Effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on arterial blood pressure is context dependent.
ABSTRACT: Because the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors on blood pressure are controversial, we examined the long-term effects of sitagliptin (80 mg/kg per day) on blood pressure (radiotelemetry) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto rats, and Zucker Diabetic-Sprague Dawley rats (metabolic syndrome model). In SHR, chronic (3 weeks) sitagliptin significantly increased systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures by 10.3, 9.2, and 7.9 mm Hg, respectively, a response abolished by coadministration of BIBP3226 (2 mg/kg per day; selective Y1-receptor antagonist). Sitagliptin also significantly increased blood pressure in SHR treated with hydralazine (vasodilator; 25 mg/kg per day) or enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; 10 mg/kg per day). In Wistar-Kyoto rats, chronic sitagliptin slightly decreased systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures (-1.8, -1.1, and -0.4 mm Hg, respectively). In Zucker Diabetic-Sprague Dawley rats, chronic sitagliptin decreased systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressures by -7.7, -5.8, and -4.3 mm Hg, respectively, and did not alter the antihypertensive effects of chronic enalapril. Because DPP4 inhibitors impair the metabolism of neuropeptide Y1-36 (NPY1-36; Y1-receptor agonist) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1(7-36)NH2 (GLP-1 receptor agonist), we examined renovascular responses to NPY1-36 and GLP-1(7-36)NH2 in isolated perfused SHR and Zucker Diabetic-Sprague Dawley kidneys pretreated with norepinephrine (to induce basal tone). In Zucker Diabetic-Sprague Dawley kidneys, NPY1-36 and GLP-1(7-36)NH2 exerted little, if any, effect on renovascular tone. In contrast, in SHR kidneys, both NPY1-36 and GLP-1(7-36)NH2 elicited potent and efficacious vasoconstriction.(1) The effects of DPP4 inhibitors on blood pressure are context dependent; (2) The context-dependent effects of DPP4 inhibitors are due in part to differential renovascular responses to DPP4’s most important substrates (NPY1–36 and GLP-1(7–36)NH2) [corrected]; (3) Y1 receptor antagonists may prevent the prohypertensive and possibly augment the antihypertensive effects of DPP4 inhibitors.
Project description:Cardiac sympathetic nerves release neuropeptide Y (NPY)1-36, and peptide YY (PYY)1-36 is a circulating peptide; therefore, these PP-fold peptides could affect cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). We examined the effects of NPY1-36 and PYY1-36 on the proliferation of and collagen production ([(3)H]proline incorporation) by CFs isolated from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Experiments were performed with and without sitagliptin, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 [DPP4; an ectoenzyme that metabolizes NPY1-36 and PYY1-36 (Y1 receptor agonists) to NPY3-36 and PYY3-36 (inactive at Y1 receptors), respectively]. NPY1-36 and PYY1-36, but not NPY3-36 or PYY3-36, stimulated proliferation of CFs, and these effects were more potent than ANG II, enhanced by sitagliptin, blocked by BIBP3226 (Y1 receptor antagonist), and greater in SHR CFs. SHR CF membranes expressed more receptor for activated C kinase (RACK)1 [which scaffolds the Gi/phospholipase C (PLC)/PKC pathway] compared with WKY CF membranes. RACK1 knockdown (short hairpin RNA) and inhibition of Gi (pertussis toxin), PLC (U73122), and PKC (GF109203X) blocked the proliferative effects of NPY1-36. NPY1-36 and PYY1-36 stimulated collagen production more potently than did ANG II, and this was enhanced by sitagliptin and greater in SHR CFs. In conclusion, 1) NPY1-36 and PYY1-36, via the Y1 receptor/Gi/PLC/PKC pathway, activate CFs, and this pathway is enhanced in SHR CFs due to increased localization of RACK1 in membranes; and 2) DPP4 inhibition enhances the effects of NPY1-36 and PYY1-36 on CFs, likely by inhibiting the metabolism of NPY1-36 and PYY1-36. The implications are that endogenous NPY1-36 and PYY1-36 could adversely affect cardiac structure/function by activating CFs, and this may be exacerbated in genetic hypertension and by DPP4 inhibitors.
Project description:Context:Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors may increase the risk of heart failure. Decreased degradation of vasoactive peptides like substance P [also degraded by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)] and Y1 agonists peptide YY (PYY 1-36) and neuropeptide Y (NPY 1-36) could contribute. Objective:This study tested the hypothesis that there is an interactive effect of DPP4 inhibition and ACE inhibition (vs antihypertensive control subjects) on vasoactive peptides after a mixed meal. Participants and Design:Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension were randomized to double-blind treatment with ramipril, valsartan, or amlodipine for 15 weeks in parallel groups. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks, participants also received placebo + placebo, sitagliptin 100 mg/d + placebo, and sitagliptin + aprepitant 80 mg/d in random order. On the last day of each crossover treatment, participants underwent a mixed-meal study. Results:Sitagliptin increased postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 and decreased glucose in all antihypertensive groups. Sitagliptin increased NPY 1-36 and decreased Y2 agonists NPY 3-36 and PYY 3-36 in all groups. During ramipril or valsartan, but not amlodipine, sitagliptin increased postprandial norepinephrine; substance P receptor blockade with aprepitant prevented this effect. Despite increased norepinephrine, sitagliptin decreased postprandial blood pressure during ACE inhibition. Conclusion:DPP4 inhibition increases postprandial concentrations of the Y1 agonist NPY 1-36. During treatment with an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, DPP4 inhibition increased postprandial norepinephrine through a substance P receptor-dependent mechanism. Increased NPY 1-36 and norepinephrine could increase risk of heart failure but did not result in higher postprandial blood pressure.
Project description:Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (GLP-1) is cleaved by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to GLP-1 (9-36)amide. We examined whether chemical inhibition or genetic elimination of DPP-4 activity affects cardiovascular function in normoglycemic and diabetic mice after experimental myocardial infarction.Cardiac structure and function was assessed by hemodynamic monitoring and echocardiography in DPP-4 knockout (Dpp4(-/-)) mice versus wild-type (Dpp4(+/+)) littermate controls and after left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Effects of sustained DPP-4 inhibition with sitagliptin versus treatment with metformin were ascertained after experimental MI in a high-fat diet-streptozotocin model of murine diabetes. Functional recovery from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury was measured in isolated hearts from Dpp4(-/-) versus Dpp4(+/+) littermates and from normoglycemic wild-type (WT) mice treated with sitagliptin or metformin. Cardioprotective signaling in the murine heart was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses.Dpp4(-/-) mice exhibited normal indexes of cardiac structure and function. Survival post-MI was modestly improved in normoglycemic Dpp4(-/-) mice. Increased cardiac expression of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), pGSK3beta, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was detected in the nonischemic Dpp4(-/-) heart, and HO-1, ANP, and pGSK3beta proteins were induced in nonischemic hearts from diabetic mice treated with sitagliptin or metformin. Sitagliptin and metformin treatment of wild-type diabetic mice reduced mortality after myocardial infarction. Sitagliptin improved functional recovery after I/R injury ex vivo in WT mice with similar protection from I/R injury also manifest in hearts from Dpp4(-/-) versus Dpp4(+/+) mice.Genetic disruption or chemical inhibition of DPP-4 does not impair cardiovascular function in the normoglycemic or diabetic mouse heart.
Project description:Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus by preventing the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 causes vasodilation in animal models but also increases sympathetic activity; the effect of GLP-1 in the human vasculature and how it is altered by DPP4 inhibition is not known. DPP4 also degrades the vasodilator brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to a less potent metabolite. This study tested the hypothesis that DPP4 inhibition potentiates the vasodilator responses to GLP-1 and BNP in the human forearm.Seventeen healthy subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. On each study day, subjects received DPP4 inhibitor (sitagliptin 200 mg by mouth) or placebo. Sitagliptin increased forearm blood flow and decreased forearm vascular resistance without affecting mean arterial pressure and pulse. GLP-1 and BNP were infused in incremental doses via brachial artery. Venous GLP-1 concentrations were significantly higher during sitagliptin use, yet there was no effect of GLP-1 on forearm blood flow in the presence or absence of sitagliptin. BNP caused dose-dependent vasodilation; however, sitagliptin did not affect this response. GLP-1 and BNP had no effect on net norepinephrine release.These data suggest that GLP-1 does not act as a direct vasodilator in humans and does not contribute to sympathetic activation. Sitagliptin does not regulate vascular function in healthy humans by affecting the degradation of GLP-1 and BNP.www.clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier: NCT01413542.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are important target enzymes in glycemic control and renovascular protection. Here, we studied the effect of NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with DPP4- and ACE-inhibitory activity, on renovascular damage in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Comparisons were made to rats treated with vildagliptin (VIL), included as a positive control for the effect of DPP4 inhibition. METHODS: ZDF rats received NWT-03 (1 g/kg/day) or VIL (3 mg/kg/day) from 10 to 25 weeks of age. Metabolic and renal functions were assessed; the kidney was removed for histological analysis of glomerulosclerosis and expression of pro-inflammatory/fibrotic markers (RT-PCR and Western blotting); and the aorta was removed for studies of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR). FINDINGS: Hyperinsulinemic ZDF rats typically developed signs of type-2 diabetes and renovascular damage, as evidenced by albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and impaired EDR. Neither NWT-03 nor VIL improved metabolic parameters; for VIL, this was despite a 5-fold increase in glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 levels. NWT-03 and VIL both reduced renal interleukin (Il)-1?/Il-13 mRNA expression and glomerulosclerosis. However, only NWT-03 additionally decreased renal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? mRNA and P22(phox) protein expression, reduced albuminuria, and restored aortic EDR. Indomethacin added to the organ bath instantly improved aortic EDR, indicating a role for cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived contractile prostanoids in opposing relaxation in ZDF rats. This indomethacin effect was reduced by NWT-03, but not by VIL, and coincided with decreased renal COX-1/2 protein expression. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION: Long-term supplementation with the egg protein hydrolysate NWT-03 attenuated renovascular damage in this preclinical rat model of type 2 diabetes. A comparison to the DPP4-inhibitor VIL suggests that the effects of NWT-03 were related to both ACE- and DPP4-inhibitory properties. The development of protein hydrolysates with a multiple-targeting strategy may be of benefit to functional food formulations.
Project description:DPP (dipeptidyl peptidase)-4 inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that may increase heart failure in high-risk patients. NPY (neuropeptide Y) is coreleased with norepinephrine, causes vasoconstriction via the Y1 receptor, and is degraded by DPP4 to NPY (3-36) in vitro. NPY (3-36) decreases release of norepinephrine via the Y2 receptor. We tested the hypothesis that DPP4 inhibition would potentiate the vasoconstrictor effect of NPY. Eighteen nonsmokers (12 healthy controls and 6 with type 2 diabetes mellitus) participated in 1 of 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies. First, subjects were randomized to order of treatment with sitagliptin 100 mg/d versus placebo for 7 days separated by 4-week washout. On the last day of treatment, NPY was infused by brachial artery and forearm blood flow was measured using plethysmography. Blood samples were collected after each dose. NPY infusions were repeated after 90-minute washout and intra-arterial enalaprilat. Second, 5 healthy subjects were randomized to crossover treatment with sitagliptin 100 mg/d plus valsartan 160 mg/d versus placebo plus valsartan. NPY infusions were performed on the seventh day of treatment. NPY caused dose-dependent vasoconstriction. During enalaprilat, sitagliptin significantly potentiated NPY-induced vasoconstriction in controls and diabetics ( P?0.02 for forearm blood flow in either group). Baseline norepinephrine release was increased during sitagliptin and enalaprilat, but not further by NPY. Sitagliptin increased the ratio of NPY to NPY (3-36). During valsartan, sitagliptin also significantly potentiated NPY-induced vasoconstriction ( P=0.009 for forearm blood flow). Potentiation of endogenous NPY could contribute to cardiovascular effects of DPP4 inhibitors in patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker.
Project description:The novel polysaccharide (NPS) PolyGlycopleX (PGX) has been shown to reduce glycemia. Pharmacological treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor, also reduces glycemia by increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our objective was to determine if using NPS in combination with sitagliptin reduces hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats more so than either treatment alone. Male ZDF rats were randomized to: 1) cellulose/vehicle [control (C)]; 2) NPS (5% wt:wt)/vehicle (NPS); 3) cellulose/sitagliptin [10 mg/(kg · d) (S)]; or 4) NPS (5%) + S [10 mg/(kg · d) (NPS+S)]. Glucose tolerance, adiposity, satiety hormones, and mechanisms related to DPP4 activity and hepatic and pancreatic histology were examined. A clinically relevant reduction in hyperglycemia occurred in the rats treated with NPS+S (P = 0.001) compared with NPS and S alone. Blood glucose, measured weekly in fed and feed-deprived rats and during an oral glucose tolerance test, was lower in the NPS+S group compared with all other groups (all P = 0.001). At wk 6, glycated hemoglobin was lower in the NPS+S group than in the C and S (P = 0.001) and NPS (P = 0.06) groups. PGX (P = 0.001) and S (P = 0.014) contributed to increased lean mass. Active GLP-1 was increased by S (P = 0.001) and GIP was increased by NPS (P = 0.001). Plasma DPP4 activity was lower in the NPS+S and S groups than in the NPS and C groups (P = 0.007). Insulin secretion and ?-cell mass was increased with NPS (P < 0.05). NPS alone reduced LDL cholesterol and hepatic steatosis (P < 0.01). Independently, NPS and S improve several metabolic outcomes in ZDF rats, but combined, their ability to markedly reduce glycemia suggests they may be a promising dietary/pharmacological co-therapy for type 2 diabetes management.
Project description:Although uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) negatively regulates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and protects vascular function, its participation in vascular benefits of drugs used to treat cardiometabolic diseases is largely unknown. This study investigated whether UCP2 and associated oxidative stress reduction contribute to the improvement of endothelial function by a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, in hypertension.Pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) but not COX-1 prevented endothelial dysfunction, and ROS scavengers reduced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) renal arteries. Angiotensin II (Ang II) evoked endothelium-dependent contractions (EDCs) in C57BL/6 and UCP2 knockout (UCP2KO) mouse aortae. Chronic sitagliptin administration attenuated EDCs in SHR arteries and Ang II-infused C57BL/6 mouse aortae and eliminated ROS overproduction in SHR arteries, which were reversed by glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist exendin 9-39, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)? inhibitor compound C, and UCP2 inhibitor genipin. By contrast, sitagliptin unaffected EDCs in Ang II-infused UCP2KO mice. Sitagliptin increased AMPK? phosphorylation, upregulated UCP2, and downregulated COX-2 expression in arteries from SHR and Ang II-infused C57BL/6 mice. Importantly, exendin 9-39, compound C, and genipin reversed the inhibitory effect of GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 on Ang II-stimulated mitochondrial ROS rises in SHR endothelial cells. Moreover, exendin-4 improved the endothelial function of renal arteries from SHR and hypertensive patients.We elucidate for the first time that UCP2 serves as an important signal molecule in endothelial protection conferred by GLP-1-related agents. UCP2 could be a useful target in treating hypertension-related vascular events.UCP2 inhibits oxidative stress and downregulates COX-2 expression through GLP-1/GLP-1R/AMPK? cascade.
Project description:Abstract BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) functions to increase insulin production in a glucose-dependent manner. Endogenous GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), and GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4Is) are now used in the treatment of diabetes. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed widely, encoded for by GLP1R. The GLP1R variant rs6923761 (Gly168Ser) has been associated with increased weight loss in response to GLP-1 agonist therapy in some studies. This study tested the hypothesis that this variant would be associated with responsiveness to endogenous GLP-1 during DPP4I therapy. METHODS: Forty-seven subjects with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to one-week crossover therapy with placebo and the DPP4I sitagliptin (100 mg/d), and underwent a mixed meal study. Subjects were excluded for type 1 diabetes, poorly controlled diabetes with Hgb A1c ?8.7%, use of an anti-diabetic medication other than metformin for last 12 months, or presence of secondary hypertension. RESULTS: Post-prandial GLP-1 levels were increased during sitagliptin (AUC 11413, 95% CI [7113, 15712]) as compared with placebo treatment (AUC 5101, 95% CI [2254, 7949], p<0.05), and did not significantly differ by genotype. Peak post-prandial glucose was significantly higher in placebo as compared with sitagliptin treatment (146.6 +/- 35.8 mg/dL versus 133.0 +/- 26.5 mg/dL, respectively; t=90 minutes, p<0.01). Subjects with one or two copies of the wild-type allele (Gly/Gly or Gly/Ser) had increased post-prandial glucose excursion as compared with Ser/Ser subjects, in both the placebo and sitagliptin treatments (plasma glucose at 90 minutes: placebo Gly/- 150.1 +/- 38.0 mg/dL vs Ser/Ser 132.6 +/- 13.7 mg/dL, p<0.05; sitagliptin Gly/- 135.8 +/- 27.3 mg/dL vs Ser/Ser 117.4 +/- 14.7 mg/dL, p<0.05). Post-prandial insulin levels were not different in the placebo versus sitagliptin treatments (AUC 13264, 95% CI [9296,17232] vs 11996, 95% CI [8278, 15714], respectively), but there was a genotype by drug treatment interaction (p<0.05) such that Ser/Ser subjects had higher post-prandial insulin in the placebo treatment as compared with other genotypes. This difference was eliminated with sitagliptin therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Homozygosity for the Ser variant of GLP1R is associated with decreased glucose after a mixed meal without altering the effect of sitagliptin on post prandial GLP-1 concentrations. Further studies are needed to assess whether this variant confers increased sensitivity at the GLP-1R and whether it affects the long-term response to DPP4I.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glucose tolerance by still incompletely understood mechanisms. Each class of antihyperglycemic drugs has also been proposed to increase pancreatitis risk. Here, we compare systematically the effects of two widely-used GLP-1 analogues, liraglutide and exendin-4, and the DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, in the mouse.<h4>Methods</h4>C57BL6 mice were maintained for 131 days on a normal diet (ND) or a diet comprising 60% fat (HFD) before measurements of fasting blood glucose and insulin, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. Beta- and alpha- cell volume, and Reg3b immunoreactivity, were measured by immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic slices.<h4>Results</h4>Whereas liraglutide (200 µg/kg) and exendin-4 (10 µg/kg) treatment reduced body weight and/or improved glucose tolerance, sitagliptin (10 mg/kg) was without effect on either parameter. Liraglutide caused a sharp reduction in beta-cell mass in both ND and HFD mice, whereas exendin-4 exerted no effect. By contrast, sitagliptin unmasked an action of high fat diet to increase beta-cell mass. Reg3B positive area was augmented by all three agents in normal chow-fed mice, whilst sitagliptin and exendin-4, but not liraglutide, affected this parameter in HFD animals. Correspondingly sitagliptin, but not the GLP-1 analogues, increased circulating amylase levels in ND and HFD mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Liraglutide improves glucose tolerance in the mouse whilst exerting relatively modest effects on pancreatitis risk. Conversely, exendin-4 and sitagliptin, at doses which exert, respectively, minor or no effects on metabolic parameters, lead to signs of pancreatitis.