Transport of massless Dirac fermions in non-topological type edge states.
ABSTRACT: There are two types of intrinsic surface states in solids. The first type is formed on the surface of topological insulators. Recently, transport of massless Dirac fermions in the band of "topological" states has been demonstrated. States of the second type were predicted by Tamm and Shockley long ago. They do not have a topological background and are therefore strongly dependent on the properties of the surface. We study the problem of the conductivity of Tamm-Shockley edge states through direct transport experiments. Aharonov-Bohm magneto-oscillations of resistance are found on graphene samples that contain a single nanohole. The effect is explained by the conductivity of the massless Dirac fermions in the edge states cycling around the nanohole. The results demonstrate the deep connection between topological and non-topological edge states in 2D systems of massless Dirac fermions.
Project description:Dirac-like electrons in solid state have been of great interest since they exhibit many peculiar physical behaviors analogous to relativistic mechanics. Among them, carriers in graphene and surface states of topological insulators are known to behave as massless Dirac fermions with a conical band structure in the two-dimensional momentum space, whereas electrons in semimetal bismuth (Bi) are expected to behave as massive Dirac-like fermions in the three-dimensional momentum space, whose dynamics is of particular interest in comparison with that of the massless Dirac fermions. Here, we demonstrate that an intense terahertz electric field transient accelerates the massive Dirac-like fermions in Bi from classical Newtonian to the relativistic regime; the electrons are accelerated approaching the effective "speed of light" with the "relativistic" beta β = 0.89 along the asymptotic linear band structure. As a result, the effective electron mass is enhanced by a factor of 2.4.
Project description:The peculiar nature of topological surface states, such as absence of backscattering, weak anti-localization, and quantum anomalous Hall effect, has been demonstrated mainly in bulk and film of topological insulator (TI), using surface sensitive probes and bulk transport probes. However, it is equally important and experimentally challenging to confine massless Dirac fermions with nano-steps on TI surfaces. This potential structure has similar ground with linearly-dispersed photons in Fabry-Pérot resonators, while reserving fundamental differences from well-studied Fabry-Pérot resonators and quantum corrals on noble metal surfaces. In this paper, we study the massless Dirac fermions confined within steps along the x (Γ-K) or y (Γ-M) direction on the TI surface, and the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances in the electronic local density of states (LDOS) between the steps are found. Due to the remarkable warping effect in the topological surface states, the LDOS confined in the step-well running along Γ-M direction exhibit anisotropic resonance patterns as compared to those in the step-well along Γ-K direction. The transmittance properties and spin orientation of Dirac fermion in both cases are also anisotropic in the presence of warping effect.
Project description:Dirac fermions in condensed matter physics hold great promise for novel fundamental physics, quantum devices and data storage applications. IV-VI semiconductors, in the inverted regime, have been recently shown to exhibit massless topological surface Dirac fermions protected by crystalline symmetry, as well as massive bulk Dirac fermions. Under a strong magnetic field (B), both surface and bulk states are quantized into Landau levels that disperse as B(1/2), and are thus difficult to distinguish. In this work, magneto-optical absorption is used to probe the Landau levels of high mobility Bi-doped Pb0.54Sn0.46Te topological crystalline insulator (111)-oriented films. The high mobility achieved in these thin film structures allows us to probe and distinguish the Landau levels of both surface and bulk Dirac fermions and extract valuable quantitative information about their physical properties. This work paves the way for future magnetooptical and electronic transport experiments aimed at manipulating the band topology of such materials.
Project description:Topological insulators are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk, yet gapless spin-helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film topological insulator devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity close to twice the conductance quantum at the double Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component half-integer Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor zero state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction, respectively. Such a system paves the way to explore rich physics, ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation.
Project description:The controlled transfer of particles from one site of a spatial lattice to another is essential for many tasks in quantum information processing and quantum communication. In this work we study how to induce long-range transfer between the two ends of a dimer chain, by coupling states that are localized just on the chain's end-points. This has the appealing feature that the transfer occurs only between the end-points - the particle does not pass through the intermediate sites-making the transfer less susceptible to decoherence. We first show how a repulsively bound-pair of fermions, known as a doublon, can be transferred from one end of the chain to the other via topological edge states. We then show how non-topological surface states of the familiar Shockley or Tamm type can be used to produce a similar form of transfer under the action of a periodic driving potential. Finally we show that combining these effects can produce transfer by means of more exotic topological effects, in which the driving field can be used to switch the topological character of the edge states, as measured by the Zak phase. Our results demonstrate how to induce long range transfer of strongly correlated particles by tuning both topology and driving.
Project description:Transport due to spin-helical massless Dirac fermion surface state is of paramount importance to realize various new physical phenomena in topological insulators, ranging from quantum anomalous Hall effect to Majorana fermions. However, one of the most important hallmarks of topological surface states, the Dirac linear band dispersion, has been difficult to reveal directly in transport measurements. Here we report experiments on Bi2Te3 nanoribbon ambipolar field effect devices on high-? SrTiO3 substrates, where we achieve a gate-tuned bulk metal-insulator transition and the topological transport regime with substantial surface state conduction. In this regime, we report two unambiguous transport evidences for gate-tunable Dirac fermions through ? Berry's phase in Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and effective mass proportional to the Fermi momentum, indicating linear energy-momentum dispersion. We also measure a gate-tunable weak anti-localization (WAL) with 2 coherent conduction channels (indicating 2 decoupled surfaces) near the charge neutrality point, and a transition to weak localization (indicating a collapse of the Berry's phase) when the Fermi energy approaches the bulk conduction band. The gate-tunable Dirac fermion topological surface states pave the way towards a variety of topological electronic devices.
Project description:Three-dimensional Dirac semimetals, three-dimensional analogues of graphene, are unusual quantum materials with massless Dirac fermions, which can be further converted to Weyl fermions by breaking time reversal or inversion symmetry. Topological surface states with Fermi arcs are predicted on the surface and have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Although the exotic transport properties of the bulk Dirac cones have been demonstrated, it is still a challenge to reveal the surface states via transport measurements due to the highly conductive bulk states. Here, we show Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in individual single-crystal Cd3As2 nanowires with low carrier concentration and large surface-to-volume ratio, providing transport evidence of the surface state in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the quantum transport can be modulated by tuning the Fermi level using a gate voltage, enabling a deeper understanding of the rich physics residing in Dirac semimetals.
Project description:Topological insulators (TIs) host novel states of quantum matter characterized by nontrivial conducting boundary states connecting valence and conduction bulk bands. All TIs discovered experimentally so far rely on either time-reversal or mirror crystal symmorphic symmetry to protect massless Dirac-like boundary states. Several materials were recently proposed to be TIs with nonsymmorphic symmetry, where a glide mirror protects exotic surface fermions with hourglass-shaped dispersion. However, an experimental confirmation of this new fermion is missing. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we provide experimental evidence of hourglass fermions on the (010) surface of crystalline KHgSb, whereas the (001) surface has no boundary state, in agreement with first-principles calculations. Our study will stimulate further research activities of topological properties of nonsymmorphic materials.
Project description:A prominent feature of topological insulators (TIs) is the surface states comprising of spin-nondegenerate massless Dirac fermions. Recent technical advances have made it possible to address the surface transport properties of TI thin films by tuning the Fermi levels of both top and bottom surfaces. Here we report our discovery of a novel planar Hall effect (PHE) from the TI surface, which results from a hitherto-unknown resistivity anisotropy induced by an in-plane magnetic field. This effect is observed in dual-gated devices of bulk-insulating Bi2-x Sb x Te3 thin films, where the field-induced anisotropy presents a strong dependence on the gate voltage with a characteristic two-peak structure near the Dirac point. The origin of PHE is the peculiar time-reversal-breaking effect of an in-plane magnetic field, which anisotropically lifts the protection of surface Dirac fermions from backscattering. The observed PHE provides a useful tool to analyze and manipulate the topological protection of the TI surface.
Project description:Topological insulators (TIs) are a new quantum state of matter. Their surfaces and interfaces act as a topological boundary to generate massless Dirac fermions with spin-helical textures. Investigation of fermion dynamics near the Dirac point (DP) is crucial for the future development of spintronic devices incorporating topological insulators. However, research so far has been unsatisfactory because of a substantial overlap with the bulk valence band and a lack of a completely unoccupied DP. Here, we explore the surface Dirac fermion dynamics in the TI Sb2Te3 by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TrARPES). Sb2Te3 has an in-gap DP located completely above the Fermi energy (EF). The excited electrons in the upper Dirac cone stay longer than those below the DP to form an inverted population. This was attributed to a reduced density of states (DOS) near the DP.