during oxidative stress between Nipponbare and 93-11. This study will aid in the analysis of the molecular basis of quantitative traits.