NGX6a is degraded through a proteasome-dependent pathway without ubiquitination mediated by ezrin, a cytoskeleton-membrane linker.
ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated that the NGX6b gene acts as a suppressor in the invasion and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Recently, we identified the novel isoform NGX6a, which is longer than NGX6b. In this study, we first found that NGX6a was degraded in NPC cells and that this degradation was mediated by ezrin, a linker between membrane proteins and the cytoskeleton. Specific siRNAs against ezrin increase the protein level of NGX6a in these cells. During degradation, NGX6a is not ubiquitinated but is degraded through a proteasome-dependent pathway. The distribution pattern of ezrin was negatively associated with NGX6a in an immunochemistry analysis of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue microarray and fetus multiple organ tissues and Western blot analysis in nasopharyngeal and NPC cell lines, suggesting that ezrin and NGX6a are associated and are involved in the progression and invasion of NPC. By mapping the interacting binding sites, the seven-transmembrane domain of NGX6a was found to be the critical region for the degradation of NGX6a, and the amino terminus of ezrin is required for the induction of NGX6a degradation. The knockdown of ezrin or transfection of the NGX6a mutant CO, which has an EGF-like domain and a transmembrane 1 domain, resulted in no degradation, significantly reducing the ability of invasion and migration of NPC cells. This study provides a novel molecular mechanism for the low expression of NGX6a in NPC cells and an important molecular event in the process of invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Project description:N,N'-Dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) is a carcinogen for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which shows organ specificity to nasopharyngeal epithelium. Herein, we demonstrate that DNP induces fiber formation of NPC cells (6-10B) and also increases invasion and motility of 6-10B cells. DNP-mediated NPC metastasis also was confirmed in nude mice. Importantly, DNP induced the expression of phosphorylated ezrin (phos-ezrin) at threonine 567 (Thr-567) dose- and time-dependently but had no effect on the total ezrin expression at these concentrations. Furthermore, DNP-induced phos-ezrin expression was dependent on increased Rho kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. DNP may activate Rho kinase through binding to its pleckstrin homology and may activate PKC through promoting its translocation to the plasma membrane in vivo. DNP-induced phos-ezrin was associated with induction of fiber growth in 6-10B cells. However, DNP could not induce motility and invasion of NPC cells containing ezrin mutated at Thr-567. Similarly, DNP could not induce motility and invasion of the cells containing siRNAs against Rho or PKC. These results indicate that DNP induces ezrin phosphorylation at Thr-567, increases motility and invasion of cells, and promotes tumor metastasis. DNP may be involved in NPC metastasis through regulation of ezrin phosphorylation at Thr-567.
Project description:Tumor metastasis is a complex phenomenon that is the culmination of effects of numerous cellular factors. We have shown that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), is capable of inducing a wide range of such factors in cell culture, expression of which is also elevated in the LMP1-expressing tumor, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a highly invasive neoplasm. Recently, the membrane crosslinker protein, ezrin, has been implicated in tumor cell metastasis and malignant progression. In this study, we evaluated the possible role of LMP1 and ezrin in the pathophysiology of NPC. We show that C-terminal phosphorylation of ezrin is increased by the expression of LMP1 in nasopharyngeal (NP) cells through a protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. LMP1 enhances the organization of a ternary complex of CD44, ezrin and F-actin, which is a prerequisite for ezrin phosphorylation. In NPC tissues, the expression of phosphoezrin and LMP1 is directly correlated. Silencing of endogenously expressed ezrin suppresses LMP1-induced cell motility and invasiveness. Moreover, the inhibition of ezrin phosphorylation by PKC inhibitor suppresses migration and invasion of NP cells. These data show that the phosphorylation of ezrin and its recruitment to the cell membrane linked to F-actin and CD44 is a process required for LMP1-stimulated cell motility and invasion of NP cells.
Project description:N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) with organ specificity for nasopharyngeal epithelium, is involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) metastasis, though its mechanism is unclear. To reveal the pathogenesis of DNP-induced metastasis, immunoprecipitation was used to identify DNP-mediated phosphoproteins. DNP-mediated NPC cell line (6-10B) motility and invasion was confirmed. Twenty-six phosphoproteins were increased at least 1.5-fold following DNP exposure. Changes in the expression levels of selected phosphoproteins were verified by Western-blotting analysis. DNP treatment altered the phosphorylation of ezrin (threonine 567), vimentin (serine 55), stathmin (serine 25) and STAT3 (serine 727). Furthermore, it was shown that DNP-dependent metastasis is mediated in part through ezrin at threonine 567, as DNP-mediated metastasis was decreased when threonine 567 of ezrin was mutated. Strikingly, NPC metastatic tumors exhibited a higher expression of phosphorylated-ezrin at threonine 567 than the primary tumors. These findings provide novel insight into DNP-induced NPC metastasis and may contribute to a better understanding of the metastatic mechanisms of NPC tumors.
Project description:Ezrin is highly expressed in metastatic tumors and is involved in filopodia formation as well as promotion of tumor metastasis. Thus, Ezrin may serve as a potential target for anti-metastatic therapy. This study demonstrates that berberine reduces filopodia formation of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line, 5-8F, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, invasion and motility of 5-8F cells are decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, resulting in 73.0% invasion and 67.0% motility inhibition at 20 mum. The inhibitory effects of berberine on 5-8F cell metastasis were further confirmed in a mouse model of metastasis. Berberine treatment in vivo resulted in a 51.1% inhibition of tumor metastasis to the lymph nodes and decreased Ezrin phosphorylation at threonine 567 in metastatic samples. Berberine suppressed the presence of phosphorylated Ezrin (phospho-Ezrin) in a dose- and time-dependent manner but had no effect on total Ezrin protein expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of berberine on phospho-Ezrin were dependent on the suppression of Rho kinase activity. Reduction of Ezrin phosphorylation at Thr(567) by berberine was associated with its inhibitory effect on filopodia formation in 5-8F cells. However, berberine did not effectively inhibit the motility and invasion of NPC cells containing Ezrin Thr(567) mutants. These results confirm that berberine inhibits Ezrin phosphorylation at Thr(567). Nonetheless, berberine reduces motility and invasion of cells and inhibits tumor metastasis. The reduction of Rho kinase-mediated Ezrin phosphorylation mediated by berberine may be a novel anti-metastatic pathway in NPC 5-8F cells.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the development and progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but the epigenetic mechanisms underlying NPC metastasis remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that hypermethylation of the UCHL1 promoter leads to its downregulation in NPC. Restoration of UCHL1 inhibited the migration and invasion of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo, and knockdown of UCHL1 promoted NPC cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we found that UCHL1 interacts with CTTN, and may function as a ligase promoting CTTN degradation by increasing K48-linked ubiquitination of CTTN. Additionally, restoration of CTTN in NPC cells that overexpressed UCHL1 rescued UCHL1 suppressive effects on NPC cell migration and invasion, which indicated that CTTN is a functional target of UCHL1 in NPC. Our findings revealed that UCHL1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in NPC and thus provided a novel therapeutic target for NPC treatment.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a polygenetic disease. SPLUNC1, UBAP1, BRD7, NAG7, NOR1, NGX6 and LTF genes were found to be tumor suppressor/susceptibility genes in different stages of NPC. SPLUNC1, an early warning molecular diagnosis marker, inhibits the bacteria clone formation, and is an innated immune molecule. SPLUNC1 can negatively regulate the ERK/MAPK signaling transduction pathway to inhibit NPC cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. BRD7, a transcript regulation factor, interacts with BRD2, and promotes apoptosis induced by BRD2. Its promoter is regulated by c-Myc and SP1. BRD7 inhibits NPC cell cycle progression, preventing passage through G0/G1 by suppressing ras/MEK/ERK, Rb/E2F and Wnt signaling pathways. Abnormal activation of BRD7 is crucial to cell cycle turbulence in NPC. NGX6, a metastasis-associated protein, can negative-regulate the EGF/Ras/MAPK signaling transduction pathway, and interacts with ezrin protein to inhibit NPC cell invasion and metastasis. LTF, also a metastasis-associated protein, can negatively regulate MAPK signal transduction pathways, such as JNK2 and ERK, to inhibit NPC cell proliferation and growth. Taken together, it was found that these tumor suppressor/susceptibility genes can regulate key molecules involved in cell signal pathways such as ras/MEK/ERK, Rb/E2F and EGFR ras/MEK/MAPK, and can regulate the expression of some adhesion molecules such as ezrin, nm23 and alpha-catenin. According to functional genomics and signaling transduction pathways, we have described a signaling cross-talk network between the tumor suppressor/susceptibility genes involved in NPC. These tumor suppressor/susceptibility genes may be potential treatment targets for NPC in the future.
Project description:Rho GTPase-activating protein 42 was identified as an inhibitor of RhoA to maintain normal blood pressure homeostasis. However, the effect of ARHGAP42 in promoting cell malignancy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is demonstrated in this study. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR were used for a mRNA profiling of ARHGAP42 in nasopharyngeal primary and metastatic carcinoma tissues. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining were used for detecting the expression of ARHGAP42 protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cell lines. The overexpression and silence experiments of ARHGAP42 were performed in NPC cell lines using siRNA and expressive plasmid for evaluating cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, and transwell test were employed for with the function of ARHGAP42 and its antisense lncRNA uc010rul. We confirmed the elevated expression of ARHGAP42 in metastatic NPC tissues of mRNA and protein for the first time. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that NPC patients with highly ARHGAP42 expression were significantly associated with shorter metastasis-free survival. Knockdown of ARHGAP42 resulted in significant inhibition of nasopharyngeal cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro, and the overexpression of ARHGAP42 showed the opposite effects. In addition, the silence of uc010rul resulted in ARHGAP42 expression decrease and significant inhibition of nasopharyngeal cancer cell migration and invasion. High expression of ARHGAP42 is associated with poor metastasis-free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. ARHGAP42 promotes migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro; the antisense lncRNA may be involved in this effect.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common human cancers in South-East Asia exhibiting typical features of lipid accumulation. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) is expressed in most NPCs enhancing migration and invasion. We recently showed an increased accumulation of lipid droplets in NPC, compared with normal nasopharyngeal epithelium. It is important to uncover the mechanism behind this lipid metabolic shift to better understand the pathogenesis of NPC and provide potential therapeutic targets. We show that LMP2A increased lipid accumulation in NPC cells. LMP2A could block lipid degradation by downregulating the lipolytic gene adipose triglycerol lipase (ATGL). This is in contrast to lipid accumulation due to enhanced lipid biosynthesis seen in many cancers. Suppression of ATGL resulted in enhanced migration in vitro, and ATGL was found downregulated in NPC biopsies. The reduced expression level of ATGL correlated with poor overall survival in NPC patients. Our findings reveal a new role of LMP2A in lipid metabolism, correlating with NPC patient survival depending on ATGL downregulation.
Project description:Podoplanin, a transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein, is now widely used as a marker for lymphatic endothelial cells and fibroblastic reticular cells in lymphoid organs, but its study in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still limited. The aims of this study were t characterize the role of PDPN in NPC. Our results showed that PDPN was expressed in most TW01 NPC cells. PDPN knockdown by siRNA decreased NPC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Knocking down PDPN results in suppression of NPC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. PDPN may serve as a potential chemotherapeutic target for NPC treatment in the future. Overall design: Total RNA from NPC cells treated with or without200 nM PDPN siRNA for 48 hours at 37°C was extracted using an illustra RNAspin Mini RNA isolation kit (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, UK) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Amplification and biotinylation of the RNA and hybridization of the fragmented biotin-labeled cRNA with Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip microarrays.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) causes severe oncogenic lesions in the nasopharynx. CD47, a transmembrane integrin-associated protein, plays a key role in the ability of tumor cells to escape phagocytosis, working as an immune checkpoint in the immune response. Besides this role, CD47 has been reported to regulate cell proliferation and migration. The present study addresses the relationship between CD47 and microRNA-200a and examines their regulatory mechanisms in NPC. Bioinformatics analyses and dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to confirm the putative relationship between miR-200a and CD47, and their interaction was further detected using western blotting and RT-PCR. Further, results showed that miR-200a affect NPC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by regulating CD47. A cell phagocytosis assay showed that miR-200a and a CD47 monoclonal antibody increased the sensitivity of NPC cells to macrophage phagocytosis by inhibiting the functions of CD47. Additionally, miR-200a expression was suppressed and CD47 expression increased in both clinical NPC tissues and cell lines. Taken together, these results show the miR-200a/CD47 combination as a potential therapeutic for treatment of NPC.