Leishmania braziliensis replication protein A subunit 1: molecular modelling, protein expression and analysis of its affinity for both DNA and RNA.
ABSTRACT: Replication factor A (RPA) is a single-strand DNA binding protein involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair processes. It is composed by the subunits RPA-1, RPA-2 and RPA-3; the major DNA-binding activity resides in the subunit 1 of the heterotrimeric RPA complex. In yeast and higher eukaryotes, besides the three basic structural DNA-binding domains, the RPA-1 subunit contains an N-terminal region involved in protein-protein interactions with a fourth DNA-binding domain. Remarkably, the N-terminal extension is absent in the RPA-1 of the pathogenic protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; however, the protein maintains its ability to bind ssDNA. In a recent work, we identify Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis RPA-1 by its specific binding to the untranslated regions of the HSP70 mRNAs, suggesting that this protein might be also an RNA-binding protein.Both rLbRPA-1 purified by His-tag affinity chromatography as well as the in vitro transcribed L. braziliensis 3' HSP70-II UTR were used to perform pull down assays to asses nucleic acid binding properties. Also, homology modeling was carried out to construct the LbRPA-1 tridimensional structure to search relevant amino acid residues to bind nucleic acids.In this work, after obtaining the recombinant L. braziliensis RPA-1 protein under native conditions, competitive and non-competitive pull-down assays confirmed the single-stranded DNA binding activity of this protein and demonstrated its interaction with the 3' UTR from the HSP70-II mRNA. As expected, this protein exhibits a high affinity for ssDNA, but we have found that RPA-1 interacts also with RNA. Additionally, we carried out a structural analysis of L. braziliensis RPA-1 protein using the X-ray diffraction structure of Ustilago maydis homologous protein as a template. Our results indicate that, in spite of the evolutionary divergence between both organisms, the structure of these two RPA-1 proteins seems to be highly conserved.The LbRPA-1 protein is a ssDNA binding protein, but also it shows affinity in vitro for the HSP70 mRNA; this finding supports a possible in vivo role in the HSP70 mRNA metabolism. On the other hand, the three dimensional model of Leishmania RPA-1 serves as a starting point for both functional analysis and its exploration as a chemotherapeutic target to combat leishmaniasis.
Project description:Cell division cycle protein 45 (Cdc45) is an essential component of the eukaryotic replicative DNA helicase. We found that human Cdc45 forms a complex with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein RPA. Moreover, it actively loads RPA onto nascent ssDNA. Pull-down assays and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that Cdc45-bound RPA complexed with ssDNA in the 8-10 nucleotide binding mode, but dissociated when RPA covered a 30-mer. Real-time analysis of RPA-ssDNA binding demonstrated that Cdc45 catalytically loaded RPA onto ssDNA. This placement reaction required physical contacts of Cdc45 with the RPA70A subdomain. Our results imply that Cdc45 controlled stabilization of the 8-nt RPA binding mode, the subsequent RPA transition into 30-mer mode and facilitated an ordered binding to ssDNA. We propose that a Cdc45-mediated loading guarantees a seamless deposition of RPA on newly emerging ssDNA at the nascent replication fork.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) coordinates important DNA metabolic events by stabilizing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates, activating the DNA-damage response and handing off ssDNA to the appropriate downstream players. Six DNA-binding domains (DBDs) in RPA promote high-affinity binding to ssDNA yet also allow RPA displacement by lower affinity proteins. We generated fluorescent versions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA and visualized the conformational dynamics of individual DBDs in the context of the full-length protein. We show that both DBD-A and DBD-D rapidly bind to and dissociate from ssDNA while RPA remains bound to ssDNA. The recombination mediator protein Rad52 selectively modulates the dynamics of DBD-D. These findings reveal how RPA-interacting proteins with lower ssDNA binding affinities can access the occluded ssDNA and remodel individual DBDs to replace RPA.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is the main eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein with essential roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. RPA maintains the DNA as single-stranded and also interacts with other DNA-processing proteins, coordinating their assembly and disassembly on DNA. RPA binds to ssDNA in two conformational states with opposing affinities for DNA and proteins. The RPA-protein interactions are compatible with a low DNA affinity state that involves DNA-binding domain A (DBD-A) and DBD-B but not with the high DNA affinity state that additionally engages DBD-C and DBD-D. The structure of the high-affinity RPA-ssDNA complex reported here shows a compact quaternary structure held together by a four-way interface between DBD-B, DBD-C, the intervening linker (BC linker), and ssDNA. The BC linker binds into the DNA-binding groove of DBD-B, mimicking DNA. The associated conformational change and partial occlusion of the DBD-A-DBA-B protein-protein interaction site establish a mechanism for the allosteric coupling of RPA-DNA and RPA-protein interactions.
Project description:Human RPA (replication protein A), a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, is required for many cellular pathways including DNA repair, recombination and replication. However, the role of RPA in nucleotide excision repair remains elusive. In the present study, we have systematically examined the binding of RPA to a battery of well-defined ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) substrates using fluorescence spectroscopy. These substrates contain adducts of (6-4) photoproducts, N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene-, 1-aminopyrene-, BPDE (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide)- and fluorescein that are different in many aspects such as molecular structure and size, DNA disruption mode (e.g. base stacking or non-stacking), as well as chemical properties. Our results showed that RPA has a lower binding affinity for damaged ssDNA than for non-damaged ssDNA and that the affinity of RPA for damaged ssDNA depends on the type of adduct. Interestingly, the bulkier lesions have a greater effect. With a fluorescent base-stacking bulky adduct, (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-dG, we demonstrated that, on binding of RPA, the fluorescence of BPDE-ssDNA was significantly enhanced by up to 8-9-fold. This indicated that the stacking between the BPDE adduct and its neighbouring ssDNA bases had been disrupted and there was a lack of substantial direct contacts between the protein residues and the lesion itself. For RPA interaction with short damaged ssDNA, we propose that, on RPA binding, the modified base of ssDNA is looped out from the surface of the protein, permitting proper contacts of RPA with the remaining unmodified bases.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA-DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions.
Project description:We report that during activation of the simian virus 40 (SV40) pre-replication complex, SV40 T antigen (Tag) helicase actively loads replication protein A (RPA) on emerging single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This novel loading process requires physical interaction of Tag origin DNA-binding domain (OBD) with the RPA high-affinity ssDNA-binding domains (RPA70AB). Heteronuclear NMR chemical shift mapping revealed that Tag-OBD binds to RPA70AB at a site distal from the ssDNA-binding sites and that RPA70AB, Tag-OBD, and an 8-nucleotide ssDNA form a stable ternary complex. Intact RPA and Tag also interact stably in the presence of an 8-mer, but Tag dissociates from the complex when RPA binds to longer oligonucleotides. Together, our results imply that an allosteric change in RPA quaternary structure completes the loading reaction. A mechanistic model is proposed in which the ternary complex is a key intermediate that directly couples origin DNA unwinding to RPA loading on emerging ssDNA.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is a eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that plays critical roles in most aspects of genome maintenance, including replication, recombination and repair. RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, destabilizes DNA secondary structure and facilitates binding of other proteins to ssDNA. However, RPA must be removed from or redistributed along ssDNA during these processes. To probe the dynamics of RPA-DNA interactions, we combined ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence approaches to examine human RPA (hRPA) diffusion along ssDNA and find that an hRPA heterotrimer can diffuse rapidly along ssDNA. Diffusion of hRPA is functional in that it provides the mechanism by which hRPA can transiently disrupt DNA hairpins by diffusing in from ssDNA regions adjacent to the DNA hairpin. hRPA diffusion was also monitored by the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity of a Cy3 fluorophore attached to the end of ssDNA. Using a novel method to calibrate the Cy3 fluorescence intensity as a function of hRPA position on the ssDNA, we estimate a one-dimensional diffusion coefficient of hRPA on ssDNA of D1~5000nt(2) s(-1) at 37°C. Diffusion of hRPA while bound to ssDNA enables it to be readily repositioned to allow other proteins access to ssDNA.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.
Project description:DNA damage tolerance permits bypass of DNA lesions encountered during S-phase and may be carried out by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Human TLS requires selective monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamps encircling damaged DNA. This posttranslational modification (PTM) is catalyzed by Rad6/Rad18. Recent studies revealed that replication protein A (RPA), the major ssDNA-binding protein, is involved in the regulation of PCNA monoubiquitination and interacts directly with Rad18 on chromatin and in the nucleoplasm. However, it is unclear how RPA regulates this critical PTM and what functional role(s) these interactions serve. Here, we developed an in vitro assay to quantitatively monitor PCNA monoubiquitination under in vivo scenarios. Results from extensive experiments revealed that RPA regulates Rad6/Rad18 activity in an ssDNA-dependent manner. We found that "DNA-free" RPA inhibits monoubiquitination of free PCNA by directly interacting with Rad18. This interaction is promoted under native conditions when there is an overabundance of free RPA in the nucleoplasm where Rad6/Rad18 and a significant fraction of PCNA reside. During DNA replication stress, RPA binds the ssDNA exposed downstream of stalled primer/template (P/T) junctions, releasing Rad6/Rad18. RPA restricted the resident PCNAs to the upstream duplex regions by physically blocking diffusion of PCNA along ssDNA, and this activity was required for efficient monoubiquitination of PCNA on DNA. Furthermore, upon binding ssDNA, RPA underwent a conformational change that increased its affinity for Rad18. Rad6/Rad18 complexed with ssDNA-bound RPA was active, and this interaction may selectively promote monoubiquitination of PCNA on long RPA-coated ssDNA.
Project description:Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3 subunits that binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junctions or breaks, and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic weakens the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates interactions of RPA with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 shows that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage.