A genetic variant in 12q13, a possible risk factor for bipolar disorder, is associated with depressive state, accounting for stressful life events.
ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of susceptibility genes for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the identification of risk genes for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been unsuccessful because the etiology of MDD is more influenced by environmental factors; thus, gene-environment (G × E) interactions are important, such as interplay with stressful life events (SLEs). We assessed the G×E interactions and main effects of genes targeting depressive symptoms. Using a case-control design, 922 hospital staff members were evaluated for depressive symptoms according to Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI; "depression" and "control" groups were classified by scores of 10 in the BDI test), SLEs, and personality. A total of sixty-three genetic variants were selected on the basis of previous GWASs of MDD, SCZ, and BD as well as candidate-gene (SLC6A4, BDNF, DBH, and FKBP5) studies. Logistic regression analysis revealed a marginally significant interaction (genetic variant × SLE) at rs4523957 (P uncorrected = 0.0034) with depression and a significant association of single nucleotide polymorphism identified from evidence of BD GWAS (rs7296288, downstream of DHH at 12q13.1) with depression as the main effect (P uncorrected = 9.4 × 10(-4), P corrected = 0.0424). We also found that SLEs had a larger impact on depression (odds ratio ? 3), as reported previously. These results suggest that DHH plays a possible role in depression etiology; however, variants from MDD or SCZ GWAS evidence or candidate genes showed no significant associations or minimal effects of interactions with SLEs on depression.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified >100 susceptibility loci for schizophrenia (SCZ) and demonstrated that SCZ is a polygenic disorder determined by numerous genetic variants but with small effect size. We conducted a GWAS in the Japanese (JPN) population (a) to detect novel SCZ-susceptibility genes and (b) to examine the shared genetic risk of SCZ across (East Asian [EAS] and European [EUR]) populations and/or that of trans-diseases (SCZ, bipolar disorder [BD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]) within EAS and between EAS and EUR (trans-diseases/populations). Among the discovery GWAS subjects (JPN-SCZ GWAS: 1940 SCZ cases and 7408 controls) and replication dataset (4071 SCZ cases and 54479 controls), both comprising JPN populations, 3 novel susceptibility loci for SCZ were identified: SPHKAP (Pbest = 4.1 × 10-10), SLC38A3 (Pbest = 5.7 × 10-10), and CABP1-ACADS (Pbest = 9.8 × 10-9). Subsequent meta-analysis between our samples and those of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC; EUR samples) and another study detected 12 additional susceptibility loci. Polygenic risk score (PRS) prediction revealed a shared genetic risk of SCZ across populations (Pbest = 4.0 × 10-11) and between SCZ and BD in the JPN population (P ~ 10-40); however, a lower variance-explained was noted between JPN-SCZ GWAS and PGC-BD or MDD within/across populations. Genetic correlation analysis supported the PRS results; the genetic correlation between JPN-SCZ and PGC-SCZ was ? = 0.58, whereas a similar/lower correlation was observed between the trans-diseases (JPN-SCZ vs JPN-BD/EAS-MDD, rg = 0.56/0.29) or trans-diseases/populations (JPN-SCZ vs PGC-BD/MDD, ? = 0.38/0.12). In conclusion, (a) Fifteen novel loci are possible susceptibility genes for SCZ and (b) SCZ "risk" effect is shared with other psychiatric disorders even across populations.
Project description:<b>Aim: </b>to investigate the diagnostic value of circulating miR-134 in major depressive disorder (MDD). Plasma miR-134 levels were determined in patients with MDD, bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SCZ), as well as in healthy controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The diagnostic value of circulating miR-134 was assessed using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model was established to evaluate the miR-134 expression pattern in serum and diseased brain tissues. Plasma miR-134 levels in MDD patients were significantly lower than those in healthy controls and patients with BD or SCZ. In addition, plasma miR-134 levels could be used to discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls (areas under the curve (AUC) = 0.901), healthy controls + patients with BD or SCZ (AUC = 0.864), patients with SCZ (AUC = 0.856), patients with SCZ or BD (AUC = 0.828), and patients with BD (AUC = 0.799), respectively. In CUMS rats, the miR-134 levels in plasma (P < 0.001), prefrontal cortex (P = 0.031), and hippocampus (P = 0.006) were consistently reduced compared with those in control group, with the exception of those in olfactory bulb (P = 0.565). Circulating miR-134 a potential biomarker for MDD diagnosis and monitoring.
Project description:Objectives: Schizophrenia (SZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BD) are serious mental disorders with distinct diagnostic criteria. They share common clinical and biological features. However, there are still only few studies on the common and specific brain imaging changes associated with the three mental disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the common and specific functional activity and connectivity changes in SZ, MDD, and BD. Methods: A total of 271 individuals underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging: SZ (n = 64), MDD (n = 73), BD (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 93). The symptoms of SZ patients were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate the symptoms of MDD patients. The BDI, BAI, and Young Mania Rating Scale were used to evaluate the symptoms of MDD and BD patients. In addition, we compared the fALFF and functional connectivity between the three mental disorders and healthy controls using two sample t-tests. Results: Significantly decreased functional activity was found in the right superior frontal gyrus, middle cingulate gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and decreased functional connectivity (FC) of the insula was found in SZ, MDD, and BD. Specific fALFF changes, mainly in the ventral lateral pre-frontal cortex, striatum, and thalamus were found for SZ, in the left motor cortex and parietal lobe for MDD, and the dorsal lateral pre-frontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex in BD. Conclusion: Our findings of common abnormalities in SZ, MDD, and BD provide evidence that salience network abnormality may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of these three mental disorders. Meanwhile, our findings also indicate that specific alterations in SZ, MDD, and BD provide neuroimaging evidence for the differential diagnosis of the three mental disorders.
Project description:Previous studies suggest that the relationship between genetic risk and depression may be moderated by stressful life events (SLEs). The goal of this study was to assess whether SLEs moderate the association between polygenic risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms in older adults.We used logistic and negative binomial regressions to assess the associations between polygenic risk, SLEs and depressive symptoms in a sample of 8761 participants from the Health and Retirement Study. Polygenic scores were derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association study of MDD. SLEs were operationalized as a dichotomous variable indicating whether participants had experienced at least one stressful event during the previous 2 years. Depressive symptoms were measured using an eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale subscale and operationalized as both a dichotomous and a count variable.The odds of reporting four or more depressive symptoms were over twice as high among individuals who experienced at least one SLE (odds ratio 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.86-2.58). Polygenic scores were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (? = 0.21, p ? 0.0001), although the variance explained was modest (pseudo r 2 = 0.0095). None of the interaction terms for polygenic scores and SLEs was statistically significant.Polygenic risk and SLEs are robust, independent predictors of depressive symptoms in older adults. Consistent with an additive model, we found no evidence that SLEs moderated the association between common variant polygenic risk and depressive symptoms.
Project description:Brain network alterations have increasingly been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the similarities and differences in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. A total of 512 participants (121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls, matched for age and sex) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at a single site. Four global measures (the clustering coefficient, the characteristic shortest path length, the normalized clustering coefficient, and the normalized characteristic path length) were computed at a voxel level to quantify segregated and integrated configurations. Inter-regional functional associations were examined based on the Euclidean distance between regions. Distance strength maps were used to localize regions with altered distances based on functional connectivity. Patient groups exhibited shifts in their network architectures toward randomized configurations, with SCZ>BD>MDD in the degree of randomization. Patient groups displayed significantly decreased short-range connectivity and increased medium-/long-range connectivity. Decreases in short-range connectivity were similar across the SZ, BD, and MDD groups and were primarily distributed in the primary sensory and association cortices and the thalamus. Increases in medium-/long-range connectivity were differentially localized within the prefrontal cortices among the patient groups. We highlight shared and distinct connectivity features in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD, which expands our understanding of the common and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms and provides crucial insights into neuroimaging-based methods for the early diagnosis of and interventions for psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) usually have high risk of suicidality. Few studies have investigated the effects of stressful life events (SLEs) on the risk of suicide in Chinese patients who have developed MDD. This study aimed to investigate the impact of SLEs on suicidal risk in Chinese patients with MDD.In total, 1029 patients with MDD were included from nine psychiatric hospitals to evaluate the impact of SLEs on suicidal risk. Patients fulfilling the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) criteria for MDD were included in the study. Patients were excluded if they had lifetime or current diagnoses of psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, and alcohol or substance dependence. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17). The suicidal risk of MDD patients was determined by the suicide risk module of MINI. SLEs were assessed by the Life Events Scale.No gender difference was found for suicidal risk in MDD patients. Patients with suicidal risk had younger ages, lower education levels, more drinking behavior, and lower marriage rate, and fewer people had child and more severe depressive symptoms than nonsuicidal risk group. High-level perceived stressfulness (HPS) and number of SLEs that patients were exposed to were significantly greater in patients with suicidal risk than patients without. In multivariate logistic analysis, HPS of SLEs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.05, P = 0.003) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05-1.11, P < 0.001) were associated with suicidal risk even after adjustment of gender, age, marriage, drinking behavior, and childless.HPS of SLEs is associated with suicide risk in Chinese patients with MDD. Further suicide prevention programs targeting this risk factor are needed.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02023567; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02023567?term=NCT02023567&rank=1.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are heritable psychiatric disorders with partially overlapping genetic liability. Shared and disorder-specific neurobiological abnormalities associated with familial risk for developing mental illnesses are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of structural brain imaging studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD to identify overlapping and discrete brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental disorders. Search for voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD in PubMed and Embase identified 33 studies with 2292 relatives and 2052 healthy controls (HC). Seed-based d Mapping software was used to investigate global differences in gray matter volumes between relatives as a group versus HC, and between those of each psychiatric disorder and HC. As a group, relatives exhibited gray matter abnormalities in left supramarginal gyrus, right striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral insula, right cerebellum, and right superior frontal gyrus, compared with HC. Decreased right cerebellar gray matter was the only abnormality common to relatives of all three conditions. Subgroup analyses showed disorder-specific gray matter abnormalities in left thalamus and bilateral insula associated with risk for SCZ, in left supramarginal gyrus and right frontal regions with risk for BD, and in right striatum with risk for MDD. While decreased gray matter in right cerebellum might be a common brain structural abnormality associated with shared risk for SCZ, BD, and MDD, regional gray matter abnormalities in neocortex, thalamus, and striatum appear to be disorder-specific.
Project description:Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) arise from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Common genetic variants associated with multiple psychiatric disorders suggest that shared genetic architecture could contribute to divergent clinical syndromes. To evaluate shared transcriptional alterations across connected brain regions, Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), hippocampus, and associative striatum from 19 well-matched tetrads of subjects with SCZ, BD, MDD, or unaffected controls. SCZ subjects showed a substantial burden of differentially expressed genes across all examined brain regions with the greatest effects in hippocampus, whereas BD and MDD showed less robust alterations. Pathway analysis of transcriptional profiles compared across diagnoses demonstrated commonly enriched pathways between all three disorders in hippocampus, significant overlap between SCZ and BD in DLPFC, but no significant overlap of enriched pathways between disorders in striatum. SCZ samples showed increased expression of transcripts associated with inflammation across all brain regions examined, which was not evident in BD or MDD, or in rat brain following chronic dosing with antipsychotic drugs. Several markers of inflammation were confirmed by RT-PCR in hippocampus, including S100A8/9, IL-6, MAFF, APOLD1, IFITM3, and BAG3. A cytokine ELISA panel showed significant increases in IL-2 and IL-12p70 protein content in hippocampal tissue collected from same SCZ subjects when compared to matched control subjects. These data suggest an overlapping subset of dysregulated pathways across psychiatric disorders; however, a widespread increase in inflammation appears to be a specific feature of the SCZ brain and is not likely to be attributable to chronic antipsychotic drug treatment.
Project description:Altered connectivity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus during working memory is considered an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia (SCZ), but the relevance for other mental disorders with shared genetic background remains unknown. Here we investigated its presence in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). Furthermore, we aimed to provide an independent replication of this phenotype in first-degree relatives of SCZ patients. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 309 healthy controls and 218 healthy first-degree relatives of index patients with SCZ (n = 62), BD (n = 66) and MDD (n = 90), who completed the n-back working memory paradigm. We observed a significant group effect on DLPFC-hippocampus coupling (PFWE = .031, all P-values region of interest [ROI] corrected). Post hoc comparisons revealed that this effect was driven by the SCZ relatives, who showed a significant increase in the negative functional connectivity of the DLPFC and right hippocampus compared to controls (PFWE = .001), BD relatives (PFWE = .015) and trend-wise also MDD relatives (PFWE = .082). Comparison of BD and MDD relatives to the controls revealed no difference (PFWE-values > .451). Supplementary analyses suggested that the SCZ relatives finding is robust to a range of potential confounds, including structural differences. Our data further support altered DLPFC-hippocampus connectivity during working memory as an intermediate phenotype for SCZ. This suggests that this phenotype is relatively specific to SCZ and does not translate to other genetically related disorders in the mood-psychosis spectrum.
Project description:Psychiatric disorder, including bipolar disorder (BD), major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ), affects millions of persons around the world. Understanding the disease causal mechanism underlying the three diseases and identifying the modifiable risk factors for them hold the key for the development of effective preventative and treatment strategies. We used a two-sample Mendelian randomization method to assess the causal effect of insomnia on the risk of BD, MDD, and SCZ in a European population. We collected one dataset of insomnia, three of BD, one of MDD, and three of SCZ and performed a meta-analysis for each trait, further verifying the analysis through extensive complementarity and sensitivity analysis. Among the three psychiatric disorders, we found that only insomnia is causally associated with MDD and that higher insomnia increases the risk of MDD. Specifically, the odds ratio of MDD increase of insomnia is estimated to be 1.408 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.210–1.640, p = 1.03E-05] in the European population. The identified causal relationship between insomnia and MDD is robust with respect to the choice of statistical methods and is validated through extensive sensitivity analyses that guard against various model assumption violations. Our results provide new evidence to support the causal effect of insomnia on MDD and pave ways for reducing the psychiatric disorder burden.