Carbon nanotube fiber microelectrodes show a higher resistance to dopamine fouling.
ABSTRACT: We have compared the properties and resistance to DA fouling of a carbon nanotube fiber (CNTF) microelectrode to a traditional carbon fiber (CF) microelectrode. These two materials show comparable electrochemical activities for outer-sphere and inner-sphere redox reactions. Although the CNTF might have a higher intrinsic RC constant, thus limiting its high-frequency behavior, the CNTF shows a significantly higher durability than the CF in terms of electrode stability. During constant oxidation of 100 ?M DA, the signal measured by the CNTF microelectrode shows a 2-h window over which no decrease in current is observed. Under the same conditions, the current obtained at the CF microelectrode decreases by almost 50%. A model of the fouling process, assuming the formation of growing patches of insulator on the surface, has been compared to the data. This model is found to be in good agreement with our results and indicates a growth rate of the patches in the 0.1-2 nm s(-1) range.
Project description:Abnormal neurochemical signaling is often the underlying cause of brain disorders. Electrochemical microsensors are widely used to monitor neurochemicals with high spatial-temporal resolution. However, they rely on carbon fiber microelectrodes that often limit their sensing performance. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of a hybrid multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film modified boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) microelectrode (250 ?m diameter) microsensor for improved detection of dopamine (DA) in the presence of common interferents. A series of modified microelectrodes with varying film thicknesses were microfabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and silver deposition imaging. Using cyclic voltammetry, the 100-nm "thin" film microelectrode produced the most favorable combination of DA sensitivity value of 36 ±2% ?A/?M/cm2 with a linear range of 33 nM to 1 ?M and a limit of detection (LOD) of 9.5 ± 1.2% nM. The EIS spectra of these microelectrodes revealed three regions with inhomogeneous pore geometry and differing impedance values and electrochemical activity, which was found to be film thickness dependent. Using differential pulse voltammetry, the modified microelectrode showed excellent selectivity by exhibiting three distinct peaks for the DA, serotonin and excess ascorbic acid in a ternary mixture. These results provide two key benefits: first, remarkable improvements in DA sensitivity (>125-fold), selectivity (>2000-fold) and LOD (>180-fold), second, these MWCNTs can be selectively coated with a simple, scalable and low cost EPD process for highly multiplexed microsensor technologies. These advances offer considerable promise for further progress in chemical neurosciences.
Project description:Dopamine (DA) is a monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for the maintenance of a variety of vital life functions. In vivo DA signaling occurs over multiple time scales, from subsecond phasic release due to dopamine neuron firing to tonic release responsible for long-term DA concentration changes over minutes to hours. Due to the complex, multifaceted nature of DA signaling, analytical sensing technology must be capable of recording DA from multiple locations and over multiple time scales. Decades of research has focused on improving in vivo detection capabilities for subsecond phasic DA, but the accurate detection of absolute resting DA levels in real time has proven challenging. We have developed a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based nanocomposite coating that exhibits excellent DA sensing capabilities for resting DA. PEDOT/functionalized carbon nanotube (PEDOT/CNT)-coated carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) are capable of directly measuring resting DA using square wave voltammetry (SWV) with high sensitivity and selectivity. Incorporation of a PEDOT/CNT coating significantly increases the sensitivity for the detection of resting DA by a factor of 422. SWV measurements performed at PEDOT/CNT-functionalized CFEs implanted in the rat dorsal striatum reveal the absolute basal DA concentration to be 82 ± 6 nM. Systemic administration of the dopamine transporter inhibitor nomifensine increases resting DA to a maximum 207 ± 16 nM at 28 ± 2 min following injection. PEDOT/CNT was also functionalized onto individual gold electrode sites along silicon microelectrode arrays (MEAs) to produce a multisite DA sensing electrode. MEA implantation allows for the quantification of basal DA from different brain regions with excellent spatial resolution. SWV detection paired with PEDOT/CNT functionalization is highly adaptable and shows great promise for tonic DA detection with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Project description:During exocytosis, small quantities of neurotransmitters are released by the cell. These neurotransmitters can be detected quantitatively using electrochemical methods, principally with disk carbon fiber microelectrode amperometry. An exocytotic event then results in the recording of a current peak whose characteristic features are directly related to the mechanisms of exocytosis. We have compared two exocytotic peak populations obtained from PC12 cells with a disk carbon fiber microelectrode and with a pyrolyzed carbon ring microelectrode array, with a 500 nm ring thickness. The specific shape of the ring electrode allows for precise analysis of diffusion processes at the vicinity of the cell membrane. Peaks obtained with a ring microelectrode array show a distorted average shape, owing to increased diffusion pathways. This result has been used to evaluate the diffusion coefficient of dopamine at the surface of a cell, which is up to an order of magnitude smaller than that measured in free buffer. The lower rate of diffusion is discussed as resulting from interactions with the glycocalyx.
Project description:L-DOPA has been the gold standard for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, its efficacy wanes over time as motor complications develop. Very little is known about how L-DOPA therapy affects the dynamics of fluctuating dopamine concentrations in the striatum on a rapid time scale (seconds). Electrochemical studies investigating the effects of L-DOPA treatment on electrically evoked dopamine release have reported conflicting results with significant variability. We hypothesize that the uncertainty in the electrochemical data is largely due to electrode fouling caused by polymerization of L-DOPA and endogenous catecholamines on the electrode surface. Thus, we have systematically optimized the procedure for fabricating cylindrical, Nafion-coated, carbon-fiber microelectrodes. This has enabled rapid and reliable detection of L-DOPA's effects on striatal dopamine signaling in intact rat brain using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. An acute dose of 5 mg/kg L-DOPA had no significant effect on dopamine dynamics, demonstrating the highly efficient regulatory mechanisms at work in the intact brain. In contrast, administration of 200 mg/kg L-DOPA significantly increased the amplitude of evoked dopamine release by ?200%. Overall, this work describes a reliable tool that allows a better measure of L-DOPA augmented dopamine release in vivo, measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. It provides a methodology that improves the stability and performance of the carbon-fiber microelectrode when studying the molecular mechanisms underlying L-DOPA therapy and also promises to benefit a wide variety of studies because Nafion is so commonly used in electroanalytical chemistry.
Project description:Electrochemical microelectrodes are commonly used to record amperometric spikes of current that result from oxidation of transmitter released from individual vesicles during exocytosis. Whereas the exquisite sensitivity of these measurements is well appreciated, a better understanding of the noise sources that limit the resolution of the technique is needed to guide the design of next-generation devices. We measured the current power spectral density (S(I)) of electrochemical microelectrodes to understand the physical basis of dominant noise sources and to determine how noise varies with the electrode material and geometry. We find that the current noise is thermal in origin in that S(I) is proportional to the real part of the admittance of the electrode. The admittance of microelectrodes is well described by a constant phase element model such that both the real and imaginary admittance increase with frequency raised to a power of 0.84-0.96. Our results demonstrate that the current standard deviation is proportional to the square root of the area of the working electrode, increases ?linearly with the bandwidth of the recording, and varies with the choice of the electrode material with Au ? carbon fiber > nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon > indium-tin-oxide. Contact between a cell and a microelectrode does not appreciably increase noise. Surface-patterned microchip electrodes can have a noise performance that is superior to that of carbon-fiber microelectrodes of the same area.
Project description:Nanodiamonds (NDs) are carbon nanomaterials with a core diamond crystalline structure and crystal defects, such as graphitic carbon and heteroatoms, on their surface. For electrochemistry, NDs are promising to increase active sites and decrease fouling, but NDs have not been studied for neurotransmitter electrochemistry. Here, we optimized ND coatings on microelectrodes and found that ND increases the sensitivity for neurotransmitters with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection and decreases electrochemical and biofouling. Different sizes and functionalizations of NDs were tested, and ND suspensions were drop-casted onto carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). The 5 nm ND-H and 5 nm ND-COOH formed thick coatings, while the 15 and 60 nm ND-COOH formed more sparse coatings. With electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, 5 nm ND-H and 5 nm ND-COOH had high charge-transfer resistance, while 15 and 60 nm ND-COOH had low charge-transfer resistance. ND-COOH (15 nm) was optimal, with the best electrocatalytic properties and current for dopamine. Sensitivity was enhanced 2.1 ± 0.2 times and the limit of detection for dopamine improved to 3 ± 1 nM. ND coating increased current for other cations such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, but not for the anion ascorbic acid. Moreover, NDs decreased electrochemical fouling from serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and they also decreased biofouling in brain slice tissue by 50%. The current at biofouled ND-coated electrodes is similar to the signal of pristine, unfouled CFMEs. The carboxylated ND-modified CFMEs are beneficial for neurotransmitter detection because of easy fabrication, improved limit of detection, and antifouling properties.
Project description:Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), closed cone-shaped cages of sp 2-hybridized carbons, are a promising nanomaterial to improve carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFME) dues to their high specific surface area and edge planes, but few studies have tested their electrochemical properties. Here, we tested the dopamine detection at electrodeposited CNHs on CFME (CNH/CFME). The optimized concentration of CNHs in the deposition solution is 0.5 mg/mL, and the optimized electrodeposition waveform is 10 cycles of triangular waveform scanned from -1.0 V and +1.0 V at 50 mV/s. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the optimized CNH/CFME enhances dopamine peak current to 2.3 ± 0.2 times that of the CFME. To further increase the current, CNH/CFMEs were oxidized in NaOH (ox-CNH/CFME), which creates more defects and surface oxide groups to adsorb dopamine. The oxidative etching further increases the peak current to 3.5 ± 0.2 times of the CFME, and ox-CNH/CFME had a limit of detection of 6 ± 2 nM. The dopamine anodic current at ox-CNH/CFME was stable for 8 h of continuous scanning. The ox-CNH/CFME enhanced the anodic peak current for other cationic neurotransmitters including epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, but less enhancement was found for ascorbic acid, showing higher selectivity for cationic molecules. CNHs also decreased tissue biofouling at CFME. Thus, electrodeposited CNHs are a promising new method for increasing the surface area and current of CFMEs for dopamine detection.
Project description:A rapid and highly sensitive miniaturized amperometric biosensor for the detection of ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) based on a carbon fiber electrode (CFE) is presented. The biosensor is constructed by immobilizing the enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) on the surface of single carbon fiber modified by co-deposition of ruthenium (Ru) and rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles. SEM and EDX shed useful insights into the morphology and composition of the modified microelectrode. The mixed Ru/Rh coating offers a greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), with a substantial decrease in overpotential of ? 400 mV compared to the unmodified CFE. It also imparts higher stability with minimal surface fouling, common to NADH oxidation. Further modification with the enzyme, GLUD leads to effective amperometric biosensing of ?-KG through monitoring of the NADH consumption. A very rapid response to dynamic changes in the ?-KG concentrations is observed with a response time of 6s. The current response is linear between 100 and 600 ?M with a sensitivity of 42 ?AM(-1) and a detection limit of 20 ?M. This proof of concept study indicates that the GLUD-Ru/Rh-CFE biosensor holds great promise for real-time electrochemical measurements of ?-KG.
Project description:This work presents a simple, low cost method for creating microelectrodes for electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs). The microelectrodes were constructed by backfilling small holes made in polyester sheets using a CO2 laser etching system. To make electrical connections, the working electrodes were combined with silver screen-printed paper in a sandwich type two-electrode configuration. The devices were characterized using linear sweep voltammetry, and the results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for electrode size and shape. As a proof-of-concept, cysteine was measured using cobalt phthalocyanine as a redox mediator. The rate constant (k(obs)) for the chemical reaction between cysteine and the redox mediator was obtained by chronoamperometry and found to be on the order of 10(5) s(-1) M(-1). Using a microelectrode array, it was possible to reach a limit of detection of 4.8 ?M for cysteine. The results show that carbon paste microelectrodes can be easily integrated with paper-based analytical devices.
Project description:The vascular response during cortical microelectrode insertion was measured with amplitude decorrelation-based quantitative optical coherence angiography (OCA). Four different shank-style microelectrode configurations were inserted in murine motor cortex beneath a surgically implanted window in discrete steps while OCA images were collected and processed for angiography and flowmetry. Quantitative measurements included tissue displacement (measured by optical flow), perfused capillary density, and capillary flow velocity. The primary effect of insertion was mechanical perturbation, the effects of which included tissue displacement, arteriolar rupture, and compression of a branch of the anterior cerebral artery causing a global decrease in flow. Other effects observed included local flow drop-out in the region immediately surrounding the microelectrode. The mean basal capillary network velocity for all animals was 0.23 ( ±0.05??SD ) and 0.18 ( ±0.07??SD ) mm/s for capillaries from 100 to 300???m and 300 to 500???m , respectively. Upon insertion, the 2-shank electrode arrays caused a decrease in capillary flow density and velocity, while the results from other configurations were not different from controls. The proximity to large vessels appears to play a larger role than the array configuration. These results can guide neurosurgeons and electrode designers to minimize trauma and ischemia during microelectrode insertion.