Synthesis and properties of novel star-shaped oligofluorene conjugated systems with BODIPY cores.
ABSTRACT: Star-shaped conjugated systems with varying oligofluorene arm length and substitution patterns of the central BODIPY core have been synthesised, leading to two families of compounds, T-B1-T-B4 and Y-B1-Y-B4, with T- and Y-shaped motifs, respectively. Thermal stability, cyclic voltammetry, absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of each member of these two families were studied in order to determine their suitability as emissive materials in photonic applications.
Project description:Mixed-ligand oxidovanadium(IV) ?-diketonates having NNN-donor dipicolylamine-conjugated to boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY in L1) and diiodo-BODIPY (in L2) moieties, namely, [VO(L1)(acac)]Cl (1), [VO(L2)(acac)]Cl (2), and [VO(L1)(dbm)]Cl (3), where acac and dbm are monoanionic O,O-donor acetylacetone and 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione, were prepared, characterized, and tested for their photoinduced anticancer activity in visible light. Complexes 1 and 2 were structurally characterized as their PF6 - salts (1a and 2a) by X-ray crystallography. They showed VIVN3O3 six-coordinate geometry with dipicolylamine base as the facial ligand. The non-iodinated BODIPY complexes displayed absorption maxima at ?501 nm, while it is ?535 nm for the di-iodinated 2 in 10% DMSO-PBS buffer medium (pH = 7.2). Complexes 1 and 3 being green emissive (?em, ?512 nm; ?ex, 470 nm; ?F, ?0.10) in 10% aqueous DMSO were used for cellular imaging studies. Complex 3 localized primarily in the mitochondria of the cervical HeLa cells with a co-localization coefficient value of 0.7. The non-emissive diiodo-BODIPY complex 2 showed generation of singlet oxygen (?? ? 0.47) on light activation. Annexin-V assay showed singlet oxygen-mediated cellular apoptosis, making this complex a targeted PDT agent.
Project description:Two new 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) based ligands with ancillary BODIPY chromophores attached at the 4 and 4'-positions were prepared and characterized, which vary in the substitution pattern about the BODIPY periphery by either excluding (BB1) or including (BB2) a ?-alkyl substituent. Both absorb strongly throughout the visible region and are strongly emissive. The basic photophysics and electrochemical properties of BB1 and BB2 are comparable to those of the BODIPY monomers on which they are based. The solid-state structures and electronic structure calculations both indicate that there is negligible electronic communication between the BODIPY moieties and the intervening bpy spacers. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence spectra of the two Bpy-BODIPY derivatives are similar to their recorded fluorescence profiles and are strongly influenced by substituents on the BODIPY chromophores. These 2,2'-bipyridine derivatives represent a new set of ligands that should find utility in applications including light-harvesting, photocatalysis, and molecular electronics.
Project description:Near-infrared emissive BODIPY polymeric dye bearing cancer-homing cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide residues (polymer B) was prepared by post-polymerization functionalization of BODIPY polymeric dye bearing bromo groups through tetra(ethylene glycol) tethered spacers (polymer A) with thiol-functionalized RGD cancer-homing peptide through thioether bonds under a mild basic condition. Polymer B possesses excellent water solubility, good photostability, biocompatibility and resistance to nonspecific interactions to normal endothelial cells, and can efficiently detect breast tumor cells through specific cooperative binding of cancer-homing RGD peptides to ?v?3 integrins of cancer cells while its parent polymer A without RGD residues fails to target cancer cells.
Project description:Two new 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) derivatives containing ancillary BODIPY chromophores attached at the 5- and 5'-positions (BB3) or 6- and 6'-positions (BB4) were prepared and characterized. In this work, the basic photophysics, electrochemistry, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of BB3 and BB4 are compared with those previously reported for a related bpy-BODIPY derivative (BB2) (J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 17993-18001). Cyclic voltammetry revealed that BB3 and BB4 display reversible 2e(-) oxidation and reduction waves, which consist of two closely spaced (50-70 mV) 1e(-) events. This redox behavior is consistent with the frontier molecular orbitals calculated for BB3 and BB4 and indicates that the 2,2'-bipyridine spacer of each bpy-BODIPY homologue does not facilitate efficient electronic communication between the tethered indacene units. In the presence of a coreactant such as tri-n-propylamine (TPA) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO), BB3 and BB4 exhibit strong ECL and produce spectra that are very similar to their corresponding photoluminescence profiles. The ECL signal obtained under annihilation conditions, however, is significantly different and is characterized by two distinct bands. One of these bands is centered at ?570 nm and is attributed to emission via an S- or T-route. The second band occurs at longer wavelengths and is centered around ?740 nm. The shape and concentration dependence of this long-wavelength ECL signal is not indicative of emission from an excimer or aggregate, but rather it suggests that a new emissive species is formed from the bpy-BODIPY luminophores during the annihilation process.
Project description:Seven macromolecular constructs incorporating multiple borondipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophores along a common poly(methacrylate) backbone with decyl and oligo(ethylene glycol) side chains were synthesized. The hydrophilic oligo(ethylene glycol) components impose solubility in aqueous environment on the overall assembly. The hydrophobic decyl chains effectively insulate the fluorophores from each other to prevent detrimental interchromophoric interactions and preserve their photophysical properties. As a result, the brightness of these multicomponent assemblies is approximately three times greater than that of a model BODIPY monomer. Such a high brightness level is maintained even after injection of the macromolecular probes in living nematodes, allowing their visualization with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, relative to the model monomer, and no cytotoxic or behavioral effects. The covalent scaffold of these macromolecular constructs also permits their subsequent conjugation to secondary antibodies. The covalent attachment of polymer and biomolecule does not hinder the targeting ability of the latter and the resulting bioconjugates can be exploited to stain the tubulin structure of model cells to enable their visualization with optimal signal-to-noise ratios. These results demonstrate that this particular structural design for the incorporation of multiple chromophores within the same covalent construct is a viable one to preserve the photophysical properties of the emissive species and enable the assembly of bioimaging probes with enhanced brightness.
Project description:We describe herein a fluorescence-based assay to characterize and report on nucleophilic addition to carbonyl moieties and highlight the advantages a fluorescence-based assay and multiplex analysis can offer. The assay relies on the fluorogenic properties of meso-formyl boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes that become emissive following nucleophilic addition. A reactivity palette is assembled based on the increasing electrophilic character of five meso-formyl BODIPY compounds tested. We show that increasing rates of emission enhancement correlate with the decreasing electrophilic character of BODIPY dyes in the presence of an acid catalyst and a nucleophile. These results are consistent with the rate-limiting step involving activation of the electrophile. Increasing product formation is shown to correlate with the increasing electrophilic character of the BODIPY dyes, as expected based on thermodynamics. In addition to providing rates of reaction, analysis of the fluorescence parameters for the reaction mixtures, including emission quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes, enables us to determine the extent of reactant conversion at equilibrium (in our case the estimated yield of a transient species) and the presence of different products, without the need for isolation. We anticipate that our reactivity palette approach, combined with the in-depth fluorescence analysis discussed herein, will provide guidelines toward developing fluorogenic assays of reactivity offering multiplex information, beyond fluorescence intensity.
Project description:Herein we describe the synthesis, computationally assisted spectroscopy, and lasing properties of a new library of symmetric bridged bis-BODIPYs that differ in the nature of the spacer. Access to a series of BODIPY dimers is straightforward through synthetic modifications of the pending ortho-hydroxymethyl group of readily available C-8 (meso) ortho-hydroxymethyl phenyl BODIPYs. In this way, we have carried out the first systematic study of the photonic behavior of symmetric bridged bis-BODIPYs, which is effectively modulated by the length and/or stereoelectronic properties of the spacer unit. The designed bis-BODIPYs display bright fluorescence and laser emission in non-polar media. The fluorescence response is governed by the induction of a non-emissive intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process, which is significantly enhanced in polar media. The effectiveness of the fluorescence quenching and also the prevailing charge transfer mechanism (from the spacer itself or between the BODIPY units) rely directly on the electron-releasing ability of the spacer. Moreover, the linker moiety can also promote intramolecular excitonic interactions, leading to excimer-like emission characterized by new spectral bands and the lengthening of lifetimes. The substantial influence of the bridging moiety on the emission behavior of these BODIPY dyads and their solvent-sensitivity highlight the intricate molecular dynamics upon excitation in multichromophoric systems. In this regard, the present work represents a breakthrough in the complex relationship between the molecular structure of the chromophores and their photophysical signatures, thus providing key guidelines for rationalizing the design of tailored bis-BODIPYs with potential advanced applications.
Project description:Attempts to make a diamino disulfonic acid derivative of an aza-BODIPY showed it was difficult to add BF2 to a disulfonated azadipyrromethene, and sulfonation of an aza-BODIPY resulted in loss of the BF2 fragment. We conclude the electron-deficient character of aza-BODIPY dyes destabilizes them relative to BODIPY dyes. Consequently, sulfonation of the aza-BODIPY core is not a viable strategy to increase water solubility. This assertion was indirectly supported via stability studies of a BODIPY and an aza-BODIPY in aqueous media. To afford the desired compound type, an aza-BODIPY with two amino and two sulfonic acid groups was prepared via modification of the aryl substituents with cysteic acid.
Project description:Fluorophores based on the BODIPY scaffold are prized for their tunable excitation and emission profiles, mild syntheses, and biological compatibility. Improving the water-solubility of BODIPY dyes remains an outstanding challenge. The development of water-soluble BODIPY dyes usually involves direct modification of the BODIPY fluorophore core with ionizable groups or substitution at the boron center. While these strategies are effective for the generation of water-soluble fluorophores, they are challenging to implement when developing BODIPY-based indicators: direct modification of BODIPY core can disrupt the electronics of the dye, complicating the design of functional indicators; and substitution at the boron center often renders the resultant BODIPY incompatible with the chemical transformations required to generate fluorescent sensors. In this study, we show that BODIPYs bearing a sulfonated aromatic group at the meso position provide a general solution for water-soluble BODIPYs. We outline the route to a suite of 5 new sulfonated BODIPYs with 2,6-disubstitution patterns spanning a range of electron-donating and -withdrawing propensities. To highlight the utility of these new, sulfonated BODIPYs, we further functionalize them to access 13 new, BODIPY-based, voltage-sensitive fluorophores (VF). The most sensitive of these BODIPY VF dyes displays a 48% ?F/F per 100 mV in mammalian cells. Two additional BODIPY VFs show good voltage sensitivity (?24% ?F/F) and excellent brightness in cells. These compounds can report on action potential dynamics in both mammalian neurons and human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Accessing a range of substituents in the context of a water-soluble BODIPY fluorophore provides opportunities to tune the electronic properties of water-soluble BODIPY dyes for functional indicators.
Project description:A convenient synthesis of a BODIPY (1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(4-pyridyl)-4,4'-difluoroboradiazaindacene) labeled platinum compound (BODIPY-Pt) was developed by direct conjugation of cisplatin with the pyridine group of BODIPY. The membrane permeability and selective uptake of BODIPY-Pt in the mitochondria was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The fluorescent BODIPY-Pt conjugate showed high cellular proliferation inhibition against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 27.37 and 12.14 ?M, respectively. This work highlights the potential of using BODIPY labeled Pt compounds to realize the visualization of Pt distribution in living cells.