Atomistic MD simulation reveals the mechanism by which CETP penetrates into HDL enabling lipid transfer from HDL to CETP.
ABSTRACT: Inhibition of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), a protein mediating transfer of neutral lipids between lipoproteins, has been proposed as a means to elevate atheroprotective HDL subpopulations and thereby reduce atherosclerosis. However, off-target and adverse effects of the inhibition have raised doubts about the molecular mechanism of CETP-HDL interaction. Recent experimental findings have demonstrated the penetration of CETP into HDL. However, atomic level resolution of CETP penetration into HDL, a prerequisite for a better understanding of CETP functionality and HDL atheroprotection, is missing. We constructed an HDL particle that mimics the actual human HDL mass composition and investigated for the first time, by large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics, the interaction of an upright CETP with a human HDL-mimicking model. The results demonstrated how CETP can penetrate the HDL particle surface, with the formation of an opening in the N barrel domain end of CETP, put in evidence the major anchoring role of a tryptophan-rich region of this domain, and unveiled the presence of a phenylalanine barrier controlling further access of HDL-derived lipids to the tunnel of CETP. The findings reveal novel atomistic details of the CETP-HDL interaction mechanism and can provide new insight into therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobic environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Individuals with exceptional longevity and their offspring have significantly larger high-density lipoprotein concentrations (HDL-C) particle sizes due to the increased homozygosity for the I405V variant in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene. In this study, we investigate the association of CETP and HDL-C further to identify novel, independent CETP variants associated with HDL-C in humans. METHODS:We performed a meta-analysis of HDL-C within the CETP region using 59,432 individuals imputed with 1000 Genomes data. We performed replication in an independent sample of 47,866 individuals and validation was done by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS:The meta-analysis of HDL-C within the CETP region identified five independent variants, including an exonic variant and a common intronic insertion. We replicated these 5 variants significantly in an independent sample of 47,866 individuals. Sanger sequencing of the insertion within a single family confirmed segregation of this variant. The strongest reported association between HDL-C and CETP variants, was rs3764261; however, after conditioning on the five novel variants we identified the support for rs3764261 was highly reduced (?unadjusted=3.179?mg/dl (P value=5.25×10-509), ?adjusted=0.859?mg/dl (P value=9.51×10-25)), and this finding suggests that these five novel variants may partly explain the association of CETP with HDL-C. Indeed, three of the five novel variants (rs34065661, rs5817082, rs7499892) are independent of rs3764261. CONCLUSIONS:The causal variants in CETP that account for the association with HDL-C remain unknown. We used studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel for fine mapping of the CETP region. We identified and validated five variants within this region that may partly account for the association of the known variant (rs3764261), as well as other sources of genetic contribution to HDL-C.
Project description:Several genes have been shown to individually affect plasma lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Studies on gene-gene interactions could offer more insight into how genes affect lipid metabolism and may be useful in predicting lipid concentrations. We tested for gene-gene interactions between TaqIB SNP in the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely rs11774572, rs7819412 and rs6995374 for their effect on metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and related traits.The aforementioned SNPs were genotyped in 1002 subjects who participated in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. Lipids were measured by standard procedures and lipoprotein subfractions, by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Polymorphism rs11774572 was significantly associated with MetS (P=0.020), mainly driven by the association of the C allele with lower HDL-C (P=0.043) and higher triglycerides (P=0.049) and insulin (P=0.040) concentrations than TT subjects. A significant interaction between SNPs rs11774572 and CETP-TaqIB SNPs was found for HDL-C concentrations (P=0.006) and for HDL (P=0.008) and LDL particle sizes (P=0.009), small LDL (P=0.004), and VLDL concentrations (P=0.021), in which TT homozygotes displayed higher HDL-C concentrations and for HDL and LDL particle sizes, and lower small LDL and VLDL concentrations than C carriers, if they were CETP B2 allele carriers (P values ranging from <0.001 to 0.001).The rs11774572 polymorphism may play a role in the dyslipidemia that characterizes MetS. The interaction between rs11774572 and CETP-TaqIB SNPs on HDL-C concentrations provides some insights into the underlying mechanisms.
Project description:In clinical trials, inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) raises HDL cholesterol levels but does not robustly improve cardiovascular outcomes. Approximately two-thirds of trial participants are obese. Lower plasma CETP activity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in human studies, and protective aspects of CETP have been observed in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with regard to metabolic outcomes. To define whether CETP inhibition has different effects depending on the presence of obesity, we performed short-term anacetrapib treatment in chow- and HFD-fed CETP transgenic mice. Anacetrapib raised HDL cholesterol and improved aspects of HDL functionality, including reverse cholesterol transport, and HDL's antioxidative capacity in HFD-fed mice was better than in chow-fed mice. Anacetrapib worsened the anti-inflammatory capacity of HDL in HFD-fed mice. The HDL proteome was markedly different with anacetrapib treatment in HFD- versus chow-fed mice. Despite benefits on HDL, anacetrapib led to liver triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Overall, our results support a physiologic importance of CETP in protecting from fatty liver and demonstrate context selectivity of CETP inhibition that might be important in obese subjects.
Project description:The atheroprotective role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in cardiovascular disease has been unequivocally established, and epidemiological data have clearly demonstrated a strong inverse relationship between HDL-C levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, which is independent of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Thus, it would be logical to hypothesize that raising HDL-C might potentially lead to a reduction of cardiovascular risk. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to very low-density lipoprotein and LDL. Therefore, CETP inhibition raises HDL-C levels and decreases LDL-C levels. The first trials with CETP inhibitors failed to show a reduction in cardiovascular events. However, newer CETP inhibitors with more favorable effects on lipids are presently being tested in clinical trials with the hope that their use may lead to a reduction in cardiovascular risk. This review aims to provide the current evidence regarding CETP inhibition, as well as the clinical and scientific data pertaining to the new CETP inhibitors in development.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Using a mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism, we observed previously that reduction of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) content resulted in a decrease in plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and an increase in HDL levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of prolonged caloric restriction in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in a major reduction in hepatic TG content, on plasma CETP and HDL levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 27 obese (BMI: 37.2 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) insulin-dependent patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (14 men and 13 women, aged 55 ± 2 years) who received a 16-week very low calorie diet (VLCD). At baseline and after a 16-week VLCD, plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and CETP were measured. Furthermore, functionality of HDL with respect to inducing cholesterol efflux from human monocyte cells (THP-1) was determined. RESULTS: A 16-week VLCD markedly decreased plasma CETP concentration (-18%; P < 0.01) and increased plasma apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels (+16%; P < 0.05), without significantly affecting plasma HDL-cholesterol and HDL-phospholipids. Although a VLCD results in HDL that is less lipidated, the functionality of HDL with respect to inducing cholesterol efflux in vitro was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The marked decrease in hepatic TG content induced by a 16-week VLCD is accompanied by a decrease in plasma CETP concentration and an increase in apoAI levels, without improving the cholesterol efflux properties of HDL in vitro.
Project description:In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C; as such, medicines that inhibit CETP and raise HDL-C are in clinical development. Here, we test the hypothesis that CETP DNA sequence variants associated with higher HDL-C also increase risk for ICH.We performed 2 candidate-gene analyses of CETP. First, we tested individual CETP variants in a discovery cohort of 1,149 ICH cases and 1,238 controls from 3 studies, followed by replication in 1,625 cases and 1,845 controls from 5 studies. Second, we constructed a genetic risk score comprised of 7 independent variants at the CETP locus and tested this score for association with HDL-C as well as ICH risk.Twelve variants within CETP demonstrated nominal association with ICH, with the strongest association at the rs173539 locus (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.25, standard error [SE]?=?0.06, p?=?6.0?×?10-4 ) with no heterogeneity across studies (I2 ?=?0%). This association was replicated in patients of European ancestry (p?=?0.03). A genetic score of CETP variants found to increase HDL-C by ?2.85mg/dl in the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium was strongly associated with ICH risk (OR?=?1.86, SE?=?0.13, p?=?1.39?×?10-6 ).Genetic variants in CETP associated with increased HDL-C raise the risk of ICH. Given ongoing therapeutic development in CETP inhibition and other HDL-raising strategies, further exploration of potential adverse cerebrovascular outcomes may be warranted. Ann Neurol 2016;80:730-740.
Project description:Genetic deficiency or inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) leads to a marked increase in plasma levels of large HDL-2 particles. However, there is concern that such particles may be dysfunctional in terms of their ability to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Recently, the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a macrophage liver X receptor (LXR) target, has been shown to stimulate cholesterol efflux to HDL. We have assessed the ability of HDL from subjects with homozygous deficiency of CETP (CETP-D) to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages and have evaluated the role of ABCG1 and other factors in this process. CETP-D HDL-2 caused a 2- to 3-fold stimulation of net cholesterol efflux compared with control HDL-2 in LXR-activated macrophages, due primarily to an increase in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase-mediated (LCAT-mediated) cholesteryl ester formation in media. Genetic knockdown or overexpression of ABCG1 showed that increased cholesterol efflux to CETP-D HDL was ABCG1 dependent. LCAT and apoE contents of CETP-D HDL-2 were markedly increased compared with control HDL-2, and increased cholesterol esterification activity resided within the apoE-HDL fraction. Thus, CETP-D HDL has enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux from foam cells in an ABCG1-dependent pathway due to an increased content of LCAT and apoE.
Project description:Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Whether these associations are modified by physical activity, which increases HDL-C levels and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, is uncertain.In a prospective cohort study of 22 939 apparently healthy US women of European ancestry, we selected 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes that demonstrated genome-wide association (P<5×10(-8)) with HDL-C levels and sought evidence of effect modification according to levels of physical activity. Physical activity modified the effects on HDL-C of 7 SNPs at 3 loci, and the strongest evidence of effect was observed for rs10096633 at lipoprotein lipase (LPL), rs1800588 at hepatic lipase (LIPC), and rs1532624 at cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) (each P-interaction<0.05). The per-minor-allele increase in HDL-C for rs1800588 at LIPC and rs1532624 at CETP was greater in active than inactive women, whereas the reverse was observed for rs10096633 at LPL. Minor-allele carrier status at the LPL SNP was associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in active (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.86) but not among inactive women (hazard ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.61; P-interaction=0.007). By contrast, carrier status at the CETP SNP was associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction regardless of activity level (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.92; P-interaction=0.71). No association between LIPC SNP carrier status and myocardial infarction risk was noted.The effects of common variants in the LPL, LIPC, and CETP genes on HDL-C levels are modified by physical activity. For a common variant in LPL, the impact on myocardial infarction varied by activity level, whereas the effects of a common variant in CETP on myocardial infarction risk did not.
Project description:Mechanisms underlying changes in HDL composition caused by obesity are poorly defined, partly because mice lack expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which shuttles triglyceride and cholesteryl ester between lipoproteins. Because menopause is associated with weight gain, altered glucose metabolism, and changes in HDL, we tested the effect of feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) and ovariectomy (OVX) on glucose metabolism and HDL composition in CETP transgenic mice. After OVX, female CETP-expressing mice had accelerated weight gain with HFD-feeding and impaired glucose tolerance by hyperglycemic clamp techniques, compared with OVX mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Sham-operated mice (SHAM) did not show HFD-induced weight gain and had less glucose intolerance than OVX mice. Using shotgun HDL proteomics, HFD-feeding in OVX mice had a large effect on HDL composition, including increased levels of apoA2, apoA4, apoC2, and apoC3, proteins involved in TG metabolism. These changes were associated with decreased hepatic expression of SR-B1, ABCA1, and LDL receptor, proteins involved in modulating the lipid content of HDL. In SHAM mice, there were minimal changes in HDL composition with HFD feeding. These studies suggest that the absence of ovarian hormones negatively influences the response to high-fat feeding in terms of glucose tolerance and HDL composition. CETP-expressing mice may represent a useful model to define how metabolic changes affect HDL composition and function.