Inherently chiral calixarenes via oxazoline directed ortholithiation: synthesis and probe of chiral space.
ABSTRACT: The diastereoselective oxazoline-directed lithiation of calixarenes is reported with diastereoselective ratios of greater than 100:1 in some instances. Notably, it has been found that the opposite diastereomer can be accessed via this approach merely through the choice of an alkyllithium reagent. The inherently chiral oxazoline calixarenes have also been preliminarily examined as ligands in the palladium-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost allylation reaction, returning results comparable to their planar chiral ferrocene counterparts pointing towards future application of these types of compounds.
Project description:Two novel carbohydrate-derived pyridyl (PYOX)- and cyclopropyl (CYBOX)-substituted oxazoline ligands were prepared from d-glucosamine hydrochloride and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranose hydrochloride in two steps, respectively. The sugar-annulated PYOX ligand formed a stable metal complex with Pd(II), which was fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. NMR and X-ray analysis revealed a change of the conformation in the sugar moiety upon complexation with the palladium(II) species. Both glycosylated ligands resulted in high asymmetric induction (up to 98% ee) upon application as chiral ligands in the Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate with dimethyl malonate (Tsuji-Trost reaction). Both ligands provided mainly the (R)-enantiomer of the alkylation product.
Project description:The diastereoselective synthesis of highly substituted ?-lactams by intramolecular Tsuji-Trost allylation is reported. Judicious selection of the ligand on palladium allows selective access to either the trans isomer (in generally good to excellent yield with very high diastereomeric excess) or cis isomer (with yields and diastereoselectivity ranging from modest to excellent depending on the substrate). The reaction proceeds under exceedingly mild conditions (rt, no additives) with a broad range of substrates, which are readily accessible by the Ugi reaction.
Project description:Using palladium-catalyzed decarboxylation, several cascade reactions of allyl and prenyl nitroalkanoates that lead to nitro-containing chemical building blocks are described. A nitronate Michael addition/Tsuji-Trost allylation cascade was developed, leading to functionally dense chemical building blocks. Likewise, a Tsuji-Trost/decarboxylative protonation sequence was developed for the synthesis of orthogonally functionalized 2° nitroalkanes. The latter method provides rapid access to the indolizidine core.
Project description:Phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands are an important class of ligands in asymmetric catalysis. We synthesized ten novel D-fructose-derived spiro-fused PHOX ligands with different steric and electronic demand. The application of two of them was tested in asymmetric allylic alkylation. The ligands are prepared in two steps from readily available 1,2-O-isopropylidene protected ?-D-fructopyranoses by the BF3·OEt2-promoted Ritter reaction with 2-bromobenzonitrile to construct the oxazoline moiety followed by Ullmann coupling of the resulting aryl bromides with diphenylphosphine. Both steps proceeded mostly in good to high yields (57-86% for the Ritter reaction and 35-89% for the Ullmann coupling). The Ritter reaction gave two anomers, which could be separated by column chromatography. The prepared ligands showed promising results (er of up to 84:16) in Tsuji-Trost reactions with diphenylallyl acetate as model substrate.
Project description:Concise stereoselective syntheses of (+/-)-quinine and (+/-)-7-hydroxyquinine are achieved using a catalytic enone cycloallylation that combines the nucleophilic features of the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction and the electrophilic features of the Tsuji-Trost reaction. Cyclization of enone-allyl carbonate 11 delivers the product of cycloallylation 13 in 68% yield. Diastereoselective conjugate reduction of the enone 13 (>20:1 dr) followed by exchange of the N-protecting group provides the saturated N-Boc-protected methyl ketone 19, which upon aldol dehydration provides quinoline containing enone 15, possessing all carbon atoms of quinine. Exposure of ketone 15 to L-selectride enables diastereoselective carbonyl reduction (>20:1 dr) to furnish the allylic alcohol 16. Stereoselective hydroxyl-directed epoxidation using an oxovanadium catalyst modified by N-hydroxy-N-Me-pivalamide delivers epoxide 17 (17:1 dr). Cyclization of the resulting amine-epoxide 17 provides (+/-)-7-hydroxyquinine in 13 steps and 11% overall yield from aminoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal. Notably, highly stereoselective formation of five contiguous stereocenters is achieved through a series of 1,2-asymmetric induction events. Deoxygenation of the N-Cbz-protected allylic acetate 22 provides olefin 23, which previously has been converted to quinine. Thus, (+/-)-quinine is accessible in 16 steps and 4% overall yield from commercial aminoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal.
Project description:We describe our results in the attempted template syntheses of oligomacrocycle calixpyrrole dimer 4, using Hay coupling reaction conditions, tetraalkynyl calixpyrrole 5 as starting material and two bipyridyl N-oxides of different length as templates. We found that the short bis-N-oxide 3 was not an efficient template for the macrocyclization reaction producing an insoluble crude reaction mixture containing exclusively oligomerization and polycondensation products. On the other hand, when we used the long bis-N-oxide 6 as template we obtained a soluble crude reaction mixture in which we did not detect the expected calixpyrrole dimer 4. Instead, we isolated, in low yield, an encapsulation complex of the bis-N-oxide 6 in a partially reacted calixpyrrole dimer. The major isolated species was an unprecedented calixpyrrole tetramer encapsulating two molecules of 6. The complex adopted a chiral helical-like conformation in the solid state resembling the previously described so-called "Siamese-Twin porphyrins".
Project description:?3-Allyl palladium complexes are key intermediates in Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reactions. It is well known that (?3-1-aryl-3-alkyl substituted allyl)Pd intermediates result in nucleophilic attack at the alkyl substituted terminus. In contrast, the chemistry of (?3-1,2,3-trisubstituted allyl)Pd intermediates is relatively unexplored. Herein we probe the regioselectivity with 1,2,3-trisubstituted allylic substrates in Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reactions. DFT investigation of cationic (?3-1-Ph-2-B(pin)-3-alkyl-allyl)Pd(PPh3)2 intermediates predict that nucleophilic attack should occur preferentially on anti-allyls rather than the syn-isomers to generate benzylic substitution products under Curtin-Hammett conditions. Experimentally, systematic studies with 1,2,3-trisubstituted allylic substrates revealed that a Linear Free Energy Relationship (LFER) is observed when Charton steric parameters of the C-2 substituents are plotted against the log of the ratio of regioisomers. Bulkier C-2 substituents in 1,2,3-trisubstituted ?3-allyl palladium intermediates provide stronger preference for nucleophilic attack at anti-oriented benzylic termini. Additionally, the geometry of 1,4-elimination products supports the presence of anti-allyl palladium intermediates.
Project description:We report the intramolecular Tsuji-Trost reaction of Ugi adducts to give spiro-diketopiperazines in high yield and with high enantioselectivity. This approach allows the catalytic asymmetric construction of a broad range of these medicinally important heterocycles under mild conditions, in two steps from cheap, commercially available starting materials.
Project description:Chiral syn-1,3-diols are fundamental structural motifs in many natural products and drugs. The traditional Narasaka-Prasad diastereoselective reduction from chiral ?-hydroxyketones is an important process for the synthesis of these functionalized syn-1,3-diols, but it is of limited applicability for large-scale synthesis because (1) highly diastereoselective control requires extra explosive and flammable Et2BOMe as a chelating agent under cryogenic conditions and (2) only a few functional syn-1,3-diol scaffolds are available. Those involving halogen-functionalized syn-1,3-diols are much less common. There are no reported diastereoselective reactions involving chemical fixation of CO2/bromocyclization of homoallylic alcohols to halogen-containing chiral syn-1,3-diols. Herein, we report an asymmetric synthesis of syn-1,3-diol derivatives via direct diastereoselective carboxylation/bromocyclization with both relative and absolute stereocontrol utilizing chiral homoallylic alcohols and CO2 in one pot with up to 91% yield, > 99% ee, and >19:1 dr. The power of this methodology has been demonstrated by the asymmetric synthesis of statins at the pilot plant scale.
Project description:Methylene-bridged calixarenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise the complex assembly process. The ability to covalently link calixarenes at the methylene bridge provides significantly improved control over the introduction of different metal centres to resulting cluster motifs. Clusters assembled from bis-calixarenes and transition metal ions or 3d-4f combinations display characteristic features of the analogous calixarene supported clusters, thereby demonstrating an enhanced and rational approach towards the targeted synthesis of complex and challenging structures.