JARID2 is involved in transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung and colon cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT: Histone methylation plays a crucial role in various biological and pathological processes including cancer development. In this study, we discovered that JARID2, an interacting component of Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) that catalyzes methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27), was involved in Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-ß)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of A549 lung cancer cell line and HT29 colon cancer cell line. The expression of JARID2 was increased during TGF-ß-induced EMT of these cell lines and knockdown of JARID2 inhibited TGF-ß-induced morphological conversion of the cells associated with EMT. JARID2 knockdown itself had no effect in the expression of EMT-related genes but antagonized TGF-ß-dependent expression changes of EMT-related genes such as CDH1, ZEB family and microRNA-200 family. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that JARID2 was implicated in TGF-ß-induced transcriptional repression of CDH1 and microRNA-200 family genes through the regulation of histone H3 methylation and EZH2 occupancies on their regulatory regions. Our study demonstrated a novel role of JARID2 protein, which may control PRC2 recruitment and histone methylation during TGF-ß-induced EMT of lung and colon cancer cell lines.
Project description:Histone methylation is implicated in a number of biological and pathological processes, including cancer development. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for the recruitment of Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) and its accessory component, JARID2, to chromatin, which regulates methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27), during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. The expression of MEG3 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which could interact with JARID2, was clearly increased during transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-induced EMT of human lung cancer cell lines. Knockdown of MEG3 inhibited TGF-?-mediated changes in cell morphology and cell motility characteristic of EMT and counteracted TGF-?-dependent changes in the expression of EMT-related genes such as CDH1, ZEB family, and the microRNA-200 family. Overexpression of MEG3 influenced the expression of these genes and enhanced the effects of TGF-? in their expressions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that MEG3 regulated the recruitment of JARID2 and EZH2 and histone H3 methylation on the regulatory regions of CDH1 and microRNA-200 family genes for transcriptional repression. RNA immunoprecipitation and chromatin isolation by RNA purification assays indicated that MEG3 could associate with JARID2 and the regulatory regions of target genes to recruit the complex. This study demonstrated a crucial role of MEG3 lncRNA in the epigenetic regulation of the EMT process in lung cancer cells.
Project description:Transcriptionally repressive histone H3 lysine 27 methylation by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for cellular differentiation and development. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human PRC2 in a basal state and two distinct active states while in complex with its cofactors JARID2 and AEBP2. Both cofactors mimic the binding of histone H3 tails. JARID2, methylated by PRC2, mimics a methylated H3 tail to stimulate PRC2 activity, whereas AEBP2 interacts with the RBAP48 subunit, mimicking an unmodified H3 tail. SUZ12 interacts with all other subunits within the assembly and thus contributes to the stability of the complex. Our analysis defines the complete architecture of a functionally relevant PRC2 and provides a structural framework to understand its regulation by cofactors, histone tails, and RNA.
Project description:Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins maintain transcriptional repression throughout development, mostly by regulating chromatin structure. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), a component of the Polycomb machinery, is responsible for the methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3). Jarid2 was previously identified as a cofactor of PRC2, regulating PRC2 targeting to chromatin and its enzymatic activity. Deletion of Jarid2 leads to impaired orchestration of gene expression during cell lineage commitment. Here, we reveal an unexpected crosstalk between Jarid2 and PRC2, with Jarid2 being methylated by PRC2. This modification is recognized by the Eed core component of PRC2 and triggers an allosteric activation of PRC2's enzymatic activity. We show that Jarid2 methylation is important to promote PRC2 activity at a locus devoid of H3K27me3 and for the correct deposition of this mark during cell differentiation. Our results uncover a regulation loop where Jarid2 methylation fine-tunes PRC2 activity depending on the chromatin context.
Project description:Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) is a group of proteins that play an important role during development and in cell differentiation. PRC2 is a histone-modifying complex that catalyses methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) at differentiation genes leading to their transcriptional repression. JARID2 is a co-factor of PRC2 and is important for targeting PRC2 to chromatin. Here, we show that, unlike in embryonic stem cells, in lineage-committed human cells, including human epidermal keratinocytes, JARID2 predominantly exists as a novel low molecular weight form, which lacks the N-terminal PRC2-interacting domain (ΔN-JARID2). We show that ΔN-JARID2 is a cleaved product of full-length JARID2 spanning the C-terminal conserved jumonji domains. JARID2 knockout in keratinocytes results in up-regulation of cell cycle genes and repression of many epidermal differentiation genes. Surprisingly, repression of epidermal differentiation genes in JARID2-null keratinocytes can be rescued by expression of ΔN-JARID2 suggesting that, in contrast to PRC2, ΔN-JARID2 promotes activation of differentiation genes. We propose that a switch from expression of full-length JARID2 to ΔN-JARID2 is important for the up-regulation differentiation genes.
Project description:Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) is a group of proteins that play an important role during development and in cell differentiation. PRC2 is a histone-modifying complex that catalyses methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) at differentiation genes leading to their transcriptional repression. JARID2 is a co-factor of PRC2 and is important for targeting PRC2 to chromatin. Here, we show that, unlike in embryonic stem cells, in lineage-committed human cells, including human epidermal keratinocytes, JARID2 predominantly exists as a novel low molecular weight form, which lacks the N-terminal PRC2-interacting domain (?N-JARID2). We show that ?N-JARID2 is a cleaved product of full-length JARID2 spanning the C-terminal conserved jumonji domains. JARID2 knockout in keratinocytes results in up-regulation of cell cycle genes and repression of many epidermal differentiation genes. Surprisingly, repression of epidermal differentiation genes in JARID2-null keratinocytes can be rescued by expression of ?N-JARID2 suggesting that, in contrast to PRC2, ?N-JARID2 promotes activation of differentiation genes. We propose that a switch from expression of full-length JARID2 to ?N-JARID2 is important for the up-regulation differentiation genes.
Project description:Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) comprises specific members of the Polycomb group of epigenetic modulators. PRC2 catalyzes methylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3) through its Enhancer of zeste (Ezh) constituent, of which there are two mammalian homologs: Ezh1 and Ezh2. Several ancillary factors, including Jarid2, modulate PRC2 function, with Jarid2 facilitating its recruitment to target genes. Jarid2, like Ezh2, is present in poorly differentiated and actively dividing cells, while Ezh1 associates with PRC2 in all cells, including resting cells. We found that Jarid2 exhibits nucleosome-binding activity that contributes to PRC2 stimulation. Moreover, such nucleosome-binding activity is exhibited by PRC2 comprising Ezh1 (PRC2-Ezh1), in contrast to PRC2-Ezh2. The presence of Ezh1 helps to maintain PRC2 occupancy on its target genes in myoblasts where Jarid2 is not expressed. Our findings allow us to propose a model in which PRC2-Ezh2 is important for the de novo establishment of H3K27me3 in dividing cells, whereas PRC2-Ezh1 is required for its maintenance in resting cells.
Project description:Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes mono-, di-, and trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me1-3) to control expression of genes important for differentiation and maintenance of cell identity. PRC2 activity is regulated by a number of different inputs, including allosteric activation by its product, H3K27me3. This positive feedback loop is thought to be important for the establishment of large domains of condensed heterochromatin. In addition to other chromatin modifications, ancillary subunits of PRC2, foremost JARID2, affect the rate of H3K27 methylation. Many gaps remain in our understanding of how PRC2 integrates these various signals to determine where and when to deposit H3K27 methyl marks. In this study, we utilize designer chromatin substrates to demonstrate that propagation of H3K27 methylation by the PRC2 core complex has geometrically defined preferences that are overridden by the presence of JARID2. Our studies also show that phosphorylation of JARID2 can partially regulate its ability to stimulate PRC2 activity. Collectively, these biochemical insights further our understanding of the mechanisms that govern PRC2 activity, and highlight a role for JARID2 in de novo deposition of H3K27me3-containing repressive domains.
Project description:The Polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 play a central role in developmental gene regulation in multicellular organisms. PRC1 and PRC2 modify chromatin by catalysing histone H2A lysine 119 ubiquitylation (H2AK119u1), and H3 lysine 27 methylation (H3K27me3), respectively. Reciprocal crosstalk between these modifications is critical for the formation of stable Polycomb domains at target gene loci. While the molecular mechanism for recognition of H3K27me3 by PRC1 is well defined, the interaction of PRC2 with H2AK119u1 is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a critical role for the PRC2 cofactor Jarid2 in mediating the interaction of PRC2 with H2AK119u1. We identify a ubiquitin interaction motif at the amino-terminus of Jarid2, and demonstrate that this domain facilitates PRC2 localization to H2AK119u1 both in vivo and in vitro. Our findings ascribe a critical function to Jarid2 and define a key mechanism that links PRC1 and PRC2 in the establishment of Polycomb domains.
Project description:Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are the most frequent soft-tissue sarcoma in children and characteristically show features of developing skeletal muscle. The alveolar subtype is frequently associated with a PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein that is known to contribute to the undifferentiated myogenic phenotype of RMS cells. Histone methylation of lysine residues controls developmental processes in both normal and malignant cell contexts. Here we show that JARID2, which encodes a protein known to recruit various complexes with histone-methylating activity to their target genes, is significantly overexpressed in RMS with PAX3-FOXO1 compared with the fusion gene-negative RMS (t-test; P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses showed that higher JARID2 levels are also associated with metastases at diagnosis, independent of fusion gene status and RMS subtype (n = 120; P = 0.039). JARID2 levels were altered by silencing or overexpressing PAX3-FOXO1 in RMS cell lines with and without the fusion gene, respectively. Consistent with this, we demonstrated that JARID2 is a direct transcriptional target of the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein. Silencing JARID2 resulted in reduced cell proliferation coupled with myogenic differentiation, including increased expression of Myogenin (MYOG) and Myosin Light Chain (MYL1) in RMS cell lines representative of both the alveolar and embryonal subtypes. Induced myogenic differentiation was associated with a decrease in JARID2 levels and this phenotype could be rescued by overexpressing JARID2. Furthermore, we that showed JARID2 binds to and alters the methylation status of histone H3 lysine 27 in the promoter regions of MYOG and MYL1 and that the interaction of JARID2 at these promoters is dependent on EED, a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Therefore, JARID2 is a downstream effector of PAX3-FOXO1 that maintains an undifferentiated myogenic phenotype that is characteristic of RMS. JARID2 and other components of PRC2 may represent novel therapeutic targets for treating RMS patients.
Project description:JARID2 is a non-catalytic member of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which is known to regulate developmental target genes in embryonic stem cells. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the modulation of Wnt signaling by JARID2 during murine skeletal muscle differentiation.We show that JARID2 is expressed in proliferating myoblasts, but downregulated upon muscle differentiation. Unexpectedly, depletion of JARID2 or the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, EZH2, inhibited differentiation, suggesting that JARID2 and the PRC2 complex are required to initiate this process. Expression of the myogenic regulatory factors required to promote differentiation, MYOD and MYOG, was downregulated in the absence of JARID2, even though decreases in the methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) were observed on both promoters. We found that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway upregulated MYOD and restored differentiation. Activation of the Wnt pathway in JARID2 depleted cells caused ?-catenin to translocate to the nucleus, where it bound to and activated the Myod1 promoter. We show that the Wnt antagonist SFRP1 is highly upregulated in the absence of JARID2 and is a direct target of JARID2 and the PRC2 complex. Ectopic expression of SFRP1 blocked MYOD and late muscle gene expression and inhibited the translocation of ?-catenin to the nucleus. Finally, we show that JARID2 and SFRP1 are inversely correlated in melanoma, confirming that the JARID2-mediated repression of SFRP1 extends beyond skeletal muscle and has important implications in many cellular systems, including cancer.We show that JARID2 and the PRC2 complex regulate muscle differentiation by modulating Wnt signaling through the direct repression of Wnt antagonists.