Aaptamine derivatives with antifungal and anti-HIV-1 activities from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos.
ABSTRACT: Five new alkaloids of aaptamine family, compounds (1-5) and three known derivatives (6-8), have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1-2 are characterized with triazapyrene lactam skeleton, whereas compounds 4-5 share an imidazole-fused aaptamine moiety. These compounds were evaluated in antifungal and anti-HIV-1 assays. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed antifungal activity against six fungi, with MIC values in the range of 4 to 64 ?g/mL. Compounds 7-8 exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity, with inhibitory rates of 88.0% and 72.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 ?M.
Project description:Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.
Project description:Six new cyclic peroxides (1-6) were isolated from the Korean sponge Plakortis simplex, along with two new alkylpyridinium alkaloids (7 and 8). The structures of these compounds were completely determined by a combination of NMR analysis and chemical reactions. Compounds 1-6 exhibited cytotoxic/antifungal activities against RAW264.7 cells and Candida albicans.
Project description:Screening natural product extracts from the National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Using LC-MS analysis to generate chemical structure information on potentially active compounds, two new cyclic hexapeptides, microsclerodermins J (1) and K (2), were isolated from the deep-water sponge Microscleroderma herdmani, along with microsclerodermins A (3) and B (4), previously isolated from an unidentified Microscleroderma species. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. In vitro antifungal testing showed that the four compounds possessed strong activities against the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus.
Project description:Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a-5g) that mimic the natural piperideines that were recently identified in fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c-5g with C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexadecyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine) and 5f (6-heptadecyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine) being the most active. Compound 5e exhibited minimum fungicidal concentrations of 3.8, 15.0, 7.5, and 7.5 ?g/mL against Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei, respectively. The antifungal activities of these compounds appear to be associated with the C-6 side chain length. This study represents the first effort to evaluate antifungal activities of synthetic analogues of the newly identified fire ant venom alkaloids.
Project description:Four new alkaloids, (-)-8'-oxo-agelasine D (2), ageloxime B (3), (+)-2-oxo-agelasidine C (4), and 4-bromo-N-(butoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (5), and the known compound (-)-ageloxime D (1) were isolated from the marine sponge Agelas mauritiana. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 3 both showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani in vitro. Compound 3 also exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureusin vitro.
Project description:Two new sceptrin derivatives (1,2) and eight structurally-related known bromopyrrole-bearing alkaloids were isolated from the tropical sponge Agelas kosrae. By a combination of spectroscopic methods, the new compounds, designated dioxysceptrin (1) and ageleste C (2), were determined to be structural analogs of each other that differ at the imidazole moiety. Dioxysceptrin was also found to exist as a mixture of ?-amido epimers. The sceptrin alkaloids exhibited weak cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Compounds 1 and 2 also moderately exhibited anti-angiogenic and isocitrate lyase-inhibitory activities, respectively.
Project description:Five new compounds, including a benzopyran ribonic glycoside, daldiniside A (1), two isocoumarin ribonic glycosides, daldinisides B (2) and C (3), and two alkaloids, 1-(3-indolyl)-2R,3-dihydroxypropan-1-one (4) and 3-ethyl-2, 5-pyrazinedipropanoic acid (5), along with five known compounds (6-10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the marine-associated fungus, Daldinia eschscholzii. Their structures were elucidated by extensive physicochemical and spectroscopic properties, besides comparison with literature data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 were corroborated by chemical transformation, GC analysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Meanwhile, the absolute configuration of compound 4 and the planar structure of compound 6 were also determined based on the X-ray diffraction analysis. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-10, antifungal and anti-HIV activities of compounds 1-5 and the in vitro assay for glucose consumption of compounds 1-3 were done in the anti-diabetic model, whereas none showed obvious activity.
Project description:The title compounds can be considered as simple analogues of quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs). In order to develop potent QBA-like antifungal agents, as our continuing study, a series of new title compounds were synthesized and evaluated for bioactivity against five plant pathogenic fungi by the mycelium growth rate method in this study. The SAR were also derived. The majority of the compounds showed good to excellent inhibition activity with average EC50 values of 7.87-20.0??M for the fungi, superior to sanguinarine and cherythrine (two QBAs) and the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Part of the compounds were more active than commercial fungicides thiabendazole or carbendazim against F. solani, F. graminearum and C. gloeosporioides. Six compounds with average EC50 of 3.5-5.1??g/mL possessed very great potential for development of new antifungal agents. SAR found that substitution patterns of the two aryl-rings significantly affect the activity. There exists a complex interaction effect between substituents of the two aryl-rings on the activity. Generally, the presence of electron-withdrawing groups on the C-ring can significantly increase the activity. These findings will be of great importance for the design of more potent antifungal isoquinoline agents.
Project description:As part of an investigation to generate optimized drug leads from marine natural pharmacophores for the treatment of neoplastic and infectious diseases, a series of novel isoaaptamine analogs were prepared by coupling acyl halides to the C9 position of isoaaptamine (2) isolated from the Aaptos sponge. This library of new semisynthetic products was evaluated for biological activity against HIV-1, Mtb, AIDS-OI, tropical parasitic diseases, and cancer. Compound 4 showed potent activity against HIV-1 (EC(50) 0.47microg/mL), compound 19 proved to possess remarkable activity against Mycobacterium intracellulare with an IC(50) and MIC value of 0.15 and 0.31microg/mL, while compounds 4 and 17 possessed anti-leishmanial activity with IC(50) values of 0.1 and 0.4microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 16 and 17 showed antimalarial activity with EC(50) values of 230 and 240ng/mL, respectively, and compound 14 exhibited an EC(50) of 0.05microM against the Leukemia cell line K-562.
Project description:Two new carbazole alkaloids (1,2) and six known carbazole alkaloids (3-8) were isolated from Clausena anisum-olens. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds (1-8) were evaluated for their anti-HIV effects on virus replication in MT-4 lymphocytes infected by HIV-1NL4-3 Nanoluc-sec virus, and new carbazole alkaloid 1 exhibited anti-HIV activity with an EC50 value of 2.4 ?g/mL and SI of 7.1.