A bovine cDNA and a yeast gene (VMA8) encoding the subunit D of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.
ABSTRACT: Subunit D of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) from bovine chromaffin granules was subjected to partial proteolysis and amino acid sequencing. A cDNA encoding this subunit was isolated and sequenced. The predicted open reading frame encodes a protein of 247 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 28,336. Northern blot analysis revealed an mRNA distribution with higher transcript amounts in tissues that are active in secretion. A homologous gene was identified as open reading frame 11 in chromosome V of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two proteins exhibit 55% identity with several conservative replacements. Interruption of the yeast gene, denoted as VMA8, resulted in the null mutant delta vma8::URA3 that, like all the other V-ATPase null mutants, did not grow on medium buffered at pH 7.5 and showed no accumulation of quinacrine into their vacuoles. Transformation of the null mutant with a plasmid containing the VMA8 gene restored the wild-type phenotype. This supports the conclusion that subunit D is an integral subunit of the catalytic sector of V-ATPase and its structural analysis suggests analogy to the gamma subunit of F-ATPases.
Project description:Many functions of vacuole depend on the activity of vacuolar ATPase which is essential to maintain an acidic lumen and create the driving forces for massive fluxes of ions and metabolites through vacuolar membrane. In filamentous fungus Magnaportheoryzae, subcellular colocalization and quinacrine staining suggested that the V1V0 domains of V-ATPase were fully assembled and the vacuoles were kept acidic during infection-related developments. Targeted gene disruption of MoVMA11 gene, encoding the putative c' subunit of V-ATPase, impaired vacuolar acidification and mimicked the phenotypes of yeast V-ATPase mutants in the poor colony morphology, abolished asexual and sexual reproductions, selective carbon source utilization, and increased calcium and heavy metals sensitivities, however, not in the typical pH conditional lethality. Strikingly, aerial hyphae of the MoVMA11 null mutant intertwined with each other to form extremely thick filamentous structures. The results also implicated that MoVMA11 was involved in cell wall integrity and appressorium formation. Abundant non-melanized swollen structures and rare, small appressoria without penetration ability were produced at the hyphal tips of the ?Movma11 mutant on onion epidermal cells. Finally, the MoVMA11 null mutant lost pathogenicity on both intact and wounded host leaves. Overall, our data indicated that MoVMA11, like other fungal VMA genes, is associated with numerous cellular functions and highlighted that V-ATPase is essential for infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenesis in M. oryzae.
Project description:Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of isolated chromaffin granules were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination and by non-enzymic biotinylation. Granule membranes were then prepared, and the H+-translocating ATPase isolated by fractionation with Triton X-114. The labelling of individual ATPase subunits was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography or by blotting and decoration with 125I-labelled streptavidin. Subunits of 72, 57 and kDa were strongly labelled, and could be removed from the membrane at pH 11: they are therefore extrinsic proteins. The 120 kDa subunit was also labelled, but it was not solubilized at pH 11. Photolabelling with a hydrophobic probe indicated that this subunit penetrates the bilayer, and enzymic degradation studies showed the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides; this subunit therefore spans the chromaffin-granule membrane. Labelling of the 17 kDa subunit occurred predominantly on the extracytoplasmic (matrix) face of the granule membrane. These results are consistent with this V-type ATPase having a structure that is generally similar to that of mitochondrial (F-type) ATPases, although the attachment of the 120 kDa subunit may be asymmetrical.
Project description:Vacuolar (V)-ATPase is a proton-translocating enzyme that acidifies cellular compartments for various functions such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and protein degradation. Previous studies in Dermacentor variabilis chronically infected with Rickettsia montanensis have identified V-ATPase as one of the tick-derived molecules transcribed in response to rickettsial infection. To examine the role of the tick V-ATPase in tick-Rickettsia interactions, a full-length 2887-bp cDNA (2532-bp open reading frame) clone corresponding to the transcript of the V0 domain subunit a of D. variabilis V-ATPase (DvVATPaseV0a) gene encoding an 843 amino acid protein with an estimated molecular weight of ~96 kDa was isolated from D. variabilis. Amino acid sequence analysis of DvVATPaseV0a showed the highest similarity to VATPaseV0a from Ixodes scapularis. A potential N-glycosylation site and eight putative transmembrane segments were identified in the sequence. Western blot analysis of tick tissues probed with polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant DvVATPaseV0a revealed the expression of V-ATPase in the tick ovary. Transcriptional profiles of DvVATPaseV0a demonstrated a greater mRNA expression in the tick ovary, compared with the midgut and salivary glands; however, the mRNA level in each of these tick tissues remained unchanged after infection with R. montanensis for 1 h. V-ATPase inhibition bioassays resulted in a significant decrease in the ability of R. montanensis to invade tick cells in vitro, suggesting a role of V-ATPase in rickettsial infection of tick cells. Characterization of tick-derived molecules involved in rickettsial infection is essential for a thorough understanding of rickettsial transmission within tick populations and the ecology of tick-borne rickettsial diseases.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vacuolar proteins such as carboxypeptidase Y transit from the Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole via an endosome-like intermediate compartment. The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutant vps28, a member of the "class E" vps mutants, accumulates vacuolar, endocytic, and late Golgi markers in an aberrant endosome-like class E compartment. Sequence analysis of VPS28 revealed an open reading frame predicted to encode a hydrophilic protein of 242 amino acids. Consistent with this, polyclonal antiserum raised against Vps28p recognized a cytoplasmic protein of 28 kDa. Disruption of VPS28 resulted in moderate defects in both biosynthetic traffic and endocytic traffic destined for the vacuole. The transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolases to the vacuole was impaired in vps28 null mutant cells (approximately 40-50% carboxypeptidase Y missorted). Internalization of the endocytic marker FM 4-64, a vital lipophilic dye, resulted in intense staining of a small intracellular compartment adjacent to an enlarged vacuole in delta vps28 cells. Furthermore, the vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulated in the perivacuolar class E compartment in delta vps28 cells, as did a-factor receptor Ste3p that was internalized from the plasma membrane. Electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of a novel compartment consisting of stacks of curved membrane cisternae. Immunolocalization studies demonstrated that the vacuolar H+-ATPase is associated with this cupped cisternal structure, indicating that it corresponds to the class E compartment observed by fluorescence microscopy. Our data indicate that kinetic defects in both anterograde and retrograde transport out of the prevacuolar compartment in vps28 mutants result in the accumulation of protein and membrane in an exaggerated multilamellar endosomal compartment. We propose that Vps28p, as well as other class E Vps proteins, may facilitate (possibly as coat proteins) the formation of transport intermediates required for efficient transport out of the prevacuolar endosome.
Project description:Vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase) is a primary proton pump with versatile functions in various tissues. In nerve cells, V-ATPase is required for accumulation of neurotransmitters into secretory vesicles and subsequent release at the synapse. Neurons express a specific isoform (G2) of the G subunit of V-ATPase constituting the catalytic sector of the enzyme complex. Using gene targeting, we generated a mouse lacking functional G2 (G2 null), which showed no apparent disorders in architecture and behavior. In the G2-null mouse brain, a G1 subunit isoform, which is ubiquitously expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, accumulated more abundantly than in wild-type animals. This G1 upregulation was not accompanied by an increase in mRNA. These results indicate that loss of function of neuron-specific G2 isoform was compensated by an increase in levels of the G1 isoform without apparent upregulation of the G1 mRNA.
Project description:The catalytic subunit of the H+/K(+)-transporting ATPase (EC 220.127.116.11) has 62% identity to the alpha, or catalytic subunit, of the Na+/K(+)-transporting ATPase (EC 18.104.22.168); however, a homologous beta subunit was unknown until recently. Removal of the carbohydrate from purified hog H+/K(+)ATPase vesicles reveals a 35-kDa peptide that, when fragmented with protease V8, gives sequences homologous to both beta 1 and beta 2 subunits of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. cDNA clones for a beta subunit of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase were isolated from a rabbit stomach cDNA library by using degenerate 17-mer oligonucleotide probes made to the protease V8-treated peptides. An open reading frame (54-926) encodes a predicted 291-amino acid peptide with Mr = 33,320, which exhibits 31% and 44% homologies to the Na+/K+)-ATPase beta 1 and Na+/K(+)-ATPase beta 2 proteins, respectively. A Kyte-Doolittle hydropathy plot predicts a single N-terminal transmembrane domain with a small hydrophobic region near the C terminus. The presumed extracytosolic domain contains seven potential N-linked glycosylation sites and six out of nine cysteines. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of stomach RNA with the rabbit H+/K(+)-ATPase beta probe identifies a single mRNA of 1.3-1.5 kilobases, similar in concentration to the alpha subunit mRNA. The presence of a defined gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase beta subunit extends the homology between H+/K(+)-ATPase and the Na+/K(+)-ATPase subclass of phosphoenzyme transport ATPases and distinguishes them from the monomeric Ca2+ and proton pump subclasses.
Project description:Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum produce rhizobitoxine, a phytotoxin that causes foliar chlorosis on susceptible host plants. We have previously obtained Tn5-induced rhizobitoxine null mutants of B. japonicum. DNA sequence analysis of the region surrounding two Tn5 insertions identifies two overlapping open reading frames. The first open reading frame (rtxA) predicts a 54-kDa protein for which the N-terminal 280 residues have sequence similarity to serine: pyruvate aminotransferase. The sequence homology to aminotransferase is consistent with the involvement of this gene in serinol production, a likely intermediate in rhizobitoxine biosynthesis. Previously, a mutant in this open reading frame was shown not to make serinol. The predicted amino acid sequence of the second open reading frame (rtxB) has similarity to yeast O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrolase. This enzyme function is similar to that required for dihydrorhizobitoxine synthase. The DNA sequence shows that the rtxB open reading frame overlaps rtxA, suggesting that expression of rtxB requires a -1 translational frameshift. Protein expression experiments demonstrate production of an RtxAB fusion protein. The ability of the overlapping rtxA and rtxB sequences to promote a translational frameshift was confirmed in a heterologous expression system. In Escherichia coli, this frameshift appears to be unusually efficient, occurring at a frequency of 80-90%.
Project description:The gene encoding the theta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, designated holE, was isolated using a strategy in which peptide sequence was used to derive a DNA hybridization probe. Sequencing of the gene, which maps to 41.43 centisomes of the chromosome, revealed a 76-codon open reading frame predicted to produce a protein of 8,846 Da. When placed in a tac promoter expression vector, the open reading frame directed expression of a protein, that comigrated with authentic theta subunit from purified holoenzyme, to 6% of total soluble protein.
Project description:The XYN2 gene encoding the main Trichoderma reesei QM 6a endo-beta-1,4-xylanase was amplified by PCR from first-strand cDNA synthesized on mRNA isolated from the fungus. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA fragment was verified to contain a 699-bp open reading frame that encodes a 223-amino-acid propeptide. The XYN2 gene, located on URA3-based multicopy shuttle vectors, was successfully expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase II (ADH2) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) gene promoters and terminators, respectively. The 33-amino-acid leader peptide of the Xyn2 beta-xylanase was recognized and cleaved at the Kex2-like Lys-Arg residues, enabling the efficient secretion and glycosylation of the heterologous beta-xylanase. The molecular mass of the recombinant beta-xylanase was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 27 kDa. The construction of fur1 ura3 S. cerevisiae strains allowed for the autoselection of the URA3-based XYN2 shuttle vectors in nonselective complex medium. These autoselective S. cerevisiae strains produced 1,200 and 160 nkat of beta-xylanase activity per ml under the control of the ADH2 and PGK1 promoters in rich medium, respectively. The recombinant enzyme showed highest activity at pH 6 and 60 degrees C and retained more than 90% of its activity after 60 min at 50 degrees C.
Project description:Chromaffin-granule membranes contain two ATPases, which can be separated by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation after solubilization with detergents, or by phase segregation in Triton X-114. ATPase I (Mr 400000) is inhibited by trialkyltin, quercetin and alkylating agents, and hydrolyses both ATP and ITP. It contains up to five types of subunit, including a low-Mr hydrophobic polypeptide that reacts with dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide; these subunits are unrelated to those of mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase, as judged by size and reaction with antibodies. ATPase II (Mr 140000) is inhibited by vanadate, and is specific for ATP; it has not been extensively purified. Proton translocation by resealed chromaffin-granule 'ghosts', measured by uptake of methylamine or by quenching of the fluorescence of 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine, is supported by the hydrolysis of ATP or ITP, and inhibited by quercetin or alkylating agents, but not by vanadate. ATPase I must therefore be the proton translocator involved in the uptake of catecholamines and possibly of other components of the chromaffin-granule matrix, whereas ATPase II does not translocate protons.