Acquisition of the ability to assimilate mannitol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dysfunction of the general corepressor Tup1-Cyc8.
ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally cannot assimilate mannitol, a promising brown macroalgal carbon source for bioethanol production. The molecular basis of this inability remains unknown. We found that cells capable of assimilating mannitol arose spontaneously from wild-type S. cerevisiae during prolonged culture in mannitol-containing medium. Based on microarray data, complementation analysis, and cell growth data, we demonstrated that acquisition of mannitol-assimilating ability was due to spontaneous mutations in the genes encoding Tup1 or Cyc8, which constitute a general corepressor complex that regulates many kinds of genes. We also showed that an S. cerevisiae strain carrying a mutant allele of CYC8 exhibited superior salt tolerance relative to other ethanologenic microorganisms; this characteristic would be highly beneficial for the production of bioethanol from marine biomass. Thus, we succeeded in conferring the ability to assimilate mannitol on S. cerevisiae through dysfunction of Tup1-Cyc8, facilitating production of ethanol from mannitol.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally cannot assimilate mannitol, a promising brown macroalgal carbon source for bioethanol production. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this inability remain unknown. Here, we found that cells acquiring mannitol-assimilating ability appeared from wild-type S. cerevisiae strain during prolonged culture in mannitol medium. Our microarray analysis revealed that genes for putative mannitol dehydrogenase and hexose transporters were up-regulated in cells acquiring mannitol-assimilating ability. Take account of our other results including complementation analysis and cell growth data, we demonstrated that this acquisition of mannitol-assimilating ability was due to the spontaneous mutation in the gene encoding Tup1 or Cyc8. Tup1-Cyc8 is the general corepressor complex involved in the repression of many kinds of genes. Thus, it is suggested that the inability of wild-type S. cerevisiae to assimilate mannitol can be attributed to the transcriptional repression of a set of genes involved in mannitol utilization by Tup1-Cyc8 corepressor. In other words, Tup1-Cyc8 is a key regulator of mannitol metabolism in S. cerevisiae. We also showed that S. cerevisiae strain which carries mutant allele of TUP1 or CYC8 produced ethanol from mannitol efficiently. Especially, strain carrying mutant allele of CYC8 showed high tolerance to salt, which is superior to other ethanologenic microorganisms. This characteristic is highly beneficial to produce bioethanol from marine biomass. Taken together, Tup1-Cyc8 can be an ideal target to develop a yeast-algal bioethanol production system. To figure out how Mtl+ strains (cells acquiring ability to grow in mannitol medium) had acquired the ability to assimilate mannitol, we performed genome-wide analysis by using Nimblegen microarrays. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (wild-type BY4742 strain and two Mtl+ strains, MK3619 and MK3683) were grown at 30°C to the logarithmic phase in SC or SM media. Total RNA was purified and the 4 RNA samples (BY4742 cells in SC as control, MK3619 cells in SM, MK3683 cells in both SC and SM) were analyzed with Nimblegen microarrays.
Project description:Tup1-Cyc8 (also known as Tup1-Ssn6) is a general transcriptional corepressor. D-Mannitol (mannitol) and D-sorbitol (sorbitol) are the major polyols in nature. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to assimilate mannitol or sorbitol, but acquires the ability to assimilate mannitol due to a spontaneous mutation in TUP1 or CYC8. In this study, we found that spontaneous mutation of TUP1 or CYC8 also permitted assimilation of sorbitol. Some spontaneous nonsense mutations of CYC8 produced a truncated Cyc8 with a C-terminal polyglutamine. The effects were guanidine hydrochloride-sensitive and were dependent on Hsp104, but were complemented by introduction of CYC8, ruling out involvement of a prion. Assimilation of mannitol and sorbitol conferred by other mutations of TUP1 or CYC8 was guanidine hydrochloride-tolerant. It is physiologically reasonable that S. cerevisiae carries this mechanism to acquire the ability to assimilate major polyols in nature.
Project description:Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved.
Project description:The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous produces carotenoids of commercial interest, including astaxanthin and ?-carotene. Although carotenogenesis in this yeast and the expression profiles of the genes controlling this pathway are known, the mechanisms regulating this process remain poorly understood. Several studies have demonstrated that glucose represses carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous, suggesting that this pathway could be regulated by catabolic repression. Catabolic repression is a highly conserved regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and has been widely studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose-dependent repression is mainly observed at the transcriptional level and depends on the DNA-binding regulator Mig1, which recruits the co-repressor complex Cyc8-Tup1, which then represses the expression of target genes. In this work, we studied the regulation of carotenogenesis by catabolic repression in X. dendrorhous, focusing on the role of the co-repressor complex Cyc8-Tup1.The X. dendrorhous CYC8 and TUP1 genes were identified, and their functions were demonstrated by heterologous complementation in S. cerevisiae. In addition, cyc8 - and tup1 - mutant strains of X. dendrorhous were obtained, and both mutations were shown to prevent the glucose-dependent repression of carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous, increasing the carotenoid production in both mutant strains. Furthermore, the effects of glucose on the transcript levels of genes involved in carotenogenesis differed between the mutant strains and wild-type X. dendrorhous, particularly for genes involved in the synthesis of carotenoid precursors, such as HMGR, idi and FPS. Additionally, transcriptomic analyses showed that cyc8 - and tup1 - mutations affected the expression of over 250 genes in X. dendrorhous.The CYC8 and TUP1 genes are functional in X. dendrorhous, and their gene products are involved in catabolic repression and carotenogenesis regulation. This study presents the first report involving the participation of Cyc8 and Tup1 in carotenogenesis regulation in yeast.
Project description:The yeast Cyc8 (also known as Ssn6)-Tup1 complex regulates gene expression through a variety of mechanisms, including positioning of nucleosomes over promoters of some target genes to limit accessibility to the transcription machinery. To further define the functions of Cyc8-Tup1 in gene regulation and chromatin remodeling, we performed genome-wide profiling of changes in nucleosome organization and gene expression that occur upon loss of CYC8 or TUP1 and observed extensive nucleosome alterations in both promoters and gene bodies of derepressed genes. Our improved nucleosome profiling and analysis approaches revealed low-occupancy promoter nucleosomes (P nucleosomes) at locations previously defined as nucleosome-free regions. In the absence of CYC8 or TUP1, this P nucleosome is frequently lost, whereas nucleosomes are gained at -1 and +1 positions, accompanying up-regulation of downstream genes. Our analysis of public ChIP-seq data revealed that Cyc8 and Tup1 preferentially bind TATA-containing promoters, which are also enriched in genes derepressed upon loss of CYC8 or TUP1. These results suggest that stabilization of the P nucleosome on TATA-containing promoters may be a central feature of the repressive chromatin architecture created by the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor, and that releasing the P nucleosome contributes to gene activation.
Project description:The yeast Tup1-Cyc8 corepressor complex is recruited to promoters by DNA-binding repressors, but the mechanisms by which it inhibits expression of genes involved in various stress pathways are poorly understood. Conditional and rapid depletion of Tup1 from the nucleus leads to concurrent nucleosome depletion and histone acetylation, recruitment of coactivators (Swi/Snf, SAGA, and Mediator), and increased transcriptional activity. Conversely, coactivator dissociation occurs rapidly upon rerepression by Cyc8-Tup1, although coactivator association and transcription can be blocked even in the absence of nucleosomes. The coactivators are recruited to the sites where Tup1 was located prior to depletion, indicating that the repressor proteins that recruit Tup1 function as activators in its absence. Last, Cyc8-Tup1 can interact with activation domains in vivo. Thus, Cyc8-Tup1 regulates transcription primarily by masking and inhibiting the transcriptional activation domains of the recruiting proteins, not by acting as a corepressor. We suggest that the corepressor function of Cyc8-Tup1 makes only a modest contribution to expression of target genes, specifically to keep expression levels below the nonactivated state.
Project description:Environmental stressors can severely perturb cellular homeostasis and compromise viability. To cope with environmental stressors, eukaryotes have developed distinct signaling programs that allow for adaptation during different stress conditions. These programs often require a host of post-translational modifications that alter proteins to elicit appropriate cellular responses. One crucial protein modifier during stress is the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO. In many cases, however, the functions of stress dependent protein SUMOylation remain unclear. Previously, we showed that the conserved Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cyc8-Tup1 transcriptional corepressor complex undergoes transient hyperosmotic stress-induced SUMOylation and inclusion formation, which are important for appropriate regulation of hyperosmotic-stress genes. Here, we show the osmostress-responsive MAP kinase Hog1 regulates Cyc8 SUMOylation and inclusion formation via its role in the transcriptional activation of glycerol biosynthesis genes. Mutations that ablate Cyc8 SUMOylation can partially rescue the osmosensitivity of hog1? cells, and this is facilitated by inappropriate derepression of glycerol-biosynthesis genes. Furthermore, cells specifically unable to synthesize the osmolyte glycerol cause transient Cyc8 SUMOylation and inclusions to persist, indicating a regulatory role for glycerol to reestablish the basal state of Cyc8 following adaptation to hyperosmotic stress. These observations unveil a novel intersection between phosphorylation and SUMOylation networks, which are critical for shifting gene expression and metabolic programs during stress adaptation.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Tup1, in association with Cyc8 (Ssn6), functions as a general repressor of transcription. Tup1 and Cyc8 are required for repression of diverse families of genes coordinately controlled by glucose repression, mating type, and other mechanisms. This repression is mediated by recruitment of the Cyc8-Tup1 complex to target promoters by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. We created a library of XhoI linker insertions and internal in-frame deletion mutations within the TUP1 coding region. Insertion mutations outside of the WD domains were wild type, while insertions within the WD domains induced mutant phenotypes with differential effects on the target genes SUC2, MFA2, RNR2, and HEM13. Deletion mutations confirmed previous findings of two separate repression domains in the N and C termini. The cumulative data suggest that the C-terminal repression domain, located near the first WD repeat, plays the dominant role in repression. Although the N-terminal repression domain is sufficient for partial repression, deletion of this region does not compromise repression. Surprisingly, deletion of the majority of the histone-binding domain of Tup1 also does not significantly reduce repression. The N-terminal region containing potential alpha-helical coiled coils is required for Tup1 oligomerization and association with Cyc8. Association with Cyc8 is required for repression of SUC2, HEM13, and RNR2 but not MFA2 and STE2.
Project description:The TUP1 and CYC8 (= SSN6) genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae play a major role in glucose repression. Mutations in either TUP1 or CYC8 eliminate or reduce glucose repression of many repressible genes and induce other phenotypes, including flocculence, failure to sporulate, and sterility of MAT alpha cells. The TUP1 gene was isolated in a screen for genes that regulate mating type (V.L. MacKay, Methods Enzymol. 101:325-343, 1983). We found that a 3.5-kb restriction fragment was sufficient for complete complementation of tup1-100. The gene was further localized by insertional mutagenesis and RNA mapping. Sequence analysis of 2.9 kb of DNA including TUP1 revealed only one long open reading frame which predicts a protein of molecular weight 78,221. The predicted protein is rich in serine, threonine, and glutamine. In the carboxyl region there are six repeats of a pattern of about 43 amino acids. This same pattern of conserved residues is seen in the beta subunit of transducin and the yeast CDC4 gene product. Insertion and deletion mutants are viable, with the same range of phenotypes as for point mutants. Deletions of the 3' end of the coding region produced the same mutant phenotypes as did total deletions, suggesting that the C terminus is critical for TUP1 function. Strains with deletions in both the CYC8 and TUP1 genes are viable, with phenotypes similar to those of strains with a single deletion. A deletion mutation of TUP1 was able to suppress the snf1 mutation block on expression of the SUC2 gene encoding invertase.
Project description:Cellulase production in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is highly responsive to various environmental cues involving multiple positive and negative regulators. XYR1 (Xylanase regulator 1) has been identified as the key transcriptional activator of cellulase gene expression in T. reesei. However, the precise mechanism by which XYR1 achieves transcriptional activation of cellulase genes is still not fully understood. Here, we identified the TrCYC8/TUP1 complex as a novel coactivator for XYR1 in T. reesei. CYC8/TUP1 is the first identified transcriptional corepressor complex mediating repression of diverse genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Knockdown of Trcyc8 or Trtup1 resulted in markedly impaired cellulase gene expression in T. reesei. We found that TrCYC8/TUP1 was recruited to cellulase gene promoters upon cellulose induction and this recruitment is dependent on XYR1. We further observed that repressed Trtup1 or Trcyc8 expression caused a strong defect in XYR1 occupancy and loss of histone H4 at cellulase gene promoters. The defects in XYR1 binding and transcriptional activation of target genes in Trtup1 or Trcyc8 repressed cells could not be overcome by XYR1 overexpression. Our results reveal a novel coactivator function for TrCYC8/TUP1 at the level of activator binding, and suggest a mechanism in which interdependent recruitment of XYR1 and TrCYC8/TUP1 to cellulase gene promoters represents an important regulatory circuit in ensuring the induced cellulase gene expression. These findings thus contribute to unveiling the intricate regulatory mechanism underlying XYR1-mediated cellulase gene activation and also provide an important clue that will help further improve cellulase production by T. reesei.