Cyclin D3 expression in melanoma cells is regulated by adhesion-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and contributes to G1-S progression.
ABSTRACT: D-type cyclins regulate G1 cell cycle progression by enhancing the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their expression is frequently altered in malignant cells. We and others have previously shown that cyclin D1 is up-regulated in melanoma cells through adhesion-independent MEK-ERK1/2 signaling initiated by mutant B-RAF. Here, we describe the regulation and role of cyclin D3 in human melanoma cells. Cyclin D3 expression was enhanced in a cell panel of human melanoma cell lines compared with melanocytes and was regulated by fibronectin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling but not MEK activity. RNA interference experiments demonstrated that cyclin D3 contributed to G1-S cell cycle progression and proliferation in melanoma cells. Overexpression of cyclin D1 did not recover the effects of cyclin D3 knockdown. Finally, immunoprecipitation studies showed that CDK6 is a major binding partner for cyclin D3, whereas CDK4 preferentially associated with cyclin D1. Together, these findings demonstrate that cyclin D3 is an important regulator of melanoma G1-S cell cycle progression and that D-type cyclins are differentially regulated in melanoma cells.
Project description:Mammalian cells encode three D cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) that coordinately function as allosteric regulators of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 to regulate cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. Cyclin expression, accumulation, and degradation, as well as assembly and activation of CDK4/CDK6 are governed by growth factor stimulation. Cyclin D1 is more frequently dysregulated than cyclin D2 or D3 in human cancers, and as such, it has been more extensively characterized. Overexpression of cyclin D1 results in dysregulated CDK activity, rapid cell growth under conditions of restricted mitogenic signaling, bypass of key cellular checkpoints, and ultimately, neoplastic growth. This review discusses cyclin D1 transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulations and its biological function with a particular focus on the mechanisms that result in its dysregulation in human cancers.
Project description:The serine/threonine kinase, B-RAF, is frequently mutated in melanoma and is required for cell proliferation. Proteasomal turnover of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors via E3 ubiquitin ligases regulates cell cycle progression. We previously showed that B-RAF regulates Cks1, a co-factor for the F-box protein Skp2. Recently, a second F-box protein cofactor was identified, alphaB-crystallin, that binds Fbx4 and promotes cyclin D1 degradation. Here, we demonstrate that alphaB-crystallin is down-regulated in mutant B-RAF melanoma cells compared to melanocytes in a B-RAF and MEK-dependent manner. In a subset of lines, MEK inhibition was sufficient to up-regulate alphaB-crystallin protein levels; whereas in other lines combined MEK and proteasome inhibition was required. alphaB-crystallin knockdown partially stabilized cyclin D1 in melanocytes. Expression of alphaB-crystallin in mutant B-RAF melanoma cells did not promote cyclin D1 turnover under normal conditions, but did enhance turnover following etoposide-induced DNA damage. Together, these data show that alphaB-crystallin is highly expressed in melanocytes contributing, in part, to cyclin D1 turnover. Furthermore, alphaB-crystallin is down-regulated in a B-RAF-dependent manner in melanoma cells and its re-expression regulates cyclin D1 turnover after DNA damage.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is a reproductive system cancer in elderly men. We investigated the effects of betel nut arecoline on the growth of normal and cancerous prostate cells. Normal RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells, androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cells, and androgen-dependent LNCaP PCa cells were used. Arecoline inhibited their growth in dose- and time-dependent manners. Arecoline caused RWPE-1 and PC-3 cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and LNCaP cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase. In RWPE-1 cells, arecoline increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, p21, and cyclins B1 and D3, decreased the expression of CDK2, and had no effects on CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression. In PC-3 cells, arecoline decreased CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, p21, p27, and cyclin D1 and D3 protein expression and increased cyclin B1 protein expression. In LNCaP cells, arecoline decreased CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1 expression; increased p21, p27, and cyclin D3 expression; had no effects on CDK1 and cyclin B1 expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked the arecoline-induced increase in reactive oxygen species production, decreased cell viability, altered the cell cycle, and changed the cell cycle regulatory protein levels. Thus, arecoline oxidant exerts differential effects on the cell cycle through modulations of regulatory proteins.
Project description:The D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are components of the cell cycle machinery and govern progression through G(1) phase in response to extracellular signals. Although these proteins are highly homologous and conserved in evolution, they contain distinct structural motifs and are differentially regulated in various cell types. Cyclin D1 appears to play a role in many different types of cancer, whereas cyclins D2 and D3 are less frequently associated with malignancy. In this study, we transiently expressed cyclin D1, D2 or D3 in hepatocytes and analyzed transcriptional networks regulated by each. All three D-type cyclins promoted robust hepatocyte proliferation and marked liver growth, although cyclin D3 stimulated less DNA synthesis than D1 or D2. Accordingly, the three D-type cyclins similarly activated genes associated with cell division. Cyclin D1 regulated transcriptional pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and other substrates, whereas cyclin D2 did not regulate these pathways despite having an equivalent effect on proliferation. Comparison of transcriptional profiles following 70% partial hepatectomy and cyclin D1 transduction revealed a highly significant overlap, suggesting that cyclin D1 may regulate diverse cellular processes in the regenerating liver. In summary, these studies provide the first comparative analysis of the transcriptional networks regulated by the D-type cyclins and provide insight into novel functions of these key cell cycle proteins. Further study of the unique targets of cyclin D1 should provide further insight into its prominent role in proliferation, growth and cancer.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Most knowledge on human beta-cell cycle control derives from immunoblots of whole human islets, mixtures of beta-cells and non-beta-cells. We explored the presence, subcellular localization, and function of five early G1/S phase molecules-cyclins D1-3 and cdk 4 and 6-in the adult human beta-cell.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>Immunocytochemistry for the five molecules and their relative abilities to drive human beta-cell replication were examined. Human beta-cell replication, cell death, and islet function in vivo were studied in the diabetic NOD-SCID mouse.<h4>Results</h4>Human beta-cells contain easily detectable cdks 4 and 6 and cyclin D3 but variable cyclin D1. Cyclin D2 was only marginally detectable. All five were principally cytoplasmic, not nuclear. Overexpression of the five, alone or in combination, led to variable increases in human beta-cell replication, with the cdk6/cyclin D3 combination being the most robust (15% versus 0.3% in control beta-cells). A single molecule, cdk6, proved to be capable of driving human beta-cell replication in vitro and enhancing human islet engraftment/proliferation in vivo, superior to normal islets and as effectively as the combination of cdk6 plus a D-cyclin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Human beta-cells contain abundant cdk4, cdk6, and cyclin D3, but variable amounts of cyclin D1. In contrast to rodent beta-cells, they contain little or no detectable cyclin D2. They are primarily cytoplasmic and likely ineffective in basal beta-cell replication. Unexpectedly, cyclin D3 and cdk6 overexpression drives human beta-cell replication most effectively. Most importantly, a single molecule, cdk6, supports robust human beta-cell proliferation and function in vivo.
Project description:Alterations in cell cycle regulating proteins are a key characteristic in neoplastic proliferation of lymphoblast cells in patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The aim of our study was to investigate whether the routinely administered ALL chemotherapeutic agents would be able to bind and inhibit the key deregulated cell cycle proteins such as--Cyclins E1, D1, D3, A1 and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDK) 2 and 6. We used Schrödinger Glide docking protocol to dock the chemotherapeutic drugs such as Doxorubicin and Daunorubicin and others which are not very common including Clofarabine, Nelarabine and Flavopiridol, to the crystal structures of these proteins. We observed that the drugs were able to bind and interact with cyclins E1 and A1 and CDKs 2 and 6 while their docking to cyclins D1 and D3 were not successful. This binding proved favorable to interact with the G1/S cell cycle phase proteins that were examined in this study and may lead to the interruption of the growth of leukemic cells. Our observations therefore suggest that these drugs could be explored for use as inhibitors for these cell cycle proteins. Further, we have also highlighted residues which could be important in the designing of pharmacophores against these cell cycle proteins. This is the first report in understanding the mechanism of action of the drugs targeting these cell cycle proteins in leukemia through the visualization of drug-target binding and molecular docking using computational methods.
Project description:The mammalian cell cycle is governed by Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs) whose activities are restricted by the availability of their cyclins. Temporal control of cyclin levels, therefore, lies at the very core of cell-cycle regulation. While cyclins E, A, and B are well understood, the dynamic regulation of Cyclin D remains elusive. Using live-cell imaging and single-cell tracking, we report here that Cyclin D1 levels drop upon passage through the Restriction Point (R-point) in G1, stay low in early S phase, and rise again in late S and G2. We show that Cyclin D1 is continuously synthesized and degraded throughout the cell cycle, with degradation and synthesis rates varying substantially across cell-cycle phases. The G1 drop in Cyclin D1 levels is caused by a sudden increase in the degradation rate. Our findings thus fill a crucial gap in the core cell-cycle control network.
Project description:Cyclin D1 regulates cell proliferation and is a candidate molecular target for breast cancer therapy. This study addresses whether Cyclin D1 is indispensable for ErbB2-associated mammary tumor initiation and progression using a breast cancer model in which this cell-cycle regulator can be genetically ablated prior to or after neoplastic transformation. Deficiency in Cyclin D1 delayed tumor onset but did not prevent the occurrence of mammary cancer in mice overexpressing wild-type ErbB2. The lack of Cyclin D1 was associated with a compensatory upregulation of Cyclin D3, which explains why the targeted downregulation of Cyclin D1 in established mammary tumors had no effect on cancer cell proliferation. Cyclin D1 and D3 are overexpressed in human breast cancer cell lines and primary invasive breast cancers, and Cyclin D3 frequently exceeded the expression of Cyclin D1 in ErbB2-positive cases. The simultaneous inhibition of both cyclins in mammary tumor cells reduced cancer cell proliferation in vitro and decreased the tumor burden in vivo. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that only the combined inhibition of Cyclin D1 and D3 might be a suitable strategy for breast cancer prevention and therapy.
Project description:The mitogen-induced D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are regulatory subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 that drive progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In skeletal muscle, cyclin D3 plays a unique function in controlling the proliferation/differentiation balance of myogenic progenitor cells. Here, we show that cyclin D3 also performs a novel function, regulating muscle fiber type-specific gene expression. Mice lacking cyclin D3 display an increased number of myofibers with higher oxidative capacity in fast-twitch muscle groups, primarily composed of myofibers that utilize glycolytic metabolism. The remodeling of myofibers toward a slower, more oxidative phenotype is accompanied by enhanced running endurance and increased energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, gene expression profiling of cyclin D3-/- muscle reveals the upregulation of genes encoding proteins involved in the regulation of contractile function and metabolic markers specifically expressed in slow-twitch and fast-oxidative myofibers, many of which are targets of MEF2 and/or NFAT transcription factors. Furthermore, cyclin D3 can repress the calcineurin- or MEF2-dependent activation of a slow fiber-specific promoter in cultured muscle cells. These data suggest that cyclin D3 regulates muscle fiber type phenotype, and consequently whole body metabolism, by antagonizing the activity of MEF2 and/or NFAT.
Project description:D-Cyclins control progression through the G1 phase and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. In the adult brain, they regulate neurogenesis which is limited to the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and to the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Yet, D-cyclins have also been detected in other parts of the adult brain in differentiated neurons that do not proliferate and rather die by apoptosis in response to cell cycle reactivation. Expression of D-cyclins in astrocytes has also been reported but published results, such as those concerning neurons, appear conflictual. We carried out this study in order to clarify the general pattern of D-cyclin expression in the mouse brain. By performing GFAP/cyclin-D1 double labeling experiments, we detected hypertrophic astrocytes expressing cyclin-D1 in their cytoplasmic processes. Their number increased with age in the hippocampus area but decreased with age in the SVZ. Clusters of astrocytes expressing cyclin-D1 were also detected in the cortical areas of old mice and around blood vessels of neurogenic areas. Other non-asteroidal small cells, probably stem cells, expressed both GFAP and nuclear cyclin-D1 in the neurogenic area of the DG and in the SVZ at a higher density in young mice than in old mice. Finally, cells expressing cyclin-D1 but not GFAP were also found scattered in the striatum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, and at a high percentage in cortical layers of young and old mice. Our results suggest that astrocytes may control neuronal functions and proliferation by modulating, in normal or altered conditions such as aging or degenerative diseases, cyclin-D1 expression.