Pharmacokinetics of daily versus monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in non-lactating women.
ABSTRACT: This study compared serum cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations over four weeks in healthy, non-pregnant, non-lactating females aged 18-40 years, who were randomized to oral cholecalciferol 5000 international units (IU) daily for 28 days or a single dose of 150?000?IU. The study was conducted in Rochester, MN in March and April of 2010. We found no difference in mean 25(OH)D between treatment groups on study day 0 or day 28 (P=0.14 and 0.28, respectively). The daily group had 11 more days of detectable serum cholecalciferol than the single-dose group (P<0.001). There was no difference observed in cholecalciferol area under the curve (AUC28) between groups (P=0.49). However, the single-dose group had a significantly greater mean 25(OH)D AUC28 compared with the daily group (P<0.001).
Project description:To determine whether a single monthly supplement is as effective as a daily maternal supplement in increasing breast milk vitamin D to achieve vitamin D sufficiency in their infants.Forty mothers with exclusively breast-fed infants were randomized to receive oral cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 5000 IU/d for 28 days or 150,000 IU once. Maternal serum, breast milk, and urine were collected on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28; infant serum was obtained on days 0 and 28. Enrollment occurred between January 7, 2011, and July 29, 2011.In mothers given daily cholecalciferol, concentrations of serum and breast milk cholecalciferol attained steady levels of 18 and 8 ng/mL, respectively, from day 3 through 28. In mothers given the single dose, serum and breast milk cholecalciferol peaked at 160 and 40 ng/mL, respectively, at day 1 before rapidly declining. Maternal milk and serum cholecalciferol concentrations were related (r=0.87). Infant mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration increased from 17±13 to 39±6 ng/mL in the single-dose group and from 16±12 to 39±12 ng/mL in the daily-dose group (P=.88). All infants achieved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of more than 20 ng/mL.Either single-dose or daily-dose cholecalciferol supplementation of mothers provided breast milk concentrations that result in vitamin D sufficiency in breast-fed infants.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01240265.
Project description:We aimed to determine whether a cumulative dose of vitamin D? produces the same effects on the serum concentration of 25(OH)D? if it is given daily or monthly. This is a monocentric, two-armed, randomized, interventional, open, and parallel study conducted from November 2016 to March 2017 in Belgium. We randomized 60 subjects with vitamin D deficiency to receive 2000 IU vitamin D? daily or 50,000 IU monthly. The same cumulative dose of vitamin D? was given to each treatment group (150,000 IU). The 25(OH)D? serum concentrations from baseline to day 75 were 14.3 ± 3.7 to 27.8 ± 3.9 ng/mL in the monthly group and 14.1 ± 3.4 to 28.8 ± 5.4 ng/mL in the daily group. The mean change versus the baseline level was significantly different between the groups at day 2, 4, 7, and 14 and no longer different from day 25. One day after the intake of vitamin D?, as expected, serum 25(OH)D? and 1,25(OH)?D? increased significantly in the monthly group, whereas they did not change significantly in the daily group. The median time to reach the 20 ng/mL target concentration was significantly different in the two groups, in favor of the monthly regimen (1 day versus 14 days; p = 0.02). In conclusion, a monthly administration of 50,000 IU vitamin D? provides an effective tool for a rapid normalization of 25(OH)D? in deficient subjects. A daily administration of the same cumulative dose is similarly effective but takes two weeks longer to reach the desirable level of 20 ng/mL.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals.Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies.The mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l). In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OH)D serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The increase of 25(OH)D serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264).Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations.
Project description:Vitamin D repletion with high doses of vitamin D is often recommended to patients and healthy subjects. The safety, especially concerning changes in urinary calcium excretion is of great importance.In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 40 healthy volunteers, we examined the changes in mineral metabolism during supplementation with 3000 IU of oral cholecalciferol daily during 4 months.Both 25(OH)vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D increased significantly in the active treated group as compared to the placebo group (186% versus 14% (P<0.001) and 28% versus -8% (P<0.001)). No change was observed in urinary calcium excretion in the active group compared to the placebo group (P?=?0.891). Fibroblast growth factor 23 increased significantly by 10% (P<0.018) in the active group. However, there was no difference in changes in FGF23 between treatment groups (P?=?0.457).High dose cholecalciferol significantly increases 25(OH)vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D levels compared to placebo. No changes in urinary calcium excretion or other measured components of the mineral metabolism were found between groups.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00952562.
Project description:Whether ergocalciferol (D(2)) and cholecalciferol (D(3)) are equally effective to increase and maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is controversial.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of daily and once monthly dosing of D(2) or D(3) on circulating 25(OH)D and serum and urinary calcium.In a university clinical research setting, 64 community dwelling adults age 65+ were randomly assigned to receive daily (1,600 IU) or once-monthly (50,000 IU) D(2) or D(3) for 1 yr.Serum 25(OH)D, serum calcium, and 24-h urinary calcium were measured at months 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Serum PTH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and N-telopeptide were measured at months 0, 3, 6, and 12.Serum 25(OH)D was less than 30 ng/ml in 40% of subjects at baseline; after 12 months of vitamin D dosing, levels in 19% of subjects (n = 12, seven receiving daily doses and five monthly doses) remained low, despite compliance of more than 91%. D(2) dosing increased 25(OH)D(2) but produced a decline (P < 0.0001) in 25(OH)D(3). Substantial between-individual variation in 25(OH)D response was observed for both D(2) and D(3). The highest 25(OH)D observed was 72.5 ng/ml. Vitamin D administration did not alter serum calcium, PTH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide, or 24-h urine calcium.Overall, D(3) is slightly, but significantly, more effective than D(2) to increase serum 25(OH)D. One year of D(2) or D(3) dosing (1,600 IU daily or 50,000 IU monthly) does not produce toxicity, and 25(OH)D levels of less than 30 ng/ml persist in approximately 20% of individuals. Substantial between-individual response to administered vitamin D(2) or D(3) is observed.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Observational studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse outcomes of critical illness and identify it as a potential risk factor for the development of lung injury. To determine whether preoperative administration of oral high-dose cholecalciferol ameliorates early acute lung injury postoperatively in adults undergoing elective esophagectomy. DESIGN:A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:Three large U.K. university hospitals. PATIENTS:Seventy-nine adult patients undergoing elective esophagectomy were randomized. INTERVENTIONS:A single oral preoperative (3-14 d) dose of 7.5?mg (300,000 IU; 15?mL) cholecalciferol or matched placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Primary outcome was change in extravascular lung water index at the end of esophagectomy. Secondary outcomes included PaO2:FIO2 ratio, development of lung injury, ventilator and organ-failure free days, 28 and 90 day survival, safety of cholecalciferol supplementation, plasma vitamin D status (25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and vitamin D-binding protein), pulmonary vascular permeability index, and extravascular lung water index day 1 postoperatively. An exploratory study measured biomarkers of alveolar-capillary inflammation and injury. Forty patients were randomized to cholecalciferol and 39 to placebo. There was no significant change in extravascular lung water index at the end of the operation between treatment groups (placebo median 1.0 [interquartile range, 0.4-1.8] vs cholecalciferol median 0.4?mL/kg [interquartile range, 0.4-1.2?mL/kg]; p = 0.059). Median pulmonary vascular permeability index values were significantly lower in the cholecalciferol treatment group (placebo 0.4 [interquartile range, 0-0.7] vs cholecalciferol 0.1 [interquartile range, -0.15 to -0.35]; p = 0.027). Cholecalciferol treatment effectively increased 25(OH)D concentrations, but surgery resulted in a decrease in 25(OH)D concentrations at day 3 in both arms. There was no difference in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:High-dose preoperative treatment with oral cholecalciferol was effective at increasing 25(OH)D concentrations and reduced changes in postoperative pulmonary vascular permeability index, but not extravascular lung water index.
Project description:Experts debate optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels for musculoskeletal health.To compare the effects of placebo, low-dose cholecalciferol, and high-dose cholecalciferol on 1-year changes in total fractional calcium absorption, bone mineral density, Timed Up and Go and five sit-to-stand tests, and muscle mass in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at a single center in Madison, Wisconsin, from May 1, 2010, through July 31, 2013, and the final visit was completed on August 8, 2014. A total of 230 postmenopausal women 75 years or younger with baseline 25(OH)D levels of 14 through 27 ng/mL and no osteoporosis were studied.Three arms included daily white and twice monthly yellow placebo (n=76), daily 800 IU vitamin D3 and twice monthly yellow placebo (n=75), and daily white placebo and twice monthly 50,000 IU vitamin D3 (n=79). The high-dose vitamin D regimen achieved and maintained 25(OH)D levels?30 ng/mL.Outcome measures were 1-year change in total fractional calcium absorption using 2 stable isotopes, bone mineral density and muscle mass using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, Timed Up and Go and five sit-to-stand tests, functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire), and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), with Benjamini-Hochberg correction of P values to control for the false discovery rate.After baseline absorption was controlled for, calcium absorption increased 1% (10 mg/d) in the high-dose arm but decreased 2% in the low-dose arm (P?=?.005 vs high-dose arm) and 1.3% in the placebo arm (P?=?.03 vs high-dose arm). We found no between-arm changes in spine, mean total-hip, mean femoral neck, or total-body bone mineral density, trabecular bone score, muscle mass, and Timed Up and Go or five sit-to-stand test scores. Likewise, we found no between-arm differences for numbers of falls, number of fallers, physical activity, or functional status.High-dose cholecalciferol therapy increased calcium absorption, but the effect was small and did not translate into beneficial effects on bone mineral density, muscle function, muscle mass, or falls. We found no data to support experts' recommendations to maintain serum 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL or higher in postmenopausal women. Instead, we found that low- and high-dose cholecalciferol were equivalent to placebo in their effects on bone and muscle outcomes in this cohort of postmenopausal women with 25(OH)D levels less than 30 ng/mL.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00933244.
Project description:In this prospective controlled study, we examined 25 adults with adequately controlled (HbA1c level < 8.0%) type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 49 conditionally healthy adults, intending to reveal the diversity of vitamin D metabolism in the setting of cholecalciferol intake at a therapeutic dose. All patients received a single dose (150,000 IU) of cholecalciferol aqueous solution orally. Laboratory assessments including serum vitamin D metabolites (25(OH)D<sub>3</sub>, 25(OH)D<sub>2</sub>, 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub>, 3-epi-25(OH)D<sub>3</sub> and 24,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub>), free 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as serum and urine biochemical parameters were performed before the intake and on Days 1, 3 and 7 after the administration. The studied groups had no significant differences in baseline parameters except that the patients with diabetes showed higher baseline levels of free 25(OH)D (<i>p</i> < 0.05). They also lacked a correlation between the measured and calculated free 25(OH)D in contrast to the patients from the control group (r = 0.41, <i>p</i> > 0.05 vs. r = 0.88, <i>p</i> < 0.05), possibly due to the glycosylation of binding proteins, which affects the affinity constant for 25(OH)D. The elevation of vitamin D levels after the administration of cholecalciferol was comparable in both groups, with slightly higher 25(OH)D<sub>3</sub> levels observed in the diabetes group throughout the study since Day 1 (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Overall, our data indicate that in patients with adequately controlled T1DM 25(OH)D<sub>3</sub> levels and the therapeutic response to cholecalciferol is similar to that in healthy individuals.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in human populations and has been linked to immune dysfunction. Here we explored the effects of cholecalciferol supplementation on circulating cytokines in severely vitamin D deficient [blood 25(OH)D << 30 nmol/L] adolescents aged 12-15 from Mongolia. The study included 28 children receiving 800 IU daily cholecalciferol for 6 months spanning winter and spring, and 30 children receiving placebo during the same period. The levels of 25(OH)D were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Twenty-one cytokines were measured in serum at baseline and at 6 months. Changes in 25(OH)D and cytokines were assessed using paired parametric tests. The median blood 25(OH)D concentration at baseline was 13.7 nmol/L (IQR = 10.0-21.7). Supplementation tripled blood 25(OH)D levels (p < 0.001) and was associated with elevated interleukin (IL)-6 (p = 0.043). The placebo group had reduced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? (p = 0.007) and IL-8 (p = 0.034) at 6 months. Although limited by a small sample size, these findings suggest that cholecalciferol supplementation and seasonality may impact systemic immunity in adolescents, identifying chemokines as potentially important biomarkers of vitamin D status in this Northeast Asian population. Larger clinical trials are warranted to validate these results. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrial.org, Identifier: NCT01244204.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is common among immigrants in the Nordic region. It may lead to osteomalacia with severe musculoskeletal pain. There are reports that vitamin D deficiency without osteomalacia may lead to pain but little is known of the effect of treatment.To investigate whether a moderate dose of cholecalciferol and calcium improves strength and pain in a group of vitamin D deficient women.Twentyfive immigrant women with vitamin D deficiency diagnosed during pregnancy were treated postpartum with a daily dose of 1,600 IU cholecalciferol and 1,000 mg of calcium. They were examined at the start of treatment and again after 3 months of treatement and the results were statistically compared.Southern parts of Stockholm.Serum 25-hydroyvitamin D (25(OH)D), serum-parathyroid hormone (PTH), pain measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS), musculoskeletal strength by performance on a chair stand test (seconds), and bone tenderness by pressure algometer (kilo-Pascal).Following the treatment, the 21 women attending had lowered cm in VAS, improved musculoskeletal strength, - and 25(OH)D levels were normalized.A moderate dose of vitamin D normalized l vitamin D levels, improved muscular strength and reduced pain in this group of vitamin D deficient immigrant women.