SCCRO3 (DCUN1D3) antagonizes the neddylation and oncogenic activity of SCCRO (DCUN1D1).
ABSTRACT: The activity of cullin-RING type ubiquitination E3 ligases is regulated by neddylation, a process analogous to ubiquitination that culminates in covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to cullins. As a component of the E3 for neddylation, SCCRO/DCUN1D1 plays a key regulatory role in neddylation and, consequently, cullin-RING ligase activity. The essential contribution of SCCRO to neddylation is to promote nuclear translocation of the cullin-ROC1 complex. The presence of a myristoyl sequence in SCCRO3, one of four SCCRO paralogues present in humans that localizes to the membrane, raises questions about its function in neddylation. We found that although SCCRO3 binds to CAND1, cullins, and ROC1, it does not efficiently bind to Ubc12, promote cullin neddylation, or conform to the reaction processivity paradigms, suggesting that SCCRO3 does not have E3 activity. Expression of SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO-promoted neddylation by sequestering cullins to the membrane, thereby blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO transforming activity. The inhibitory effects of SCCRO3 on SCCRO-promoted neddylation and transformation require both an intact myristoyl sequence and PONY domain, confirming that membrane localization and binding to cullins are required for in vivo functions. Taken together, our findings suggest that SCCRO3 functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing the neddylation activity of SCCRO.
Project description:Covalent modification of cullins by the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 (neddylation) regulates protein ubiquitination by promoting the assembly of cullin-RING ligase E3 complexes. Like ubiquitination, neddylation results from an enzymatic cascade involving the sequential activity of a dedicated E1 (APPBP1/Uba3), E2 (Ubc12), and an ill-defined E3. We show that SCCRO (also known as DCUN1D1) binds to the components of the neddylation pathway (Cullin-ROC1, Ubc12, and CAND1) and augments but is not required for cullin neddylation in reactions using purified recombinant proteins. We also show that SCCRO recruits Ubc12 approximately NEDD8 to the CAND1-Cul1-ROC1 complex but that this is not sufficient to dissociate or overcome the inhibitory effects of CAND1 on cullin neddylation in purified protein assays. In contrast to findings in cellular systems where no binding is seen, we show that SCCRO and CAND1 can bind to the neddylated Cul1-ROC1 complex in assays using purified recombinant proteins. Although neddylated (not unneddylated) Cul1-ROC1 is released from CAND1 upon incubation with testis lysate from SCCRO+/+ mice, the addition of recombinant SCCRO is required to achieve the same results in lysate from SCCRO(-/-) mice. Combined, these results suggest that SCCRO is an important component of the neddylation E3 complex that functions to recruit charged E2 and is involved in the release of inhibitory effects of CAND1 on cullin-RING ligase E3 complex assembly and activity.
Project description:Squamous cell carcinoma-related oncogene (SCCRO)/DCUN1D1, a component of the neddylation E3 complex, regulates the activity of the cullin-RING-ligase type of ubiquitination E3s by promoting neddylation of cullin family members. Studies have shown that SCCRO regulates proliferation <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> Here we show that inactivation of SCCRO results in prolonged mitotic time because of delayed and/or failed abscission. The effects of SCCRO on abscission involve its role in neddylation and localization of Cul3 to the midbody. The Cul3 adaptor KLHL21 mediates the effects of SCCRO on abscission, as it fails to localize to the midbody in SCCRO-deficient cells during abscission, and its inactivation resulted in phenotypic changes identical to SCCRO inactivation. Ubiquitination-promoted turnover of Aurora B at the midbody was deficient in SCCRO- and KLHL21-deficient cells, suggesting that it is the target of Cul3<sup>KLHL21</sup> at the midbody. Correction of abscission delays in SCCRO-deficient cells with addition of an Aurora B inhibitor at the midbody stage suggests that Aurora B is the target of SCCRO-promoted Cul3<sup>KLHL21</sup> activity. The activity of other Cul3-anchored complexes, including Cul3<sup>KLHL9/KLHL13</sup>, was intact in SCCRO-deficient cells, suggesting that SCCRO selectively, rather than collectively, neddylates cullins <i>in vivo</i> Combined, these findings support a model in which the SCCRO, substrate, and substrate adaptors cooperatively provide tight control of neddylation and cullin-RING-ligase activity <i>in vivo</i>.
Project description:Squamous cell carcinoma-related oncogene (SCCRO, also known as DCUN1D1) is a component of the E3 for neddylation. As such, DCUN1D1 regulates the neddylation of cullin family members. Targeted inactivation of DCUN1D1 in mice results in male-specific infertility. Infertility in DCUN1D1-/- mice is secondary to primary defects in spermatogenesis. Time-dam experiments mapped the onset of the defect in spermatogenesis to 5.5 to 6 weeks of age, which temporally corresponds to defects in spermiogenesis. Although the first round of spermatogenesis progressed normally, the number of spermatozoa released into the seminiferous lumen and epididymis of DCUN1D1-/- mice was significantly reduced. Spermatozoa in DCUN1D1-/- mice had multiple abnormalities, including globozoospermia, macrocephaly, and multiple flagella. Many of the malformed spermatozoa in DCUN1D1-/- mice were multinucleated, with supernumerary and malpositioned centrioles, suggesting a defect in the resolution of intercellular bridges. The onset of the defect in spermatogenesis in DCUN1D1-/- mice corresponds to an increase in DCUN1D1 expression observed during normal spermatogenesis. Moreover, consistent with its known function as a component of the E3 in neddylation, the pattern of DCUN1D1 expression temporally correlates with an increase in the neddylated cullin fraction and stage-specific increases in the total ubiquitinated protein pool in wild-type mice. Levels of neddylated Cul3 were decreased in DCUN1D1-/- mice, and ubiquitinated proteins did not accumulate during the stages in which DCUN1D1 expression peaks during spermatogenesis in wild-type mice. Combined, these findings suggest that DCUN1D1-/- mice fail to release mature spermatozoa into the seminiferous lumen, possibly due to unresolved intercellular bridges. Furthermore, the effects of DCUN1D1 on spermatogenesis likely involve its regulation of cullin-RING-ligase (CRL)-type ubiquitin E3 activity during spermiogenesis through its role in promoting Cul3 neddylation. The specific CRLs required for spermiogenesis and their protein targets require identification.
Project description:Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRLs) are regulated by modification of an ubiquitin-like protein, Nedd8 (also known as Rub1) on the cullin subunit. Neddylation is shown to facilitate E3 complex assembly; while un-neddylated cullins are bound by CAND1 that prevents recruitment of the substrates. The level of Nedd8 modification is critically dependent on the COP9 signalosome (CSN), an eight-subunit protein complex containing Nedd8 isopeptidase activity.We report isolation of SAP130 (SF3b-3) as a CSN1 interacting protein. SAP130 is homologous to DDB1, and is a component of SF3b RNA splicing complex and STAGA/TFTC transcription complexes, but its specific function within these complexes is unknown. We show that SAP130 can interact with a variety of cullin proteins. It forms tertiary complexes with fully assembled CRL E3 complexes such as SCFSkp2, Elongin B/C -Cul2- VHL and Cul4-DDB complex by binding to both N-terminal and C-terminal domain of cullins. SAP130 preferentially associates with neddylated cullins in vivo. However knock-down of CAND1 abolished this preference and increased association of SAP130 with Cul2. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CSN regulates SAP130-Cul2 interaction and SAP130-associated polyubiquitinating activity.SAP130 is a cullin binding protein that is likely involved in the Nedd8 pathway. The association of SAP130 with various cullin member proteins such as Cul1, Cul2 and Cul4A is modulated by CAND1 and CSN. As an established component of transcription and RNA processing complexes, we hypothesis that SAP130 may link CRL mediated ubiquitination to gene expression.
Project description:A variety of post-translational modifications of Plasmodium falciparum proteins, including phosphorylation and ubiquitination, are shown to have key regulatory roles during parasite development. NEDD8 is a ubiquitin-like modifier of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases, which regulates diverse cellular processes. Although neddylation is conserved in eukaryotes, it is yet to be characterized in Plasmodium and related apicomplexan parasites. We characterized P. falciparum NEDD8 (PfNEDD8) and identified cullins as its physiological substrates. PfNEDD8 is a 76 amino acid residue protein without the C-terminal tail, indicating that it can be readily conjugated. The wild type and mutant (Gly75Ala/Gly76Ala) PfNEDD8 were expressed in P. falciparum. Western blot of wild type PfNEDD8-expressing parasites indicated multiple high molecular weight conjugates, which were absent in the parasites expressing the mutant, indicating conjugation of NEDD8 through Gly76. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry of wild type PfNEDD8-expressing parasites identified two putative cullins. Furthermore, we expressed PfNEDD8 in mutant S. cerevisiae strains that lacked endogenous NEDD8 (rub1?) or NEDD8 conjugating E2 enzyme (ubc12?). The PfNEDD8 immunoprecipitate also contained S. cerevisiae cullin cdc53, further substantiating cullins as physiological substrates of PfNEDD8. Our findings lay ground for investigation of specific roles and drug target potential of neddylation in malaria parasites.
Project description:In ubiquitination, cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) assist in ubiquitin transfer from ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 to the substrate. Neddylation, which involves NEDD8 transfer from E2 to E3-cullin, stimulates ubiquitination by inducing conformational change in CRLs. However, deneddylation, which removes NEDD8 from cullin, does not suppress ubiquitination in vivo, raising the question of how neddylation/deneddylation exerts its effects. Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that before neddylation occurs, the linker flexibility of Rbx1, a CRL component, leads to conformational changes in CRLs that allow neddylation and initiation of ubiquitination. These large NEDD8-induced conformational changes are retained after deneddylation, allowing both initiation of the ubiquitination process and ubiquitin chain elongation after deneddylation. Furthermore, mutation of lysine, the cullin residue to which NEDD8 covalently attaches, dramatically reduces CRL conformational changes, suggesting that the acceptor lysine allosterically regulates CRLs. Thus, our results imply that neddylation stimulates ubiquitination by CRL conformational control via lysine modification.
Project description:Cullin-RING ligases (CRL) are ubiquitin E3 enzymes that bind substrates through variable substrate receptor proteins and are activated by attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to the cullin subunit. DCNs are NEDD8 E3 ligases that promote neddylation. Mammalian cells express five DCN-like (DCNL) proteins but little is known about their specific functions or interaction partners. We found that DCNLs form stable stoichiometric complexes with CAND1 and cullins that can only be neddylated in the presence of a substrate adaptor. These CAND-cullin-DCNL complexes might represent 'reserve' CRLs that can be rapidly activated when needed. We further found that all DCNLs interact with most cullin subtypes, but that they are probably responsible for the neddylation of different subpopulations of any given cullin. This is consistent with the fact that the subcellular localization of DCNLs in tissue culture cells differs and that they show unique tissue-specific expression patterns in mice. Thus, the specificity between DCNL-type NEDD8 E3 enzymes and their cullin substrates is only apparent in well-defined physiological contexts and related to their subcellular distribution and restricted expression.
Project description:Selective protein degradation targeted by members of the F-box protein family plays pivotal roles in cell biology. It is widely accepted that an F-box protein directs substrate ubiquitination within a Skp1.CUL1.F-box protein.ROC1 (SCF-ROC1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. This assembly utilizes the CUL1 molecular scaffold, allowing the F-box protein to position its bound substrate for ubiquitination by a ROC1-recruited E2-conjugating enzyme. Here, we describe an alternative mechanism for assembling an F-box protein-based E3 complex through a previously uncharacterized cullin, CUL7, identified by mass spectrometry as a ROC1-interacting protein. CUL7 is a large polypeptide containing a cullin domain, which is responsible for ROC1 binding, and a DOC domain, which is also present in the anaphase-promoting complex. Remarkably, CUL7 assembles an SCF-ROC1-like E3 ubiquitin ligase complex consisting of Skp1, CUL7, the Fbx29 F-box protein, and ROC1. In contrast to CUL1 that binds Skp1 by itself, CUL7 interacts with the Skp1.Fbx29 complex, but not with Skp1 alone. Strikingly, CUL7 selectively interacts with Skp1.Fbx29 but not with Skp1.betaTRCP2 or Skp1.Skp2. Thus, CUL7 may define a previously uncharacterized, Fbx29-mediated, and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway.
Project description:Most E3 ligases use a RING domain to activate a thioester-linked E2?ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) intermediate and promote UBL transfer to a remotely bound target protein. Nonetheless, RING E3 mechanisms matching a specific UBL and acceptor lysine remain elusive, including for RBX1, which mediates NEDD8 ligation to cullins and >10% of all ubiquitination. We report the structure of a trapped RING E3-E2?UBL-target intermediate representing RBX1-UBC12?NEDD8-CUL1-DCN1, which reveals the mechanism of NEDD8 ligation and how a particular UBL and acceptor lysine are matched by a multifunctional RING E3. Numerous mechanisms specify cullin neddylation while preventing noncognate ubiquitin ligation. Notably, E2-E3-target and RING-E2?UBL modules are not optimized to function independently, but instead require integration by the UBL and target for maximal reactivity. The UBL and target regulate the catalytic machinery by positioning the RING-E2?UBL catalytic center, licensing the acceptor lysine, and influencing E2 reactivity, thereby driving their specific coupling by a multifunctional RING E3.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Regulator of cullins 1 (ROC1) is an important catalytic subunit of cullin-RING E3 ligase. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling is closely related to tumor invasion and metastasis. Earlier, we reported that ROC1 was associated with a poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer (BCa). However, it is unclear whether ROC1 is involved in the NF-κB signaling associated with malignant BCa progression.<h4>Methods</h4>The expression of ROC1 and p65 in bladder cancer and paracancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pearson correlation was used to assess correlation between ROC1 and p65 protein expressions. The wound-healing and transwell assays were used to monitor cell invasion and migration. The effect of ROC1 on the expression of key proteins in the NF-κB signaling was determined by immunofluorescence and western blot (WB). Cycloheximide (CHX), MG132 and immunoprecipitation assays were used to evaluate the effect of ROC1 on the ubiquitination of phosphorylated inhibitor of kappa B alpha (p-IκBα). A lung metastasis mouse model was generated to detect the role of ROC1 in tumor metastasis.<h4>Results</h4>We found that ROC1 was up-regulated in BCa tissues and cell lines, and high ROC1 levels were positively correlated with higher tumour grade, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and poor prognosis. Linear-regression analysis showed significant a Pearson correlation between ROC1 and nuclear p65 expression in BCa tissue microarray (TMA) samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ROC1 promoted BCa cell invasion and migration. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that ROC1 activated NF-κB signaling by enhancing the ubiquitination of p-IκBα, which caused p65 nuclear translocation and promoted the transcription of some metastasis-related target genes, such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), resulting in promoting BCa metastasis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ROC1 plays an important role in the progression of BCa and serves as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for patients with BCa.