Increase in cellular triacylglycerol content and emergence of large ER-associated lipid droplets in the absence of CDP-DG synthase function.
ABSTRACT: Excess fatty acids and sterols are stored as triacylglycerols and sterol esters in specialized cellular organelles, called lipid droplets. Understanding what determines the cellular amount of neutral lipids and their packaging into lipid droplets is of fundamental and applied interest. Using two species of fission yeast, we show that cycling cells deficient in the function of the ER-resident CDP-DG synthase Cds1 exhibit markedly increased triacylglycerol content and assemble large lipid droplets closely associated with the ER membranes. We demonstrate that these unusual structures recruit the triacylglycerol synthesis machinery and grow by expansion rather than by fusion. Our results suggest that interfering with the CDP-DG route of phosphatidic acid utilization rewires cellular metabolism to adopt a triacylglycerol-rich lifestyle reliant on the Kennedy pathway.
Project description:Fatty acid-induced triacylglycerol synthesis produces triacylglycerol droplets with a protein coat that includes perilipin 3/TIP47 and perilipin 4/S3-12. This study addresses the following two questions. Where do lipid droplets emerge, and how are their coat proteins recruited? We show that perilipin 3- and perilipin 4-coated lipid droplets emerge along the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Blocking membrane trafficking with AlF(4)(-) during fatty acid-induced triacylglycerol synthesis drove perilipin 3 to the tubular ER. Forskolin, which like AlF(4)(-) activates adenylate cyclase, did not redistribute perilipin 3, but when added together with AlF(4)(-) perilipin 3 was recruited to lipid droplets rather than the ER. Thus inhibiting trafficking with AlF(4)(-) redistributed perilipin 3 differently under conditions of triacylglycerol synthesis (fatty acid addition) versus hydrolysis (forskolin) suggesting a shared acylglycerol-mediated mechanism. We tested whether diacylglycerol (DG), the immediate precursor of triacylglycerol and its first hydrolytic product, affects the distribution of perilipin 3. Stabilizing DG with the DG lipase inhibitor RHC80267 enhanced the perilipin 3 recruited to lipid droplets and raised DG levels in this fraction. Treating cells with a membrane-permeable DG recruited perilipin 3 to the ER. Stabilizing DG, by blocking its hydrolysis with RHC80267 or its acylation with triacsin C, enhanced recruitment of perilipin 3 to the ER. Expressing the ER enzyme DGAT1, which removes DG by converting it to triacylglycerol, attenuated perilipin 3 DG-induced ER recruitment. Membrane-permeable DG also drove perilipin 4 and 5 onto the ER. Together the data suggest that these lipid droplet proteins are recruited to DG-enriched membranes thereby linking lipid coat proteins to the metabolic state of the cell.
Project description:Lipid droplets (LDs) are evolutionarily conserved organelles that play critical roles in mammalian lipid storage and metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the biogenesis and growth of LDs remain poorly understood. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a precursor of phospholipids and triacylglycerols and substrate of CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) synthase 1 (CDS1) and CDS2, which catalyze the formation of CDP-DAG. Here, using siRNA-based gene knockdowns and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts, along with immunological, molecular, and fluorescence microscopy approaches, we examined the role of CDS1 and CDS2 in LD biogenesis and growth. Knockdown of either CDS1 or CDS2 expression resulted in the formation of giant or supersized LDs in cultured mammalian cells. Interestingly, down-regulation of cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector C (CIDEC), encoding a prominent regulator of LD growth in adipocytes, restored LD size in CDS1- but not in CDS2-deficient cells. On the other hand, reducing expression of two enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 (GPAT4), rescued the LD phenotype in CDS2-deficient, but not CDS1-deficient, cells. Moreover, CDS2 deficiency, but not CDS1 deficiency, promoted the LD association of DGAT2 and GPAT4 and impaired initial LD maturation. Finally, although both CDS1 and CDS2 appeared to regulate PA levels on the LD surface, CDS2 had a stronger effect. We conclude that CDS1 and CDS2 regulate LD dynamics through distinct mechanisms.
Project description:Phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in a major pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the ECT gene in mice resulted in normal appearing animals without overt signs of liver injury or inflammation. The molecular species of PtdEtn in the ECT-deficient livers were significantly altered compared with controls and matched the composition of the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) pool, illustrating the complete reliance on the PtdSer decarboxylase pathway for PtdEtn synthesis. PtdSer structure was controlled by the substrate specificity of PtdSer synthase that selectively converted phosphatidylcholine molecular species containing stearate paired with a polyunsaturated fatty acid to PtdSer. There was no evidence for fatty acid remodeling of PtdEtn. The elimination of diacylglycerol utilization by the CDP-ethanolamine pathway led to a 10-fold increase in triacylglycerols in the ECT-deficient hepatocytes that became engorged with lipid droplets. Triacylglycerol accumulation was associated with a significant elevation in the expression of the transcription factors and target genes that drive de novo lipogenesis. The absence of the ECT pathway for diacylglycerol utilization at the endoplasmic reticulum triggers increased fatty acid synthesis to support the formation of triacylglycerols leading to liver steatosis.
Project description:?-Dystroglycan (?-DG) is a highly glycosylated cell-surface laminin receptor. Defects in the O-mannosyl glycan of an ?-DG with laminin-binding activity can cause ?-dystroglycanopathy, a group of congenital muscular dystrophies. In the biosynthetic pathway of functional O-mannosyl glycan, fukutin (FKTN) and fukutin-related protein (FKRP), whose mutated genes underlie ?-dystroglycanopathy, sequentially transfer ribitol phosphate (RboP) from CDP-Rbo to form a tandem RboP unit (RboP-RboP) required for the synthesis of the laminin-binding epitope on O-mannosyl glycan. Both RboP- and glycerol phosphate (GroP)-substituted glycoforms have recently been detected in recombinant ?-DG. However, it is unclear how GroP is transferred to the O-mannosyl glycan or whether GroP substitution affects the synthesis of the O-mannosyl glycan. Here, we report that, in addition to having RboP transfer activity, FKTN and FKRP can transfer GroP to O-mannosyl glycans by using CDP-glycerol (CDP-Gro) as a donor substrate. Kinetic experiments indicated that CDP-Gro is a less efficient donor substrate for FKTN than is CDP-Rbo. We also show that the GroP-substituted glycoform synthesized by FKTN does not serve as an acceptor substrate for FKRP and that therefore further elongation of the outer glycan chain cannot occur with this glycoform. Finally, CDP-Gro inhibited the RboP transfer activities of both FKTN and FKRP. These results suggest that CDP-Gro inhibits the synthesis of the functional O-mannosyl glycan of ?-DG by preventing further elongation of the glycan chain. This is the first report of GroP transferases in mammals.
Project description:The expansion of lipid droplets (LDs) and the differentiation of preadipocytes are two important aspects of mammalian lipid storage. In this study, we examined the role of CDP-diacylglycerol (DAG) synthases (CDSs), encoded by CDS1 and CDS2 genes in mammals, in lipid storage. CDS enzymes catalyze the formation of CDP-DAG from phosphatidic acid (PA). Knocking down either CDS1 or CDS2 resulted in the formation of giant or supersized LDs in cultured cells. Moreover, depleting CDS1 almost completely blocked the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, whereas depleting CDS2 had a moderate inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. The levels of many PA species were significantly increased upon knocking down CDS1 In contrast, only a small number of PA species were increased upon depleting CDS2 Importantly, the amount of PA in the endoplasmic reticulum was dramatically increased upon knocking down CDS1 or CDS2 Our results suggest that the changes in PA level and localization may underlie the formation of giant LDs as well as the block in adipogenesis in CDS-deficient cells. We have therefore identified CDS1 and CDS2 as important novel regulators of lipid storage, and these results highlight the crucial role of phospholipids in mammalian lipid storage.
Project description:CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) is central to the phospholipid biosynthesis pathways in cells. A prevailing view is that only one CDP-DAG synthase named Cds1 is present in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) and mediates generation of CDP-DAG from phosphatidic acid (PA) and CTP. However, we demonstrate here by using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism that Cds1 resides in the ER but not in mitochondria, and that Tam41, a highly conserved mitochondrial maintenance protein, directly catalyzes the formation of CDP-DAG from PA in the mitochondrial IM. We also find that inositol depletion by overexpressing an arrestin-related protein Art5 partially restores the defects of cell growth and CL synthesis in the absence of Tam41. The present findings unveil the missing step of the cardiolipin synthesis pathway in mitochondria as well as the flexibile regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis to respond to compromised CDP-DAG synthesis in mitochondria.
Project description:Cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) is a key intermediate in the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and cardiolipin (CL). Both PI and CL have highly specialized roles in cells. PI can be phosphorylated and these phosphorylated derivatives play major roles in signal transduction, membrane traffic, and maintenance of the actin cytoskeletal network. CL is the signature lipid of mitochondria and has a plethora of functions including maintenance of cristae morphology, mitochondrial fission, and fusion and for electron transport chain super complex formation. Both lipids are synthesized in different organelles although they share the common intermediate, CDP-DAG. CDP-DAG is synthesized from phosphatidic acid (PA) and CTP by enzymes that display CDP-DAG synthase activities. Two families of enzymes, CDS and TAMM41, which bear no sequence or structural relationship, have now been identified. TAMM41 is a peripheral membrane protein localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane required for CL synthesis. CDS enzymes are ancient integral membrane proteins found in all three domains of life. In mammals, they provide CDP-DAG for PI synthesis and for phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and CL synthesis in prokaryotes. CDS enzymes are critical for maintaining phosphoinositide levels during phospholipase C (PLC) signaling. Hydrolysis of PI (4,5) bisphosphate by PLC requires the resynthesis of PI and CDS enzymes catalyze the rate-limiting step in the process. In mammals, the protein products of two CDS genes (CDS1 and CDS2) localize to the ER and it is suggested that CDS2 is the major CDS for this process. Expression of CDS enzymes are regulated by transcription factors and CDS enzymes may also contribute to CL synthesis in mitochondria. Studies of CDS enzymes in protozoa reveal spatial segregation of CDS enzymes from the rest of the machinery required for both PI and CL synthesis identifying a key gap in our understanding of how CDP-DAG can cross the different membrane compartments in protozoa and in mammals.
Project description:UBXD8 is a membrane-embedded recruitment factor for the p97/VCP segregase that has been previously linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and to the control of triacylglycerol synthesis in the ER. UBXD8 also has been identified as a component of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs), but neither the mechanisms that control its trafficking between the ER and LDs nor its functions in the latter organelle have been investigated previously. Here we report that association of UBXD8 with the ER-resident rhomboid pseudoprotease UBAC2 specifically restricts trafficking of UBXD8 to LDs, and that the steady-state partitioning of UBXD8 between the ER and LDs can be experimentally manipulated by controlling the relative expression of these two proteins. We exploit this interaction to show that UBXD8-mediated recruitment of p97/VCP to LDs increases LD size by inhibiting the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Our findings show that UBXD8 binds directly to ATGL and promotes dissociation of its endogenous coactivator, CGI-58. These data indicate that UBXD8 and p97/VCP play central integrative roles in cellular energy homeostasis.
Project description:Liver steatosis can be induced by fasting or high-fat diet. We investigated by lipidomic analysis whether such metabolic states are reflected in the lipidome of hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) from mice fed normal chow diet (FED), fasted (FAS), or fed a high-fat diet (HFD). LC-MS/MS at levels of lipid species profiles and of lipid molecular species uncovered a FAS phenotype of LD enriched in triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species with very long-chain (VLC)-PUFA residues and an HFD phenotype with less unsaturated TG species in addition to characteristic lipid marker species. Nutritional stress did not result in dramatic structural alterations in diacylglycerol (DG) and phospholipid (PL) classes. Moreover, molecular species of bulk TG and of DG indicated concomitant de novo TG synthesis and lipase-catalyzed degradation to be active in LDs. DG species with VLC-PUFA residues would be preferred precursors for phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, the others for TG molecular species. In addition, molecular species of PL classes fitted the hepatocyte Kennedy and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathways. We demonstrate that lipidomic analysis of LDs enables phenotyping of nutritional stress. TG species are best suited for such phenotyping, whereas structural analysis of TG, DG, and PL molecular species provides metabolic insights.
Project description:Lipin-1 proteins are phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAPs) catalyzing the conversion from phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DG). Two alternative splicing isoforms, lipin-1? and -1?, are localized at different subcellular compartments. A third splicing isoform, lipin-1? was recently cloned and its subcellular localization is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that lipin-1? is localized to lipid droplets (LDs), an association mediated by a hydrophobic, lipin-1?-specific domain. Additional expression of lipin-1? altered LD morphology without affecting the triacylglycerol (TG) level. In human tissues, lipin-1? is the main lipin-1 isoform expressed in normal human brain, suggesting a specialized role in regulating brain lipid metabolism.