Highly specific plasmonic biosensors for ultrasensitive microRNA detection in plasma from pancreatic cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability and/or translation. Because of their release into the circulation and their remarkable stability, miR levels in plasma and other biological fluids can serve as diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. However, quantifying miRs in the circulation is challenging due to issues with sensitivity and specificity. This Letter describes for the first time the design and characterization of a regenerative, solid-state localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor based on highly sensitive nanostructures (gold nanoprisms) that obviates the need for labels or amplification of the miRs. Our direct hybridization approach has enabled the detection of subfemtomolar concentration of miR-X (X = 21 and 10b) in human plasma in pancreatic cancer patients. Our LSPR-based measurements showed that the miR levels measured directly in patient plasma were at least 2-fold higher than following RNA extraction and quantification by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Through LSPR-based measurements we have shown nearly 4-fold higher concentrations of miR-10b than miR-21 in plasma of pancreatic cancer patients. We propose that our highly sensitive and selective detection approach for assaying miRs in plasma can be applied to many cancer types and disease states and should allow a rational approach for testing the utility of miRs as markers for early disease diagnosis and prognosis, which could allow for the design of effective individualized therapeutic approaches.
Project description:MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs consisting of 18-25 nucleotides that target specific mRNA moieties for translational repression or degradation, thereby modulating numerous biological processes. Although microRNAs have the ability to behave like oncogenes or tumor suppressors in a cell-autonomous manner, their exact roles following release into the circulation are only now being unraveled and it is important to establish sensitive assays to measure their levels in different compartments in the circulation. Here, an ultrasensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based microRNA sensor with single nucleotide specificity was developed using chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms attached onto a solid substrate with unprecedented long-term stability and reversibility. The sensor was used to specifically detect microRNA-10b at the attomolar (10(-18) M) concentration in pancreatic cancer cell lines, derived tissue culture media, human plasma, and media and plasma exosomes. In addition, for the first time, our label-free and nondestructive sensing technique was used to quantify microRNA-10b in highly purified exosomes isolated from patients with pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis, and from normal controls. We show that microRNA-10b levels were significantly higher in plasma-derived exosomes from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients when compared with patients with chronic pancreatitis or normal controls. Our findings suggest that this unique technique can be used to design novel diagnostic strategies for pancreatic and other cancers based on the direct quantitative measurement of plasma and exosome microRNAs, and can be readily extended to other diseases with identifiable microRNA signatures.
Project description:Noninvasive biomarkers for early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) diagnosis and disease risk stratification are greatly needed. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate prediagnostic microRNAs (miRs) as biomarkers of subsequent PDAC risk. A panel of eight miRs (miR-10a, -10b, -21-3p, -21-5p, -30c, -106b, -155 and -212) based on previous evidence from our group was evaluated in 225 microscopically confirmed PDAC cases and 225 controls matched on center, sex, fasting status and age/date/time of blood collection. MiR levels in prediagnostic plasma samples were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Logistic regression was used to model levels and PDAC risk, adjusting for covariates and to estimate area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Plasma miR-10b, -21-5p, -30c and -106b levels were significantly higher in cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection compared to matched controls (all p-values <0.04). Based on adjusted logistic regression models, levels for six miRs (miR-10a, -10b, -21-5p, -30c, -155 and -212) overall, and for four miRs (-10a, -10b, -21-5p and -30c) at shorter follow-up time between blood collection and diagnosis (?5 yr, ?2 yr), were statistically significantly associated with risk. A score based on the panel showed a linear dose-response trend with risk (p-value?=?0.0006). For shorter follow-up (?5 yr), AUC for the score was 0.73, and for individual miRs ranged from 0.73 (miR-212) to 0.79 (miR-21-5p).
Project description:microRNAs (miRs) modulate the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins and can thus contribute to cancer initiation and progression. In addition to their intracelluar function, miRs are released from cells and shed into the circulation. We postulated that circulating miRs could provide insight into pathways altered during cancer progression and may indicate responses to treatment. Here we focus on pancreatic cancer malignant progression. We report that changes in miR expression patterns during progression of normal tissues to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the p48-Cre/LSL-Kras(G12D) mouse model mirrors the miR changes observed in human pancreatic cancer tissues. miR-148a/b and miR-375 expression were found decreased whereas miR-10, miR-21, miR-100 and miR-155 were increased when comparing normal tissues, premalignant lesions and invasive carcinoma in the mouse model. Predicted target mRNAs FGFR1 (miR-10) and MLH1 (miR-155) were found downregulated. Quantitation of nine microRNAs in plasma samples from patients distinguished pancreatic cancers from other cancers as well as non-cancerous pancreatic disease. Finally, gemcitabine treatment of control animals and p48-Cre/LSL-Kras(G12D) animals with pancreatic cancer caused distinct and up to 60-fold changes in circulating miRs that indicate differential drug effects on normal and cancer tissues. These findings support the significance of detecting miRs in the circulation and suggests that circulating miRs could serve as indicators of drug response.
Project description:Increased microRNA-10b (miR-10b) expression in the cancer cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a marker of disease aggressiveness. In the present study, we determined that plasma miR-10b levels are significantly increased in PDAC patients by comparison with normal controls. By gene profiling, we identified potential targets downregulated by miR-10b, including Tat-interacting protein 30 (TIP30). Immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assays confirmed that TIP30 was a direct miR-10b target. Downregulation of TIP30 by miR-10b or siRNA-mediated silencing of TIP30 enhanced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent invasion. The actions of miR-10b were abrogated by expressing a modified TIP30 cDNA resistant to miR-10b. EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation were enhanced by miR-10b, and these effects were mimicked by TIP30 silencing. The actions of EGF in the presence of miR-10b were blocked by EGFR kinase inhibition with erlotinib and by dual inhibition of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase) and MEK. Moreover, miR-10b, EGF and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) combined to markedly increase cell invasion, and this effect was blocked by the combination of erlotinib and SB505124, a type I TGF-? receptor inhibitor. miR-10b also enhanced the stimulatory effects of EGF and TGF-? on cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and decreased the expression of RAP2A, EPHB2, KLF4 and NF1. Moreover, miR-10b overexpression accelerated pancreatic cancer cell (PCC) proliferation and tumor growth in an orthotopic model. Thus, plasma miR-10b levels may serve as a diagnostic marker in PDAC, whereas intra-tumoral miR-10b promotes PCC proliferation and invasion by suppressing TIP30, which enhances EGFR signaling, facilitates EGF-TGF-? cross-talk and enhances the expression of EMT-promoting genes, whereas decreasing the expression of several metastasis-suppressing genes. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of miR-10b in PDAC may interrupt growth-promoting deleterious EGF-TGF-? interactions and antagonize the metastatic process at various levels.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Exosome nanoparticles carry a composite cargo, including microRNAs (miRs). Cultured cardiovascular cells release miR-containing exosomes. The exosomal trafficking of miRNAs from the heart is largely unexplored. Working on clinical samples from coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG) surgery, we investigated if: 1) exosomes containing cardiac miRs and hence putatively released by cardiac cells increase in the circulation after surgery; 2) circulating exosomes and exosomal cardiac miRs correlate with cardiac troponin (cTn), the current "gold standard" surrogate biomarker of myocardial damage. METHODS AND RESULTS:The concentration of exosome-sized nanoparticles was determined in serial plasma samples. Cardiac-expressed (miR-1, miR-24, miR-133a/b, miR-208a/b, miR-210), non-cardiovascular (miR-122) and quality control miRs were measured in whole plasma and in plasma exosomes. Linear regression analyses were employed to establish the extent to which the circulating individual miRs, exosomes and exosomal cardiac miR correlated with cTn-I. Cardiac-expressed miRs and the nanoparticle number increased in the plasma on completion of surgery for up to 48 hours. The exosomal concentration of cardiac miRs also increased after CABG. Cardiac miRs in the whole plasma did not correlate significantly with cTn-I. By contrast cTn-I was positively correlated with the plasma exosome level and the exosomal cardiac miRs. CONCLUSIONS:The plasma concentrations of exosomes and their cargo of cardiac miRs increased in patients undergoing CABG and were positively correlated with hs-cTnI. These data provide evidence that CABG induces the trafficking of exosomes from the heart to the peripheral circulation. Future studies are necessary to investigate the potential of circulating exosomes as clinical biomarkers in cardiac patients.
Project description:Exosomal microRNAs (exo-miRs) have been promising cancer biomarkers. MiRs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell-derived exosomes (HEX) were analyzed to identify reliable serum biomarkers for HCC. To detect overexpressed miRs in HEX, extracted exosomal small RNAs from human HCC cell lines and normal hepatocytes were sequenced and analyzed. Clinical significance of the overexpressed miRs in HEX was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on serum samples of a validation cohort consisting of 28 healthy individuals, 60 with chronic liver disease, and 90 with HCC. We found 49 significantly overexpressed miRs in HEX compared to a normal hepatocyte. Among them, miR-10b-5p, miR-18a-5p, miR-215-5p, and miR-940 were overexpressed in HCC tissues and also associated with prognosis of HCC in the analysis of a public omics database. qRT-PCR analysis of the four serum exo-miRs in the validation cohort revealed serum exo-miR-10b-5p as a promising biomarker for early-stage HCC with 0.934 area under the curve (AUC) (sensitivity, 90.7%; specificity, 75.0%; cutoff value, 1.8-fold). Overexpression of serum exo-miR-215-5p was found to be significantly associated with poor disease-free survival in patients with HCC. Serum exo-miR-10b-5p is a potential biomarker for early-stage HCC, while serum exo-miR-215-5p can be used as prognostic biomarker for HCC.
Project description:Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) demonstrates perturbed gene expression affecting placental angiogenesis and nutrient transfer from mother to fetus. To understand the post-transcriptional mechanisms underlying such placental gene expression changes, our objective was to identify key non-coding microRNAs that express biological function. To this end, we initially undertook microarrays targeting microRNAs in a small sub-set of placentas of appropriate (AGA) versus small for gestational age (SGA) weight infants, and observed up-regulation of 97 miRs and down-regulation of 44 miRs in SGA versus AGA. In a larger cohort of samples (AGA, n = 21; SGA, n = 11; IUGR subset, n = 5), we validated by qRT-PCR differential expression of three specific microRNAs (miR-10b, -363 and -149) that target genes mediating angiogenesis and nutrient transfer. Validation yielded an increase in miR-10b and -363 expression of ~2.5-fold (p<0.02 each) in SGA versus AGA, and of ~3-fold (p<0.005) in IUGR versus AGA, with no significant change despite a trending increase in miR-149. To further establish a cause-and-effect paradigm, employing human HTR8 trophoblast cells, we assessed the effect of nutrient deprivation on miR expression and inhibition of endogenous miRs on target gene expression. In-vitro nutrient deprivation (~50%) increased the expression of miR-10b and miR-149 by 1.5-fold (p<0.02) while decreasing miR-363 (p<0.0001). Inhibition of endogenous miRs employing antisense sequences against miR-10b, -363 and -149 revealed an increase respectively in the expression of the target genes KLF-4 (transcription factor which regulates angiogenesis), SNAT1 and 2 (sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporters) and LAT2 (leucine amino acid transporter), which translated into a similar change in the corresponding proteins. Finally to establish functional significance we performed dual-luciferase reporter assays with 3'-insertion of miR-10b alone and observed a ~10% reduction in the 5'-luciferase activity versus the control. Lastly, we further validated by microarray and employing MirWalk software that the pathways and target genes identified by differentially expressed miRs in SGA/IUGR compared to AGA are consistent in a larger cohort. We have established the biological significance of various miRs that target common transcripts mediating pathways of importance, which are perturbed in the human IUGR placenta.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 is a sequence-specific transcription factor that regulates an extensive network of coding genes, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, that establish intricate gene regulatory circuits influencing many cellular responses beyond the prototypical control of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair.Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified an additional group of candidate microRNAs (miRs) under direct p53 transcriptional control. To validate p53 family-mediated responsiveness of the newly predicted target miRs we first evaluated the potential for wild type p53, p63? and p73? to transactivate from p53 response elements (REs) mapped in the miR promoters, using an established yeast-based assay.The REs found in miR-10b, -23b, -106a, -151a, -191, -198, -202, -221, -320, -1204, -1206 promoters were responsive to p53 and 8 of them were also responsive to p63? or p73?. The potential for germline p53 mutations to drive transactivation at selected miR-associated REs was also examined. Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation (ChIP) assays conducted in doxorubicin-treated MCF7 cells and HCT116 p53+/+ revealed moderate induction of p53 occupancy at the miR-202, -1204, -1206, -10b RE-containing sites, while weak occupancy was observed for the miR-23b-associated RE only in MCF7 cells. RT-qPCR analyses cells showed modest doxorubicin- and/or Nutlin-dependent induction of the levels of mature miR-10b, -23b, -151a in HCT116 p53+/+ and MCF7 cells. The long noncoding RNA PVT1 comprising miR-1204 and -1206 was weakly induced only in HCT116 p53+/+ cells, but the mature miRs were not detected. miR-202 expression was not influenced by p53-activating stimuli in our cell systems.Our study reveals additional miRs, particularly miR-10b and miR-151a, that could be directly regulated by the p53-family of transcription factors and contribute to the tuning of p53-induced responses.
Project description:Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secreted protein of the neurotrophin family that regulates brain development, synaptogenesis, memory and learning, as well as development of peripheral organs, such as angiogenesis in the heart and postnatal growth and repair of skeletal muscle. However, while precise regulation of BDNF levels is an important determinant in defining the biological outcome, the role of microRNAs (miRs) in modulating BDNF expression has not been extensively analyzed. Using in silico approaches, reporter systems, and analysis of endogenous BDNF, we show that miR-1, miR-10b, miR-155, and miR-191 directly repress BDNF through binding to their predicted sites in BDNF 3'UTR. We find that the overexpression of miR-1 and miR-10b suppresses endogenous BDNF protein levels and that silencing endogenous miR-10b increases BDNF mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we show that miR-1/206 binding sites within BDNF 3'UTR are used in differentiated myotubes but not in undifferentiated myoblasts. Finally, our data from two cell lines suggest that endogenous miR-1/206 and miR-10 family miRs act cooperatively in suppressing BDNF through their predicted sites in BDNF 3'UTR. In conclusion, our results highlight miR-1, miR-10b, miR-155, and miR-191 as novel regulators of BDNF long and short 3'UTR isoforms, supporting future research in different physiological and pathological contexts.
Project description:This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in young adult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages.An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 young adults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls.Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in young adult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001).Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment.