Insights into the possible role of IFNG and IFNGR1 in Kala-azar and Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Sudanese patients.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the parasite/host factors that lead to Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) in some visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients after drug-cure. Studies in Sudan provide evidence for association between polymorphisms in the gene (IFNGR1) encoding the alpha chain of interferon-? receptor type I and risk of PKDL. This study aimed to identify putative functional polymorphisms in the IFNGR1 gene, and to determine whether differences in expression of interferon-? (IFNG) and IFNGR1 at the RNA level are associated with pathogenesis of VL and/or PKDL in Sudan.Sanger sequencing was used to re-sequence 841 bp of upstream, exon1 and intron1 of the IFNGR1 gene in DNA from 30 PKDL patients. LAGAN and SYNPLOT bioinformatics tools were used to compare human, chimpanzee and dog sequences to identify conserved noncoding sequences carrying putative regulatory elements. The relative expression of IFNG and IFNGR1 in paired pre- and post-treatment RNA samples from the lymph nodes of 24 VL patients, and in RNA samples from skin biopsies of 19 PKDL patients, was measured using real time PCR. Pre- versus post-treatment expression was evaluated statistically using the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test.Ten variants were identified in the 841 bp of sequence, four of which are novel polymorphisms at -77A/G, +10 C/T, +18C/T and +91G/T relative to the IFNGR1 initiation site. A cluster of conserved non-coding sequences with putative regulatory variants was identified in the distal promoter of IFNGR1. Variable expression of IFNG was detected in lymph node aspirates of VL patients before treatment, with a marked reduction (P?=?0.006) in expression following treatment. IFNGR1 expression was also variable in lymph node aspirates from VL patients, with no significant reduction in expression with treatment. IFNG expression was undetectable in the skin biopsies of PKDL cases, while IFNGR1 expression was also uniformly low.Uniformly low expression of IFN and IFNGR1 in PKDL skin biopsies could explain parasite persistence and is consistent with prior demonstration of genetic association with IFNGR1 polymorphisms. Identification of novel potentially functional rare variants at IFNGR1 makes an important general contribution to knowledge of rare variants of potential relevance in this Sudanese population.
Project description:Post-kala-azar dermal leishmanaisis (PKDL) in Sudan is associated with elevated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). To study interferon-gamma pathways in PKDL, we genotyped 80 trios from the Masalit ethnic group for polymorphisms at -470 ins/delTT, -270T/C, -56T/C and +95T/C in IFNGR1 and at -179G/A and +874T/A in IFNG. No associations occurred at IFNG. Global association with haplotypes comprising all four markers at IFNGR1 (chi(2)(10df)=21.97, P=0.015) was observed, associated with a significant (chi(2)(1df)=4.54, P=0.033) bias in transmission of the haplotype insTT T T T and less (chi(2)(1df)=5.59, P=0.018) than expected transmission of insTT C C C. When compared with data on malaria associations from Gambia, the results suggest a complex pattern of haplotypic variation at the IFNGR1 promoter locus associated with different infectious disease in African populations that reflect the complex roles of IFN-gamma in parasite killing versus inflammation and pathogenesis.
Project description:The South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme (KAEP) is expected to enter the consolidation phase in 2017, which focuses on case detection, vector control, and identifying potential sources of infection. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to play a role in the recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)/kala-azar outbreaks, and control of PKDL is among the priorities of the KAEP.We reviewed the literature with regard to PKDL in Asia and interpreted the findings in relation to current intervention methods in the KAEP in order to make recommendations. There is a considerable knowledge gap regarding the pathophysiology of VL and PKDL, especially the underlying immune responses. Risk factors (of which previous VL treatments may be most important) are poorly understood and need to be better defined. The role of PKDL patients in transmission is largely unknown, and there is insufficient information about the importance of duration, distribution and severity of the rash, time of onset, and self-healing. Current intervention methods focus on active case detection and treatment of all PKDL cases with miltefosine while there is increasing drug resistance. The prevention of PKDL by improved VL treatment currently receives insufficient attention.PKDL is a heterogeneous and dynamic condition, and patients differ with regard to time of onset after VL, chronicity, and distribution and appearance of the rash, as well as immune responses (including tendency to self-heal), all of which may vary over time. It is essential to fully describe the pathophysiology in order to make informed decisions on the most cost-effective approach. Emphasis should be on early detection of those who contribute to transmission and those who are in need of treatment, for whom short-course, effective, and safe drug regimens should be available. The prevention of PKDL should be emphasised by innovative and improved treatment for VL, which may include immunomodulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence is on track to reach elimination goals by 2020 in nearly all endemic districts. Although not included in official targets, previous data suggest post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients can act as an infection reservoir. METHODS:We conducted xenodiagnosis on 47 PKDL patients and 15 VL patients using laboratory-reared Phlebotomus argentipes. In direct xenodiagnosis, flies were allowed to feed on the patient's skin for 15 minutes. For indirect xenodiagnosis, flies were fed through a membrane on the patient's blood. Five days later, blood-fed flies were dissected and examined by microscopy and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A 3-mm skin snip biopsy (PKDL) or venous blood (VL) was processed by quantitative PCR. RESULTS:Twenty-seven PKDL patients (57.4%) had positive results by direct and/or indirect xenodiagnosis. Direct was significantly more sensitive than indirect xenodiagnosis (55.3% vs 6.4%, P < .0001). Those with positive xenodiagnosis had median skin parasite loads >1 log10 unit higher than those with negative results (2.88 vs 1.66, P < .0001). In a multivariable model, parasite load, nodular lesions, and positive skin microscopy were significantly associated with positive xenodiagnosis. Blood parasite load was the strongest predictor for VL. Compared to VL, nodular PKDL was more likely and macular PKDL less likely to result in positive xenodiagnosis, but neither difference reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS:Nodular and macular PKDL, and VL, can be infectious to sand flies. Active PKDL case detection and prompt treatment should be instituted and maintained as an integral part of VL control and elimination programs.
Project description:Understanding of spatiotemporal transmission of infectious diseases has improved significantly in recent years. Advances in Bayesian inference methods for individual-level geo-located epidemiological data have enabled reconstruction of transmission trees and quantification of disease spread in space and time, while accounting for uncertainty in missing data. However, these methods have rarely been applied to endemic diseases or ones in which asymptomatic infection plays a role, for which additional estimation methods are required. Here, we develop such methods to analyze longitudinal incidence data on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its sequela, post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), in a highly endemic community in Bangladesh. Incorporating recent data on VL and PKDL infectiousness, we show that while VL cases drive transmission when incidence is high, the contribution of PKDL increases significantly as VL incidence declines (reaching 55% in this setting). Transmission is highly focal: 85% of mean distances from inferred infectors to their secondary VL cases were <300 m, and estimated average times from infector onset to secondary case infection were <4 mo for 88% of VL infectors, but up to 2.9 y for PKDL infectors. Estimated numbers of secondary cases per VL and PKDL case varied from 0 to 6 and were strongly correlated with the infector's duration of symptoms. Counterfactual simulations suggest that prevention of PKDL could have reduced overall VL incidence by up to 25%. These results highlight the need for prompt detection and treatment of PKDL to achieve VL elimination in the Indian subcontinent and provide quantitative estimates to guide spatiotemporally targeted interventions against VL.
Project description:Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-a deadly, infectious disease that claims approximately 20,000 to 40,000 lives every year. PKDL is thought to be a reservoir for transmission of VL, thus, adequate control of PKDL plays a key role in the ongoing effort to eliminate VL. Over the past few years, several expert meetings have recommended that a greater focus on PKDL was needed, especially in South Asia. This report summarizes the Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Consortium Meeting held in New Delhi, India, 27-29 June 2012. The PKDL Consortium is committed to promote and facilitate activities that lead to better understanding of all aspects of PKDL that are needed for improved clinical management and to achieve control of PKDL and VL. Fifty clinicians, scientists, policy makers, and advocates came together to discuss issues relating to PKDL epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and control. Colleagues who were unable to attend participated during drafting of the consortium meeting report.
Project description:Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries.
Project description:Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a cutaneous form of disease that develops at variable times after individuals have received treatment for clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The study aimed to investigate the possible role of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and development of PKDL.77 families composed of 41 complete case-parent trios and 36 case-parent pairs from the Masalit ethnic group were genotyped for 3 IL10 promoter polymorphisms: -1082A/G, -819C/T and -592C/A.Single point analysis using the transmission disequilibrium test showed no evidence of association between any of these IL10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and development of PKDL. Haplotype analysis performed using TRANSMIT showed borderline significance between PKDL and the haplotype AA across -592C/A and -1082A/G (p = 0.053). Haplotypes GCC (0.33) and ATA (0.30) were the common haplotypes in this Sudanese population. Allele frequencies for the 3 SNPs differed significantly in Sudan compared to other African (Gambian, Malawian, YRI) populations.There is no evidence for an association between 3 SNPs in the IL10 gene promoter and susceptibility to PKDL in the Masalit ethnic group in Sudan, although some evidence for haplotype association was observed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: With widespread resistance to antimonials in Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent, Miltefosine (MIL) has been introduced as the first line therapy. Surveillance of MIL susceptibility in natural populations of Leishmania donovani is vital to preserve it and support the VL elimination program. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured in vitro susceptibility towards MIL and paromomycin (PMM) in L. donovani isolated from VL and PKDL, pre- and post-treatment cases, using an amastigote-macrophage model. MIL susceptibility of post-treatment isolates from cured VL cases (n?=?13, mean IC(50)±SD?=?2.43±1.44 µM), was comparable (p>0.05) whereas that from relapses (n?=?3, mean IC(50)?=?4.72±1.99 µM) was significantly higher (p?=?0.04) to that of the pre-treatment group (n?=?6, mean IC(50)?=?1.86±0.75 µM). In PKDL, post-treatment isolates (n?=?3, mean IC(50)?=?16.13±2.64 µM) exhibited significantly lower susceptibility (p?=?0.03) than pre-treatment isolates (n?=?5, mean IC(50)?=?8.63±0.94 µM). Overall, PKDL isolates (n?=?8, mean IC(50)?=?11.45±4.19 µM) exhibited significantly higher tolerance (p<0.0001) to MIL than VL isolates (n?=?22, mean IC(50)?=?2.58±1.58 µM). Point mutations in the miltefosine transporter (LdMT) and its beta subunit (LdRos3) genes previously reported in parasites with experimentally induced MIL resistance were not present in the clinical isolates. Further, the mRNA expression profile of these genes was comparable in the pre- and post-treatment isolates. Parasite isolates from VL and PKDL cases were uniformly susceptible to PMM with respective mean IC(50)?=?7.05±2.24 µM and 6.18±1.51 µM. CONCLUSION: The in vitro susceptibility of VL isolates remained unchanged at the end of MIL treatment; however, isolates from relapsed VL and PKDL cases had lower susceptibility than the pre-treatment isolates. PKDL isolates were more tolerant towards MIL in comparison with VL isolates. All parasite isolates were uniformly susceptible to PMM. Mutations in the LdMT and LdRos3 genes as well as changes in the expression of these genes previously correlated with experimental resistance to MIL could not be verified for the field isolates.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients.<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort. Trained physicians, unaware of arsenic exposure, interviewed them and collected relevant data in a questionnaire format. All probable water sources were identified around the patient's house and water was collected for evaluation of arsenic concentration. A GIS-based village-level digital database of PKDL cases and arsenic concentration in groundwater was developed and individual point location of PKDL cases were overlaid on an integrated GIS map. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess odds ratios (ORs) for association between arsenic exposure and PKDL development.<h4>Results</h4>Out of the 429 water samples tested, 403 had arsenic content of over 10 ?g/L, with highest level of 432 ?g/L among the seven study villages. Multivariate adjusted ORs for risk of PKDL development in comparison of arsenic concentrations of 10.1-200 ?g/L and 200.1-432.0 ?g/L were 1.85 (1.13-3.03) and 2.31 (1.39-3.8) respectively. Interestingly, similar results were found for daily dose of arsenic and total arsenic concentration in urine sample of the individual. The multivariate-adjusted OR for comparison of high baseline arsenic exposure to low baseline arsenic exposure of the individuals in the study cohort was 1.66 (95% CI 1.02-2.7; p = 0.04).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings indicate the need to consider environmental factors, like long time arsenic exposure, as an additional influence on treated VL patients towards risk of PKDL development in Bihar.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few prospective data exist on incidence of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse after different treatment regimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:A Phase IV trial included 1761 VL patients treated between 2012-2014 with single dose AmBisome (SDA; N = 891), miltefosine-paromomycin (Milt-PM; n = 512), or AmBisome-miltefosine (AmB-Milt; n = 358). Follow-up for PKDL and VL relapse was scheduled for 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, lasting until 2017. Patients with lesions consistent with PKDL were tested by rK39 rapid test, and if positive, underwent skin-snip sampling, smear microscopy and PCR. Probable PKDL was defined by consistent lesions and positive rK39; confirmed PKDL required additional positive microscopy or PCR. PKDL and relapse incidence density were calculated by VL treatment and risk factors evaluated in Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1,750 patients who completed treatment, 79 had relapse and 104 PKDL. Relapse incidence density was 1.58, 2.08 and 0.40 per 1000 person-months for SDA, AmB-Milt and Milt-PM, respectively. PKDL incidence density was 1.29, 1.45 and 2.65 per 1000 person-months for SDA, AmB-Milt and Milt-PM. In multivariable models, patients treated with Milt-PM had lower relapse but higher PKDL incidence than those treated with SDA; AmB-Milt rates were not significantly different from those for SDA. Children <12 years were at higher risk for both outcomes; females had a higher risk of PKDL but not relapse. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Active surveillance for PKDL and relapse, followed by timely treatment, is essential to sustain the achievements of VL elimination programs in the Indian sub-continent.