Comparison of the prognostic and predictive utilities of the 21-gene Recurrence Score assay and Adjuvant! for women with node-negative, ER-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-14 and NSABP B-20.
ABSTRACT: The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score (RS) is a validated genomic predictor of outcome and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive breast cancer. Adjuvant! was developed using SEER registry data and results from the Early Breast Cancer Clinical Trialists' overview analyses to estimate outcome and benefit from adjuvant hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. In this report we compare the prognostic and predictive utility of these two tools in node-negative, ER-positive breast cancer. RS and Adjuvant! results were available from 668 tamoxifen-treated NSABP B-14 patients, 227 tamoxifen-treated NSABP B-20 patients, and 424 chemotherapy plus tamoxifen-treated B-20 patients. Adjuvant! results were also available from 1952 B-20 patients. The primary endpoint was distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI). Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the prognostic and predictive utility of RS and Adjuvant!. Both RS (P < 0.001) and Adjuvant! (P = 0.002) provided strong independent prognostic information in tamoxifen-treated patients. Combining RS and individual clinicopathologic characteristics provided greater prognostic discrimination than combining RS and the composite Adjuvant!. In the B-20 cohort with RS results (n = 651), RS was significantly predictive of chemotherapy benefit (interaction P = 0.031 for DRFI, P = 0.011 for overall survival [OS], P = 0.082 for disease-free survival [DFS]), but Adjuvant! was not (interaction P = 0.99, P = 0.311, and P = 0.357, respectively). However, in the larger B-20 sub-cohort (n = 1952), Adjuvant! was significantly predictive of chemotherapy benefit for OS (interaction P = 0.009) but not for DRFI (P = 0.219) or DFS (P = 0.099). Prognostic estimates can be optimized by combining RS and clinicopathologic information instead of simply combining RS and Adjuvant!. RS should be used for estimating relative chemotherapy benefit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) predicts outcome and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy. In the NSABP B-28 study, we evaluated the 21-gene RS for its prognostic impact and its ability to predict benefit from paclitaxel (P) in node-positive, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. METHODS:The B-28 trial compared doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) with AC followed by P in 3060 patients. Tamoxifen for 5 years was also given to patients > 50 years and those < 50 years with ER+ and/or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. The present study includes 1065 ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated patients with RS assessment. Median follow-up time was 11.2 years. RESULTS:In univariate analyses, RS was a significant predictor of outcome. In multivariate analyses, RS remained a significant independent predictor of outcome beyond clinico-pathologic factors, age, and type of surgery (p < 0.001). In the study population (n = 1065), the disease-free survival (DFS) hazard ratio (HR) with adding P to AC was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72-1.05; p = 0.14). RS was not a significant predictor of P benefit: for DFS, HRs for adding P to AC in RS low, intermediate, and high subgroups were 1.01 (95% CI 0.69-1.47; p = 0.99), 0.84 (95% CI 0.62-1.14; p = 0.26), and 0.81 (95% CI 0.60-1.10; p = 0.21), respectively (interaction p = 0.64). Similar findings were observed for the other study endpoints. CONCLUSIONS:RS maintains significant prognostic impact in ER-positive, node-positive patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. However, RS did not significantly predict benefit from adding paclitaxel to AC chemotherapy. (Trial Registration: PDQ: NSABP-B-28).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The 21-gene breast cancer assay recurrence score (RS) is widely used for assessing recurrence risk and predicting chemotherapy benefit in patients with estrogen receptor (ER) -positive breast cancer. Pathologic and clinical factors such as tumor size, grade, and patient age also provide independent prognostic utility. We developed a formal integration of these measures and evaluated its prognostic and predictive value.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>From the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel (NSABP) B-14 and translational research cohort of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination (TransATAC) studies, we included patients who received hormonal monotherapy, had ER-positive tumors, and RS and traditional clinicopathologic factors assessed (647 and 1,088, respectively). Individual patient risk assessments from separate Cox models were combined using meta-analysis to form an RS-pathology-clinical (RSPC) assessment of distant recurrence risk. Risk assessments by RS and RSPC were compared in node-negative (N0) patients. RSPC was compared with RS for predicting chemotherapy benefit in NSABP B-20.<h4>Results</h4>RSPC had significantly more prognostic value for distant recurrence than did RS (P < .001) and showed better separation of risk in the study population. RSPC classified fewer patients as intermediate risk (17.8% v 26.7%, P < .001) and more patients as lower risk (63.8% v 54.2%, P < .001) than did RS among 1,444 N0 ER-positive patients. In B-20, the interaction of RSPC with chemotherapy was not statistically significant (P = .10), in contrast to the previously reported significant interaction of RS with chemotherapy (P = .037).<h4>Conclusion</h4>RSPC refines the assessment of distant recurrence risk and reduces the number of patients classified as intermediate risk. Adding clinicopathologic measures did not seem to enhance the value of RS alone nor the individual biology RS identifies in predicting chemotherapy benefit.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) B-24 study demonstrated significant benefit with adjuvant tamoxifen in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after lumpectomy and radiation. Patients were enrolled without knowledge of hormone receptor status. The current study retrospectively evaluated the relationship between receptors and response to tamoxifen.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PgR) were evaluated in 732 patients with DCIS (41% of original study population). An experienced central laboratory determined receptor status in all patient cases with available paraffin blocks (n = 449) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using comprehensively validated assays. Results for additional patients (n = 283) determined by various methods (primarily IHC) were available from enrolling institutions. Combined results were evaluated for benefit of tamoxifen by receptor status at 10 years and overall follow-up (median, 14.5 years).<h4>Results</h4>ER was positive in 76% of patients. Patients with ER-positive DCIS treated with tamoxifen (v placebo) showed significant decreases in subsequent breast cancer at 10 years (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; P < .001) and overall follow-up (HR, 0.60; P = .003), which remained significant in multivariable analysis (overall HR, 0.64; P = .003). Results were similar, but less significant, when subsequent ipsilateral and contralateral, invasive and noninvasive, breast cancers were considered separately. No significant benefit was observed in ER-negative DCIS. PgR and either receptor were positive in 66% and 79% of patients, respectively, and in general, neither was more predictive than ER alone.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients in NSABP B-24 with ER-positive DCIS receiving adjuvant tamoxifen after standard therapy showed significant reductions in subsequent breast cancer. The use of adjuvant tamoxifen should be considered for patients with DCIS.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Guidelines recommend endocrine treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers for up to 10 years. Earlier data suggest that the 70-gene signature (MammaPrint) has potential to select patients that have an excellent survival without chemotherapy and limited or no tamoxifen treatment. The aim was to validate the 70-gene signature ultralow-risk classification for endocrine therapy decision making.<h4>Methods</h4>In the IKA trial, postmenopausal patients with non-metastatic breast cancer had been randomized between no or limited adjuvant tamoxifen treatment without receiving chemotherapy. For this secondary analysis, FFPE tumor material was obtained of ER+HER2- patients with 0-3 positive lymph nodes and tested for the 70-gene signature. Distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI) long-term follow-up data were collected. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate DRFI, stratified by lymph node status, for the three predefined 70-gene signature risk groups.<h4>Results</h4>A reliable 70-gene signature could be obtained for 135 patients. Of the node-negative and node-positive patients, respectively, 20% and 13% had an ultralow-risk classification. No DRFI events were observed for node-negative patients with an ultralow-risk score in the first 10 years. The 10-year DRFI was 90% and 66% in the low-risk (but not ultralow) and high-risk classified node-negative patients, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These survival analyses indicate that the postmenopausal node-negative ER+HER2- patients with an ultralow-risk 70-gene signature score have an excellent 10-year DRFI after surgery with a median of 1 year of endocrine treatment. This is in line with published results of the STO-3-randomized clinical trial and supports the concept that it is possible to reduce the duration of endocrine treatment in selected patients.
Project description:Our objective was to validate the NSABP 8-gene trastuzumab-benefit signature, developed and initially validated in NRG Oncology/NSABP B-31 in Alliance/NCCTG N9831. The B-31 and N9831 trials demonstrated the benefit of adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting for HER2+ breast cancer patients. NSABP investigators utilized gene expression profiles of N9831 patients (N?=?892) to blindly assign patients to large-, moderate-, or no-trastuzumab benefit groups and then NCCTG investigators assessed the degree of trastuzumab benefit using Cox models adjusted for age, nodes, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, tumor size, and grade. Hazard ratios and 2-sided P values for recurrence-free survival of the predicted large- (n?=?387), moderate- (n?=?401), and no-benefit (n?=?104) groups, based on the 8-gene signature were 0.47 (95% CI?=?0.31 to 0.73, P < .001), 0.60 (95% CI?=?0.39 to 0.92, P = .02), and 1.54 (95% CI?=?0.59 to 4.02, P = .38), respectively (P interaction = .02), providing validation of the 8-gene signature in an independent study.
Project description:Estimating distant recurrence (DR) risk among women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative early breast cancer helps decisions on using adjuvant chemotherapy. The 21-gene Oncotype DX recurrence score (RS) is widely used for this. EndoPredict (EPclin) is an alternative test combining prognostic information from an eight-gene signature (EP score) with tumor size and nodal status. We compared the prognostic information provided by RS and EPclin for 10-year DR risk.We used likelihood ratio ?² and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to compare prognostic information provided by EP, EPclin, RS, and the clinical treatment score (CTS) of clinicopathologic parameters in 928 patients with ER+ disease treated with five years' anastrozole or tamoxifen. Comparisons were made for early (0-5 years) and late (5-10 years) DR according to nodal status. All statistical tests were two-sided.In the overall population, EP and EPclin provided substantially more prognostic information than RS (LR?(2): EP?=?49.3; LR?(2): EPclin = 139.3; LR?(2): RS?=?29.1), with greater differences in late DR and in node-positive patients. EP and EPclin remained statistically significantly prognostic when adjusted for RS (?LR?(2): EP+RS vs RS?=?20.2; ?LR?(2): EPclin+RS vs RS?=?113.8). Using predefined cut-offs, EPclin and RS identified 58.8% and 61.7% patients as low risk, with hazard ratios for non-low vs low risk of 5.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.94 to 9.11) and 2.73 (95% CI?=?1.91 to 3.89), respectively.EP and EPclin were highly prognostic for DR in endocrine-treated patients with ER+, HER2-negative disease. EPclin provided more prognostic information than RS. This was partly but not entirely because of EPclin integrating molecular data with nodal status and tumor size.
Project description:Ductal carcinoma in situ is currently managed with excision, radiotherapy, and adjuvant hormone therapy, usually tamoxifen. We postulated that an aromatase inhibitor would be safer and more effective. We therefore undertook this trial to compare anastrozole versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with ductal carcinoma in situ undergoing lumpectomy plus radiotherapy.The double-blind, randomised, phase 3 National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-35 trial was done in 333 participating NSABP centres in the USA and Canada. Postmenopausal women with hormone-positive ductal carcinoma in situ treated by lumpectomy with clear resection margins and whole-breast irradiation were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral tamoxifen 20 mg per day (with matching placebo in place of anastrozole) or oral anastrozole 1 mg per day (with matching placebo in place of tamoxifen) for 5 years. Randomisation was stratified by age (<60 vs ?60 years) and patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was breast cancer-free interval, defined as time from randomisation to any breast cancer event (local, regional, or distant recurrence, or contralateral breast cancer, invasive disease, or ductal carcinoma in situ), analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00053898, and is complete.Between Jan 1, 2003, and June 15, 2006, 3104 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the two treatment groups (1552 to tamoxifen and 1552 to anastrozole). As of Feb 28, 2015, follow-up information was available for 3083 patients for overall survival and 3077 for all other disease-free endpoints, with median follow-up of 9·0 years (IQR 8·2-10·0). In total, 212 breast cancer-free interval events occurred: 122 in the tamoxifen group and 90 in the anastrozole group (HR 0·73 [95% CI 0·56-0·96], p=0·0234). A significant time-by-treatment interaction (p=0·0410) became evident later in the study. There was also a significant interaction between treatment and age group (p=0·0379), showing that anastrozole is superior only in women younger than 60 years of age. Adverse events did not differ between the groups, except for thrombosis or embolism--a known side-effect of tamoxifen-for which there were 17 grade 4 or worse events in the tamoxifen group versus four in the anastrozole group.Compared with tamoxifen, anastrozole treatment provided a significant improvement in breast cancer-free interval, mainly in women younger than 60 years of age. This finding means that women will benefit from having a choice of effective agents for ductal carcinoma in situ.US National Cancer Institute and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP.
Project description:The 70-gene signature (MammaPrint™) has been developed on retrospective series of breast cancer patients to predict the risk of breast cancer distant metastases. The microarRAy-prognoSTics-in-breast-cancER (RASTER) study was the first study designed to prospectively evaluate the performance of the 70-gene signature, which result was available for 427 patients (cT1-3N0M0). Adjuvant systemic treatment decisions were based on the Dutch CBO 2004 guidelines, the 70-gene signature and doctors' and patients' preferences. Five-year distant-recurrence-free-interval (DRFI) probabilities were compared between subgroups based on the 70-gene signature and Adjuvant! Online (AOL) (10-year survival probability <90% was defined as high-risk). Median follow-up was 61.6 months. Fifteen percent (33/219) of the 70-gene signature low-risk patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) versus 81% (169/208) of the 70-gene signature high-risk patients. The 5-year DRFI probabilities for 70-gene signature low-risk (n?=?219) and high-risk (n?=?208) patients were 97.0% and 91.7%. The 5-year DRFI probabilities for AOL low-risk (n?=?132) and high-risk (n?=?295) patients were 96.7% and 93.4%. For 70-gene signature low-risk-AOL high-risk patients (n?=?124), of whom 76% (n?=?94) had not received ACT, 5-year DRFI was 98.4%. In the AOL high-risk group, 32% (94/295) less patients would be eligible to receive ACT if the 70-gene signature was used. In this prospective community-based observational study, the 5-year DRFI probabilities confirmed the additional prognostic value of the 70-gene signature to clinicopathological risk estimations such as AOL. Omission of adjuvant chemotherapy as judged appropriate by doctors and patients and instigated by a low-risk 70-gene signature result, appeared not to compromise outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Controversy exists regarding the association between CYP2D6 enzyme activity and tamoxifen effectiveness in the adjuvant treatment of invasive breast cancer; however, this association in the primary prevention of breast cancer is unknown. METHODS:We conducted a nested case-control study in the context of the NSABP P1 and P2 prevention trials to determine the impact of CYP2D6 genotype, CYP2D6 inhibitor use, and metabolizer status (CYP2D6 genotype combined with CYP2D6 inhibitor use), on breast cancer events. Women who developed breast cancer (both noninvasive and invasive) while on 5 years of selective estrogen receptor modulators therapy (cases) were matched to controls free of breast cancer. Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping was conducted for alleles associated with absent (*3, *4, *5, and *6), reduced (*10, *17, and *41), and increased (*1XN and *2XN) enzyme activity. Information regarding the use of CYP2D6 inhibitors was recorded. RESULTS:A total of 591 cases were matched to 1,126 controls and DNA was genotyped in more than 97%. In patients treated with tamoxifen, there was no association of CYP2D6 genotype [OR (extensive/poor metabolizer): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.46-1.74, P = 0.74), use of a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor (OR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.575-1.486), or CYP2D6 metabolizer status (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 0.669-1.607) with breast cancer occurrence. Likewise, there was no association between any CYP2D6 metabolism parameter with breast cancer events in raloxifene-treated patients. CONCLUSION:In the NSABP P1 and P2 clinical trials, alterations in CYP2D6 metabolism are not associated with either tamoxifen or raloxifene efficacy.
Project description:The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) predicts risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in node-negative, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We evaluated the association between RS and LRR in node-positive, ER-positive patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy plus tamoxifen in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-28. B-28 compared doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC X 4) with AC X 4 followed by paclitaxel X 4. Tamoxifen was given to patients age 50 years or older and those younger than age 50 years with ER-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive tumors. Lumpectomy patients received breast radiotherapy. Mastectomy patients received no radiotherapy. The present study includes 1065 ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated patients with RS assessment. Cumulative incidence functions and subdistribution hazard regression models were used for LRR to account for competing risks including distant recurrence, second primary cancers, and death from other causes. Median follow-up was 11.2 years. All statistical tests were one-sided. There were 80 LRRs (7.5%) as first events (68% local/32% regional). RS was low: 36.2%; intermediate: 34.2%; and high: 29.6%. RS was a statistically significant predictor of LRR in univariate analyses (10-year cumulative incidence of LRR = 3.3%, 7.2%, and 12.2% for low, intermediate, and high RS, respectively, P < .001). In multivariable regression analysis, RS remained an independent predictor of LRR (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28 to 5.26, for a 50-point difference, P = .008) along with pathologic nodal status (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.20 to 3.03, for four or more vs one to three positive nodes, P = .006) and tumor size (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.55, for a 1 cm difference, P = .02). RS statistically significantly predicts risk of LRR in node-positive, ER-positive breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. These findings can help in the selection of appropriate candidates for comprehensive radiotherapy.