Safety and Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Children at High Risk of Serious Disease Due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: A Systematic Review.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the leading cause of infant mortality globally in post-neonatal infants (i.e., 28-364 days of age). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly identified pathogen for infant LRTI and is the second most important cause of death in post-neonatal infants. Despite 50 years of RSV vaccine research, there is still no approved vaccine. Therefore, passive immunity with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab is the sole regulatory-approved option for the prevention of serious LRTI caused by RSV in pediatric patients at high risk of RSV disease. METHODS:We conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), open-label non-comparative clinical trials, and prospective observational studies/registries, and summarized the evidence related to the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of palivizumab. RESULTS:The efficacy of palivizumab, as measured by the relative reduction in RSV-related hospitalization rate compared with placebo ranged from 39% to 78% (P < 0.05) in the 2 pivotal RCTs. A meta-analysis of the RSV-related hospitalization rate from 5 randomized placebo-controlled trials yielded an overall odds ratio of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.31-0.55) in favor of palivizumab prophylaxis over placebo (P < 0.00001). Low rates of RSV-related hospitalizations were observed in palivizumab recipients consistently over time in more than 42,000 pediatric subjects across 7 RCTs, 4 open-label non-comparative trials, and 8 observational studies/registries conducted in 34 countries. In addition, among palivizumab-prophylaxed subjects with breakthrough RSV LRTI, rates of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation from RSV hospitalization also were low and consistent across studies. With respect to safety, no differences were observed between palivizumab and placebo in the blinded RCTs. CONCLUSION:Rates of RSV hospitalizations and RSV hospitalization-related endpoints in pediatric subjects who received prophylaxis with palivizumab were low and constant over time and across RCTs, open-label non-comparative trials, and observational studies/registries.
Project description:Analysis of transcriptional profiles in whole blood from children < 2 years of age (and healthy matched controls) with RSV, rhinovirus and influenza infection. The hypothesis tested is that transcriptional profile heterogeneity will reflect patient clinical heterogeneity and that RSV infection induces a distinct host response compared with influenza and rhinovirus infection Total RNA extracted from whole blood (lysed in Tempus tubes) drawn from individual pediatric patients with acute RSV, influenza and Rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infection. A total of 241 samples are analyzed: 135 with acute RSV LRTI, 30 with Rhinovirus LRTI, 16 with influenza LRTI, 39 age-sex matched healthy controls and 21 samples obtained one month after the acute hospitalization in children with RSV. Samples GSM1226237-GSM1226272, which were hybridized to Platform GPL10558, were normalized separately from the other Samples in this Series, which were hybridized to Platform GPL6884. 'GSE38900_non-normalized_GSM1226237-GSM1226272.txt.gz' includes the non-normalized data for Samples GSM1226237-GSM1226272; 'GSE38900_non-normalized.txt.gz' includes the non-normalized data for the other Samples.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Infants born at 33-35 completed weeks' gestational age (wGA) aged <6 months at the start of or born during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season and classified as moderate/high risk of severe RSV disease were included in a palivizumab RSV prophylaxis program in the province of Quebec, Canada, until 2014-2015. We assessed the impact of withdrawal of this indication on lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)/RSV hospitalizations (H) in this population.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a 4-year, retrospective, cohort study in 25 Quebec hospitals (2 seasons with and 2 without palivizumab prophylaxis for moderate- to high-risk infants). Our primary outcome was LRTI/RSV-H incidence. We compared LRTI/RSV-H incidence before (2013-2015; seasons 1 + 2 [S1/2]) and after (2015-2017; S3/4) the change in indication.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 6457 33-35 wGA births. LRTI/RSV-H occurred in 105/3353 infants (3.13%) in S1/2 and 130/3104 (4.19%) in S3/4. Among LRTI/RSV-H, 86.4% were laboratory-confirmed RSV-H. Adjusting for sex, wGA, and birth month, S3/4 was significantly associated with increased LRTI/RSV-H incidence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.76) but not with laboratory-confirmed RSV-H (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.90-1.58). Mean duration of LRTI/RSV-H was 5.6 days; 22.6% required intensive care unit admission. Comparing S3/4 with S1/2, infant percentage with LRTI/RSV-H classified as moderate/high risk increased from 27.8% to 41.9% (P = .11).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a province-wide study, we observed a significant increase in LRTI/RSV-H incidence among infants born at 33-35 wGA in the 2 years after withdrawal of RSV prophylaxis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2015, the Quebec Ministry of Health limited palivizumab prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in premature infants to those born at <33 weeks gestational age (wGA), unless other indications were present. We compared RSV-related costs for 2 seasons before the change (2013-2014, 2014-2015) and 2 seasons after (2015-2016, 2016-2017) in premature infants 33-35 wGA. METHODS:Using payer and societal perspectives, costs associated with hospitalizations for RSV and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants born at 33-35 wGA were estimated. Inputs were from a 2013-2017 retrospective cohort study in 25 Quebec hospitals of RSV/LRTI hospitalizations among infants <6 months old at the start of, or born during, the RSV season. Resource utilization data (hospital stay, procedures, visits,