Structure of the nonameric bacterial amyloid secretion channel.
ABSTRACT: Various strains of bacteria are able to produce a unique class of functional amyloids termed curli, which are critical for biofilm formation, host cell adhesion, and colonization of inert surfaces. Curli are secreted via the type VIII bacterial secretion system, and they share biochemical and structural characteristics with amyloid fibers that have been implicated in deleterious disease in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of Escherichia coli CsgG, which is an essential lipoprotein component of the type VIII secretion system and which forms a secretion channel in the bacterial outer membrane for transporting curli subunits. CsgG forms a crown-shaped, symmetric nonameric channel that spans the outer membrane via a 36-strand ?-barrel, with each subunit contributing four ?-strands. This nonameric complex contains a central channel with a pore located at the middle. The eyelet of the pore is ?12 Å in diameter and is lined with three stacked nine-residue rings consisting of Tyr-66, Asn-70, or Phe-71. Our structure-based functional studies suggest that Tyr-66 and Phe-71 residues function as gatekeepers for the selective secretion of curli subunits. Our study describes in detail, to our knowledge, the first core structure of the type VIII bacterial secretion machinery. Importantly, our structural analysis suggests that the curli subunits are secreted via CsgG across the bacterial outer membrane in an unfolded form.
Project description:Curli play critical roles in biofilm formation, host cell adhesion, and colonization of inert surfaces in many Enterobacteriaceae. In Escherichia coli, curli biogenesis requires 7 curli-specific gene (csg) products-CsgA through G-working in concert. Of them, CsgG and CsgF are 2 outer membrane (OM)-localized components that consists of the core apparatus for secretion and assembly of curli structural subunits, CsgB and CsgA. Here, we report the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of CsgG in complex with CsgF from E. coli. The structure reveals that CsgF forms a stable complex with CsgG via a 1:1 stoichiometry by lining the upper lumen of the nonameric CsgG channel via its N-terminal 27 residues, forming a funnel-like entity plugged in the CsgG channel and creating a unique secretion channel with 2 constriction regions, consistent with the recently reported structure of the CsgG-CsgF complex. Functional studies indicate that export of CsgF to the cell surface requires the CsgG channel, and CsgF not only functions as an adaptor that bridges CsgB with CsgG but also may play important roles in controlling the rates of translocation and/or polymerization for curli structural subunits. Importantly, we found that a series of CsgF-derived peptides are able to efficiently inhibit curli production to E. coli when administrated exogenously, highlighting a potential strategy to interfere biofilm formation in E. coli strains.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria have eight known protein secretion systems. The type-VIII secretion system, also known as the curli biosynthesis system, is responsible for the formation of aggregative fibres known in Escherichia coli as curli. Curli are extracellular proteinaceous fibres primarily involved in bacterial biofilm formation and attachment to nonbiotic surfaces. The secretion of curli subunits depends on a dedicated lipoprotein, CsgG, which is found to form an oligomeric secretion channel in the outer membrane. A nonlipidated mutant of CsgG was expressed and crystallized in a soluble form. The crystals diffracted to 3.15 Å resolution and belong to space group P1 with a unit cell containing a predicted 16 molecules per asymmetric unit.
Project description:Curli are extracellular amyloid fibres produced by Escherichia coli that are critical for biofilm formation and adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces. CsgA and CsgB are the major and minor curli subunits, respectively, while CsgE, CsgF and CsgG direct the extracellular localization and assembly of curli subunits into fibres. The secretion and stability of CsgA and CsgB are dependent on the outer membrane lipoprotein CsgG. Here, we identified functional interactions between CsgG and CsgE during curli secretion. We discovered that CsgG overexpression restored curli production to a csgE strain under curli-inducing conditions. In antibiotic sensitivity and protein secretion assays, CsgG expression alone allowed translocation of erythromycin and small periplasmic proteins across the outer membrane. Coexpression of CsgE with CsgG blocked non-specific protein and antibiotic passage across the outer membrane. However, CsgE did not block secretion of proteins containing a 22-amino-acid putative outer membrane secretion signal of CsgA (A22). Finally, using purified proteins, we found that CsgE prohibited the self-assembly of CsgA into amyloid fibres. Collectively, these data indicate that CsgE provides substrate specificity to the curli secretion pore CsgG, and acts directly on the secretion substrate CsgA to prevent premature subunit assembly.
Project description:Curli are functional amyloid fibres that constitute the major protein component of the extracellular matrix in pellicle biofilms formed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (predominantly of the ? and ? classes). They provide a fitness advantage in pathogenic strains and induce a strong pro-inflammatory response during bacteraemia. Curli formation requires a dedicated protein secretion machinery comprising the outer membrane lipoprotein CsgG and two soluble accessory proteins, CsgE and CsgF. Here we report the X-ray structure of Escherichia coli CsgG in a non-lipidated, soluble form as well as in its native membrane-extracted conformation. CsgG forms an oligomeric transport complex composed of nine anticodon-binding-domain-like units that give rise to a 36-stranded ?-barrel that traverses the bilayer and is connected to a cage-like vestibule in the periplasm. The transmembrane and periplasmic domains are separated by a 0.9-nm channel constriction composed of three stacked concentric phenylalanine, asparagine and tyrosine rings that may guide the extended polypeptide substrate through the secretion pore. The specificity factor CsgE forms a nonameric adaptor that binds and closes off the periplasmic face of the secretion channel, creating a 24,000 Å(3) pre-constriction chamber. Our structural, functional and electrophysiological analyses imply that CsgG is an ungated, non-selective protein secretion channel that is expected to employ a diffusion-based, entropy-driven transport mechanism.
Project description:A major component of bacterial biofilms is curli amyloid fibrils secreted by the curli biogenesis system. Understanding the curli biogenesis mechanism is critical for developing therapeutic agents for biofilm-related infections. Here we report a systematic study of the curli biogenesis system, highlighted by structural, biochemical and functional analysis of the secretion channel complexes (CsgF-CsgG) with and without the curli substrate. The dual-pore architecture of the CsgF-CsgG complex was observed and used to develop an approach to inhibit the curli secretion by physically reducing the size of the CsgF pore. We further elucidated the assembly of the CsgFG complex with curli components (CsgA and CsgB) and curli-cell association through CsgF. Importantly, the recognition of the CsgA substrate by CsgG was uncovered. Nine crevices outside of the CsgG channel provide specific and highly-conserved recognition sites for CsgA N-terminus. Together with analysis of CsgE, our study provides comprehensive insights into curli biogenesis.
Project description:Produced by many Enterobacteriaceae spp., curli are biologically important amyloid fibres that have been associated with biofilm formation, host cell adhesion and invasion, and immune system activation. CsgA is the major fibre subunit and CsgE, CsgF and CsgG are non-structural proteins involved in curli biogenesis. We have characterized the role of CsgG in curli subunit secretion across the outer membrane. Directed mutagenesis of CsgG confirmed that its activity is dependent on localization to the outer membrane. Rotary Shadow electron microscopy of purified CsgG suggested that this protein assembles into an oligomeric complex with an apparent central pore. Oligomeric CsgG complexes were confirmed using co-purification experiments. Antibiotic sensitivity assays demonstrated that overexpression of CsgG rendered Escherichia coli susceptible to the antibiotic erythromycin. A 22-amino-acid sequence at the N-terminus of CsgA was sufficient to direct heterologous proteins to the CsgG secretion apparatus. Finally, we determined that CsgG participates in an outer membrane complex with two other curli assembly proteins, CsgE and CsgF.
Project description:Curli, consisting primarily of major structural subunit CsgA, are functional amyloids produced on the surface of Escherichia coli, as well as many other enteric bacteria, and are involved in cell colonization and biofilm formation. CsgE is a periplasmic accessory protein that plays a crucial role in curli biogenesis. CsgE binds to both CsgA and the nonameric pore protein CsgG. The CsgG-CsgE complex is the curli secretion channel and is essential for the formation of the curli fibril in vivo. To better understand the role of CsgE in curli formation, we have determined the solution NMR structure of a double mutant of CsgE (W48A/F79A) that appears to be similar to the wild-type (WT) protein in overall structure and function but does not form mixed oligomers at NMR concentrations similar to the WT. The well-converged structure of this mutant has a core scaffold composed of a layer of two ?-helices and a layer of three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet with flexible N and C termini. The structure of CsgE fits well into the cryoelectron microscopy density map of the CsgG-CsgE complex. We highlight a striking feature of the electrostatic potential surface in CsgE structure and present an assembly model of the CsgG-CsgE complex. We suggest a structural mechanism of the interaction between CsgE and CsgA. Understanding curli formation can provide the information necessary to develop treatments and therapeutic agents for biofilm-related infections and may benefit the prevention and treatment of amyloid diseases. CsgE could establish a paradigm for the regulation of amyloidogenesis because of its unique role in curli formation.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria assemble functional amyloid surface fibers called curli. CsgB nucleates the major curli subunit protein, CsgA, into a self-propagating amyloid fiber on the cell surface. The CsgG lipoprotein is sufficient for curlin transport across the outer membrane and is hypothesized to be the central molecule of the curli fiber secretion and assembly complex. We tested the hypothesis that the curli secretion protein, CsgG, was restricted to certain areas of the cell to promote the interaction of CsgA and CsgB during curli assembly. Here, electron microscopic analysis of curli-producing strains showed that relatively few cells in the population contacted curli fibers and that curli emanated from spatially discrete points on the cell surface. Microscopic analysis revealed that CsgG was surface exposed and spatially clustered around curli fibers. CsgG localization to the outer membrane and exposure of the surface domain were not dependent on any other csg-encoded protein, but the clustering of CsgG required the csg-encoded proteins CsgE, CsgF, CsgA, and CsgB. CsgG formed stable oligomers in all the csg mutant strains, but these oligomers were distinct from the CsgG complexes assembled in wild-type cells. Finally, we found that efficient fiber assembly was required for the spatial clustering of CsgG. These results suggest a new model where curli fiber formation is spatially coordinated with the CsgG assembly apparatus.
Project description:The biofilms of Enterobacteriaceae are fortified by assembly of curli amyloid fibres on the cell surface. Curli not only provides structural reinforcement, but also facilitates surface adhesion. To prevent toxic intracellular accumulation of amyloid precipitate, secretion of the major curli subunit, CsgA, is tightly regulated. In this work, we have employed solution state NMR spectroscopy to characterise the structural ensemble of the pre-fibrillar state of CsgA within the bacterial periplasm, and upon recruitment to the curli pore, CsgG, and the secretion chaperone, CsgE. We show that the N-terminal targeting sequence (N) of CsgA binds specifically to CsgG and that its subsequent sequestration induces a marked transition in the conformational ensemble, which is coupled to a preference for CsgE binding. These observations lead us to suggest a sequential model for binding and structural rearrangement of CsgA at the periplasmic face of the secretion machinery.
Project description:Bacteria produce functional amyloid fibers called curli in a controlled, noncytotoxic manner. These extracellular fimbriae enable biofilm formation and promote pathogenicity. Understanding curli biogenesis is important for appreciating microbial lifestyles and will offer clues as to how disease-associated human amyloid formation might be ameliorated. Proteins encoded by the curli specific genes (csgA-G) are required for curli production. We have determined the structure of CsgC and derived the first structural model of the outer-membrane subunit translocator CsgG. Unexpectedly, CsgC is related to the N-terminal domain of DsbD, both in structure and oxido-reductase capability. Furthermore, we show that CsgG belongs to the nascent class of helical outer-membrane macromolecular exporters. A cysteine in a CsgG transmembrane helix is a potential target of CsgC, and mutation of this residue influences curli assembly. Our study provides the first high-resolution structural insights into curli biogenesis.