HIV-1 subtype influences susceptibility and response to monotherapy with the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir.
ABSTRACT: PI susceptibility results from a complex interplay between protease and Gag proteins, with Gag showing wide variation across HIV-1 subtypes. We explored the impact of pre-treatment susceptibility on the outcome of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy.Treatment-naive individuals who experienced lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy failure from the MONARK study were matched (by subtype, viral load and baseline CD4 count) with those who achieved virological response ('successes'). Successes were defined by viral load <400 copies/mL after week 24 and <50 copies/mL from week 48 to week 96. Full-length Gag-protease was amplified from patient samples for in vitro phenotypic susceptibility testing, with susceptibility expressed as fold change (FC) relative to a subtype B reference strain.Baseline lopinavir susceptibility was lower in viral failures compared with viral successes, but the differences were not statistically significant (median lopinavir susceptibility: 4.4 versus 8.5, respectively, P = 0.17). Among CRF02_AG/G patients, there was a significant difference in lopinavir susceptibility between the two groups (7.1 versus 10.4, P = 0.047), while in subtype B the difference was not significant (2.7 versus 3.4, P = 0.13). Subtype CRF02_AG/G viruses had a median lopinavir FC of 8.7 compared with 3.1 for subtype B (P = 0.001).We report an association between reduced PI susceptibility (using full-length Gag-protease sequences) at baseline and subsequent virological failure on lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in antiretroviral-naive patients harbouring subtype CRF02_AG/G viruses. We speculate that this may be important in the context of suboptimal adherence in determining viral failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Virological failure (VF) to boosted PIs with a high genetic barrier is not usually linked to the development of resistance-associated mutations in the protease gene. METHODS:From a cohort of 520 HIV-infected subjects treated with lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy, we retrospectively identified nine patients with VF. We sequenced the HIV-1 Gag-protease region and generated clonal virus from plasma samples. We characterized phenotypically clonal variants in terms of replicative capacity and susceptibility to PIs. Also, we used VESPA to identify signature mutations and 3D molecular modelling information to detect conformational changes in the Gag region. RESULTS:All subjects analysed harboured Gag-associated polymorphisms in the absence of resistance mutations in the protease gene. Most Gag changes occurred outside Gag cleavage sites. VESPA analyses identified K95R and R286K (P?<?0.01) as signature mutations in Gag present at VF. In one out of four patients with clonal analysis available, we identified clonal variants with high replicative capacity and 8- to 13-fold reduction in darunavir susceptibility. These clonal variants harboured K95R, R286K and additional mutations in Gag. Low susceptibility to darunavir was dependent on the Gag sequence context. All other clonal variants analysed preserved drug susceptibility and virus replicative capacity. CONCLUSIONS:Gag mutations may reduce darunavir susceptibility in the absence of protease mutations while preserving viral fitness. This effect is Gag-sequence context dependent and may occur during boosted PI failure.
Project description:Virological failure on a boosted-protease inhibitor (PI/r) first-line triple combination is usually not associated with the detection of resistance mutations in the protease gene. Thus, other resistance pathways are being investigated. First-line PI/r monotherapy is the best model to investigate in vivo if the presence of mutations in the cleavage sites (CS) of gag gene prior to any antiretroviral treatment might influence PI/r efficacy. 83 patients were assigned to initiate antiretroviral treatment with first-line lopinavir/r monotherapy in the randomised Monark trial. We compared baseline sequence of gag CS between patients harbouring B or non-B HIV-1 subtype, and between those who achieved viral suppression and those who experienced virological failure while on LPV/r monotherapy up to Week 96. Baseline sequence of gag CS was available for 82/83 isolates; 81/82 carried at least one substitution in gag CS compared to HXB2 sequence. At baseline, non-B subtype isolates were significantly more likely to harbour mutations in gag CS than B subtype isolates (p<0.0001). Twenty-three patients experienced virological failure while on lopinavir/r monotherapy. The presence of more than two substitutions in p2/NC site at baseline significantly predicted virological failure (p?=?0.0479), non-B subtype isolates being more likely to harbour more than two substitutions in this specific site. In conclusion, gag cleavage site was highly polymorphic in antiretroviral-naive patients harbouring a non-B HIV-1 strain. We show that pre-therapy mutations in gag cleavage site sequence were significantly associated with the virological outcome of a first-line LPV/r single drug regimen in the Monark trial.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:There is evidence that gag contributes to protease inhibitor susceptibility in treatment-experienced patients. Moreover, protease inhibitor resistance-associated mutations can arise in gag in the absence of protease mutations in vitro. We wished to assess the contribution of full-length Gag to protease inhibitor susceptibility in viruses unexposed to protease inhibitors, in particular from the most common HIV-1 subtypes, namely subtype A and C. DESIGN:We compared the drug resistance profiles of subtype A and C cognate gag-protease (from viruses not previously exposed to protease inhibitor) to protease combined with a generic subtype B gag as in routine phenotypic testing. METHODS:We amplified gag-protease sequences from plasma-derived virus or molecular clones, and used a single cycle transfection-based drug resistance assay to compare the fold changes in the concentration of drug required to inhibit 50% of viral replication of these viruses to a generic subtype B. We made a series of chimeras to explore phenotypes further. RESULTS:In some cases, use of protease sequences without the cognate gag overestimated susceptibility to protease inhibitors, in particular to lopinavir. We provide evidence that gag sequences from wild-type viruses can contribute as much as 14-fold reduction in susceptibility to lopinavir, and that cognate protease can balance this by partially restoring susceptibility. CONCLUSION:Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering protease inhibitor susceptibility in the context of full-length gag, particularly with respect to the range of HIV-1 subtypes circulating worldwide.
Project description:The amino acid at position 36 of the HIV-1 protease differs among various viral subtypes, in that methionine is usually found in subtype B viruses but isoleucine is common in other subtypes. This polymorphism is associated with higher rates of treatment failure involving protease inhibitors (PIs) in non-subtype B-infected patients. To investigate this, we generated genetically homogeneous wild-type viruses from subtype B, subtype C, and CRF02_AG full-length molecular clones and showed that subtype C and CRF02_AG I36 viruses exhibited higher levels of resistance to various PIs than their respective M36 counterparts, while the opposite was observed for subtype B viruses. Selections for resistance with each variant were performed with nelfinavir (NFV), lopinavir (LPV), and atazanavir (ATV). Sequence analysis of the protease gene at week 35 revealed that the major NFV resistance mutation D30N emerged in NFV-selected subtype B viruses and in I36 subtype C viruses, despite polymorphic variation. A unique mutational pattern developed in subtype C M36 viruses selected with NFV or ATV. The presence of I47A in LPV-selected I36 CRF02_AG virus conferred higher-level resistance than L76V in LPV-selected M36 CRF02_AG virus. Phenotypic analysis revealed a >1,000-fold increase in NFV resistance in I36 subtype C NFV-selected virus with no apparent impact on viral replication capacity. Thus, the position 36 polymorphism in the HIV-1 protease appears to have a differential effect on both drug susceptibility and the viral replication capacity, depending on both the viral subtype and the drug being evaluated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY:Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure. Drug resistance mutations (DRM) were identified in viruses from samples collected until 2011. We predicted drug susceptibility to 19 antiretrovirals among those carrying DRM using the Stanford's HIVdb Algorithm. RESULTS:A total of 199 (37.3%) of the 534 patients from the cohort were exposed to LPV/r during 2000-2014 in first (group 1), second (group 2) or more line-therapies (group 3). Patients were mainly Spaniards (81.9%), perinatally infected (96.5%) with subtype-B (65.3%) and HIV-diagnosed before year 2000 (67.8%). The mean age at first LPV/r exposure was 9.7 years. After protease-inhibitor exposure, viral suppression was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3. Viral suppression occurred in 87.5%, 68.6% and 64.8% patients from groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among the 64 patients with available resistance data during LPV/r treatment, 27(42.3%) carried DRM to protease-inhibitor, 28 (58.3%) to reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors and 21 (43.7%) to non-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors. Darunavir/ritonavir, atazanavir-ritonavir and tipranavir/ritonavir presented the highest susceptibility and nelfinavir the lowest. CONCLUSIONS:A better lymphocyte recovering occurred when protease-inhibitor was taken as part of a first-line regimen and a higher number of patients reached viral suppression. The least compromised antiretrovirals for rescue antiretroviral regimens, according to DRM in the LPV/r-exposed-paediatric cohort, were mainly the new protease inhibitors.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Major protease mutations are rarely observed following first-line failure with PIs and interpretation of genotyping results in this context may be difficult. We performed extensive phenotyping of viruses from five patients failing lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in the MONARK study without major PI mutations by standard genotyping.<h4>Methods</h4>Phenotypic susceptibility testing and viral infectivity assessments were performed using a single-cycle assay and fold changes (FC) relative to a lopinavir-susceptible reference strain were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>>10-fold reduced baseline susceptibility to lopinavir occurred in two of five patients and >5-fold in another two. Four of five patients exhibited phylogenetic evidence of a limited viral evolution between baseline and failure, with amino acid changes at drug resistance-associated positions in one: T81A emerged in Gag with M36I in the protease gene, correlating with a reduction in lopinavir susceptibility from FC 7 (95% CI 6-8.35) to FC 13 (95% CI 8.11-17.8). Reductions in darunavir susceptibility (>5 FC) occurred in three individuals.<h4>Discussion</h4>This study suggests both baseline reduced susceptibility and evolution of resistance could be contributing factors to PI failure, despite the absence of classical PI resistance mutations by standard testing methods. Use of phenotyping also reveals lower darunavir susceptibility, warranting further study as this agent is commonly used following lopinavir failure.
Project description:There are limited data from resource-limited settings on antiretroviral resistance mutations that develop in patients failing second-line PI ART.We performed a cross-sectional virological assessment of adults on second-line ART for ≥6 months between November 2006 and December 2011, followed by a prospective follow-up over 2 years of patients with virological failure (VF) at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Vietnam. VF was defined as HIV RNA concentrations ≥1000 copies/mL. Resistance mutations were identified by population sequencing of the pol gene and interpreted using the 2014 IAS-USA mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Logistic regression modelling was performed to identify predictors of VF.Two hundred and thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 32 years; 81.0% were male, 95.7% were on a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimen and 22 (9.5%) patients had VF. Of the patients with VF, 14 (64%) carried at least one major protease mutation [median: 2 (IQR: 1-3)]; 13 (59%) had multiple protease mutations conferring intermediate- to high-level resistance to lopinavir/ritonavir. Mutations conferring cross-resistance to etravirine, rilpivirine, tipranavir and darunavir were identified in 55%, 55%, 45% and 27% of patients, respectively. Higher viral load, adherence <95% and previous indinavir use were independent predictors of VF. The 2 year outcomes of the patients maintained on lopinavir/ritonavir included: death, 7 (35%); worsening virological/immunological control, 6 (30%); and virological re-suppression, 5 (25%). Two patients were switched to raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir with good HIV control.High-prevalence PI resistance was associated with previous indinavir exposure. Darunavir plus an integrase inhibitor and lamivudine might be a promising third-line regimen in Vietnam.
Project description:The gag gene is highly polymorphic across HIV-1 subtypes and contributes to susceptibility to protease inhibitors (PI), a critical class of antiretrovirals that will be used in up to 2 million individuals as second-line therapy in sub Saharan Africa by 2020. Given subtype C represents around half of all HIV-1 infections globally, we examined PI susceptibility in subtype C viruses from treatment-naïve individuals. PI susceptibility was measured in a single round infection assay of full-length, replication competent MJ4/gag chimeric viruses, encoding the gag gene and 142 nucleotides of pro derived from viruses in 20 patients in the Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project acute infection cohort. Ten-fold variation in susceptibility to PIs atazanavir and lopinavir was observed across 20 viruses, with EC50s ranging 0.71-6.95?nM for atazanvir and 0.64-8.54?nM for lopinavir. Ten amino acid residues in Gag correlated with lopinavir EC50 (p?<?0.01), of which 380?K and 389I showed modest impacts on in vitro drug susceptibility. Finally a significant relationship between drug susceptibility and replication capacity was observed for atazanavir and lopinavir but not darunavir. Our findings demonstrate large variation in susceptibility of PI-naïve subtype C viruses that appears to correlate with replication efficiency and could impact clinical outcomes.
Project description:Protease inhibitors (PIs) are used as a first-line regimen in HIV-1-infected children. Here we investigated the phenotypic consequences of amino acid changes in Gag and protease on lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) susceptibility among pediatric patients failing PI therapy. The Gag-protease from isolates from 20 HIV-1 subtype C-infected pediatric patients failing an LPV and/or RTV-based regimen was phenotyped using a nonreplicativein vitroassay. Changes in sensitivity to LPV and RTV relative to that of the matched baseline (pretherapy) sample were calculated. Gag and protease amino acid substitutions associated with PI failure were created in a reference clone by site-directed mutagenesis and assessed. Predicted phenotypes were determined using the Stanford drug resistance algorithm. Phenotypic resistance or reduced susceptibility to RTV and/or LPV was observed in isolates from 10 (50%) patients, all of whom had been treated with RTV. In most cases, this was associated with protease resistance mutations, but substitutions at Gag cleavage and noncleavage sites were also detected. Gag amino acid substitutions were also found in isolates from three patients with reduced drug susceptibilities who had wild-type protease. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that some amino acid changes in Gag contributed to PI resistance but only in the presence of major protease resistance-associated substitutions. The isolates from all patients who received LPV exclusively were phenotypically susceptible. Baseline isolates from the 20 patients showed a large (47-fold) range in the 50% effective concentration of LPV, which accounted for most of the discordance seen between the experimentally determined and the predicted phenotypes. Overall, the inclusion of thegaggene and the use of matched baseline samples provided a more comprehensive assessment of the effect of PI-induced amino acid changes on PI resistance. The lack of phenotypic resistance to LPV supports the continued use of this drug in pediatric patients.
Project description:No specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 is available after 6 months of COVID-19 worldwide outbreak Antivirals could decrease the viral load and reduce direct and indirect damages of SARSCoV-2 infection Ritonavir-bosted lopinavir is effective against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro Sequential virological and pharmacological monitoring helped to understand the efficacy of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in a SARS-CoV-2 infected patient Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir could be proposed as early treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection.