Leptin receptor deficiency confers resistance to behavioral effects of fluoxetine and desipramine via separable substrates.
ABSTRACT: Depression is a complex, heterogeneous mental disorder. Currently available antidepressants are only effective in about one-third to one-half of all patients. The mechanisms underlying antidepressant response and treatment resistance are poorly understood. Recent clinical evidence implicates the involvement of leptin in treatment response to antidepressants. In this study, we determined the functional role of the leptin receptor (LepRb) in behavioral responses to the selective serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine and the noradrenergic antidepressant desipramine. While acute and chronic treatment with fluoxetine or desipramine in wild-type mice elicited antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test, mice null for LepRb (db/db) displayed resistance to treatment with either fluoxetine or desipramine. Fluoxetine stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(Thr308) and GSK-3β(Ser9) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of wild-type mice but not in db/db mice. Desipramine failed to induce measurable changes in Akt, GSK-3β or ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus and PFC, as well as hypothalamus of either genotype of mice. Deletion of LepRb specifically from hippocampal and cortical neurons resulted in fluoxetine insensitivity in the forced swim test and tail suspension test while leaving the response to desipramine intact. These results suggest that functional LepRb is critically involved in regulating the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of both fluoxetine and desipramine. The antidepressant effects of fluoxetine but not desipramine are dependent on the presence of functional LepRb in the hippocampus and cortex.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Type A receptor deficits that are induced by global or forebrain-specific heterozygous inactivation of the gamma2 subunit gene in mouse embryos result in behavior indicative of trait anxiety and depressive states. By contrast, a comparable deficit that is delayed to adolescence is without these behavioral consequences. Here we characterized gamma2-deficient mice with respect to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities and antidepressant drug responses. METHODS:We analyzed the behavioral responses of gamma2(+/-) mice to desipramine and fluoxetine in novelty suppressed feeding, forced swim, tail suspension, and sucrose consumption tests as well as GABA(A) receptor deficit- and antidepressant drug treatment-induced alterations in serum corticosterone. RESULTS:Baseline corticosterone concentrations in adult gamma2-deficient mice were elevated independent of whether the genetic lesion was induced during embryogenesis or delayed to adolescence. However, the manifestation of anxious-depressive behavior in different gamma2-deficient mouse lines was correlated with early onset HPA axis hyperactivity during postnatal development. Chronic but not subchronic treatment of gamma2(+/-) mice with fluoxetine or desipramine normalized anxiety-like behavior in the novelty suppressed feeding test. Moreover, desipramine had antidepressant-like effects in that it normalized HPA axis function and depression-related behavior of gamma2(+/-) mice in the forced swim, tail suspension, and sucrose consumption tests. By contrast, fluoxetine was ineffective as an antidepressant and failed to normalize HPA axis function. CONCLUSIONS:Developmental deficits in GABAergic inhibition in the forebrain cause behavioral and endocrine abnormalities and selective antidepressant drug responsiveness indicative of anxious-depressive disorders such as melancholic depression, which are frequently characterized by HPA axis hyperactivity and greater efficacy of desipramine versus fluoxetine.
Project description:Deficits in neuronal inhibition via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder and the therapeutic effects of current antidepressant treatments, however, the relevant GABAA-R subtype as defined by its alpha subunit is still unknown. We previously reported anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in alpha2+/- and alpha2-/- mice, respectively (Vollenweider, 2011). We sought to determine whether this phenotype could be reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment. Adult male mice received 4 or 8mg/kg fluoxetine or 53mg/kg desipramine in their drinking water for four weeks before undergoing behavioral testing. In the novelty suppressed feeding test, desipramine had anxiolytic-like effects reducing the latencies to bite and to eat the pellet in both wild-type and alpha2+/- mice. Surprisingly, 4mg/kg fluoxetine had anxiogenic-like effects in alpha2+/- mice increasing latency to bite and to eat while 8mg/kg fluoxetine increased the latency to eat in both wild-type and alpha2+/- mice. In the forced swim and tail suspension tests, chronic desipramine treatment increased latency to immobility in wild-type and alpha2-/- mice. In contrast, chronic fluoxetine treatment increased immobility in alpha2-/- mice in both tasks while generally having no effect in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that in preclinical paradigms of anxiety and behavioral despair the antidepressant-like effects of desipramine are independent of alpha2-containing GABAA-Rs, while a reduction in alpha2 expression leads to an increased sensitivity to anxiogenic- and prodepressant-like effects with chronic fluoxetine treatment, pointing to a potential role of alpha2-containing GABAA-Rs in the response to serotonin-selective antidepressants.
Project description:Analysis of chronic treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant (desipramine) at gene expression level in hippocampus of mice bred for high (HA) or low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia (SSIA). Total RNA obtained from isolated hippocampi of HA and LA mice subjected to 21 intraperitoneal injections of desipramine hydrochloride (7.5 mg/kg/day) compared to total RNA obtained from isolated hippocampi of HA and LA mice subjected to 21 intraperitoneal injections of saline.
Project description:Analysis of chronic treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant (desipramine) at gene expression level in hippocampus of mice bred for high (HA) or low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia (SSIA). Overall design: Total RNA obtained from isolated hippocampi of HA and LA mice subjected to 21 intraperitoneal injections of desipramine hydrochloride (7.5 mg/kg/day) compared to total RNA obtained from isolated hippocampi of HA and LA mice subjected to 21 intraperitoneal injections of saline.
Project description:Earlier studies have implicated brain-derived neurotrophic factor in stress and in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. It has been shown that antidepressants upregulate, whereas corticosterone downregulates, brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rat brain. Whether various classes of antidepressants reverse corticosterone-mediated downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is unclear. Also not known is how antidepressants or corticosterone regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. To clarify this, we examined the effects of various classes of antidepressants and corticosterone, alone and in combination, on the mRNA expression of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of individual brain-derived neurotrophic factor exons, in rat brain. Normal or corticosterone pellet-implanted (100 mg, 21 days) rats were injected with different classes of antidepressants, fluoxetine, desipramine, or phenelzine, intraperitoneally for 21 days and killed 2 h after the last injection. mRNA expression of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of exons I-IV was measured in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Given to normal rats, fluoxetine increased total brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA only in hippocampus, whereas desipramine or phenelzine increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in both frontal cortex and hippocampus. When specific exons were examined, desipramine increased expression of exons I and III in both brain areas, whereas phenelzine increased exon I in both frontal cortex and hippocampus but exon IV only in hippocampus. On the other hand, fluoxetine increased only exon II in hippocampus. Corticosterone treatment of normal rats decreased expression of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in both brain areas, specifically decreasing exons II and IV. Treatment with desipramine or phenelzine of corticosterone pellet-implanted rats reversed the corticosterone-induced decrease in total brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in both brain areas; however, fluoxetine reversed the decrease only partially in hippocampus. Interestingly, antidepressant treatment of corticosterone pellet-implanted rats increased only those specific exons that are increased during treatment of normal rats with each particular antidepressant. We found that although corticosterone and antidepressants both modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression, and antidepressants reverse the corticosterone-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor decrease, antidepressants and corticosterone differ in how they regulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon(s).
Project description:Anhedonia, or diminished interest or pleasure in rewarding activities, characterizes depression and reflects deficits in brain reward circuitries. Social stress induces anhedonia and increases risk of depression, although the effect of social stress on brain reward function is incompletely understood.This study assessed the following: 1) brain reward function in rats (using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure) and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and related signaling molecules in response to chronic social defeat, 2) brain reward function during social defeat and long-term treatment with the antidepressants fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) and desipramine (10 mg/kg/day), and 3) forced swim test behavior after social defeat and fluoxetine treatment.Social defeat profoundly and persistently decreased brain reward function, reflecting an enduring anhedonic response, in susceptible rats, whereas resilient rats showed no long-term brain reward deficits. In the ventral tegmental area, social defeat, regardless of susceptibility or resilience, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and increased phosphorylated AKT, whereas only susceptibility was associated with increased phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin. Fluoxetine and desipramine reversed lower, but not higher, stress-induced brain reward deficits in susceptible rats. Fluoxetine decreased immobility in the forced swim test, as did social defeat.These results suggest that the differential persistent anhedonic response to psychosocial stress may be mediated by ventral tegmental area signaling molecules independent of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indicate that greater stress-induced anhedonia is associated with resistance to antidepressant treatment. Consideration of these behavioral and neurobiological factors associated with resistance to stress and antidepressant action may promote the discovery of novel targets to treat stress-related mood disorders.
Project description:The forced swim test in rodents allows rapid detection of substances with antidepressant-like activity, evidenced as a decreased duration of immobility that is produced by the majority of clinically used antidepressants. Antidepressants also increase the latency to immobility, and this additional measure reportedly can increase the sensitivity of the forced swim test in mice. Extending these findings, the present study examined the effects of desipramine and fluvoxamine in a forced swim test in C57BL/6J mice, a strain commonly used as background for genetic modifications, analyzing results with a method (i.e. survival analysis) that can model the skewed distribution of latencies and that can deal with censored data (i.e. when immobility does not occur during the test), in comparison with the more traditional Student's t-test. Desipramine increased the latency to immobility at 32?mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Fluvoxamine also did not affect latency at lower doses, but in contrast to desipramine, fluvoxamine decreased the latency to immobility at the highest dose (i.e. 32?mg/kg). At doses affecting latency to immobility, neither desipramine nor fluvoxamine significantly affected duration of immobility. Together, these results are generally consistent with the suggestion that inclusion of the latency measure can increase the sensitivity of the forced swim test to detect antidepressant-like effects in mice.
Project description:Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1(-/-) mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1(-/-) mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1(-/-) mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development.
Project description:A metabolomic investigation of depression and chronic fluoxetine treatment was conducted using a chronic unpredictable mild stress model with C57BL/6N mice. Establishment of the depressive model was confirmed by body weight measurement and behavior tests including the forced swim test and the tail suspension test. Behavioral despair by depression was reversed by four week-treatment with fluoxetine. Hippocampus, serum, and feces samples collected from four groups (control + saline, control + fluoxetine, model + saline, and model + fluoxetine) were subjected to metabolomic profiling based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Alterations in the metabolic patterns were evident in all sample types. The antidepressant effects of fluoxetine appeared to involve various metabolic pathways including energy metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, tryptophan metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism. Predictive marker candidates of depression were identified, including β-citryl-L-glutamic acid (BCG) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in serum and chenodeoxycholic acid and oleamide in feces. This study suggests that treatment effects of fluoxetine might be differentiated by altered levels of tyramine and BCG in serum, and that DHA is a potential serum marker for depression with positive association with hippocampal DHA. Collectively, our comprehensive study provides insights into the biochemical perturbations involved in depression and the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.
Project description:The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are connected in a reciprocal manner: whereas the hippocampus projects directly to the PFC, a polysynaptic pathway that passes through the nucleus reuniens (RE) of the thalamus relays inputs from the PFC to the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that lesioning and/or inactivation of the RE reduces coherence in the PFC-hippocampal pathway, provokes an antidepressant-like behavioral response in the forced swim test and prevents, but does not ameliorate, anhedonia in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Additionally, RE lesioning before CMS abrogates the well-known neuromorphological and endocrine correlates of CMS. In summary, this work highlights the importance of the reciprocal connectivity between the hippocampus and PFC in the establishment of stress-induced brain pathology and suggests a role for the RE in promoting resilience to depressive illness.