Angiostatic, tumor inflammatory and anti-tumor effects of CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) in an EGF-dependent breast cancer model.
ABSTRACT: CXCL4 and CXCL4L1, platelet-derived CXC chemokines, and their carboxy-terminal peptides CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) previously displayed angiostatic and anti-tumoral activity in a melanoma model. Here, we found CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) to inhibit lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, the angiostatic potential of CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) was tested against different angiogenic stimuli (FGF1, FGF2, FGF8, EGF and VEGF). Besides reducing FGF2-induced vascular endothelial cell growth, CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) efficiently counteracted EGF. Consequently, we considered their anti-tumoral potential in EGF-dependent MDA-MB-231 breast tumors. In tumor-bearing mice, CXCL4(47-70) reduced tumor growth better than CXCL4L1(47-70). In CXCL4(47-70)-treated tumors significantly more intratumoral monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells were present and higher expression levels of CCL5 and IFN- ? were detected by qPCR on tumor lysates. Because neither peptide was able to specifically bind CXCR3A or CXCR3B, differential glycosaminoglycan binding and direct interaction with cytokines (EGF and CCL5) might explain any differences in anti-tumoral effects. Notably, CCL5-induced monocyte chemotaxis in vitro was increased by addition of CXCL4(47-70) or CXCL4L1(47-70). Finally, CXCL4(47-70) and CXCL4L1(47-70) inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results suggest a tumor type-dependent responsiveness to either CXCL4(47-70) or CXCL4L1(47-70) treatment, defined by anti-proliferative, angiostatic and inflammatory actions, and substantiate their therapeutic potential.
Project description:The chemokines CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, and CXCL11/I-TAC regulate lymphocyte chemotaxis, mediate vascular pericyte proliferation, and act as angiostatic agents, thus inhibiting tumor growth. These multiple activities are apparently mediated by a unique G protein-coupled receptor, termed CXCR3. The chemokine CXCL4/PF4 shares several activities with CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, including a powerful angiostatic effect, but its specific receptor is still unknown. Here, we describe a distinct, previously unrecognized receptor named CXCR3-B, derived from an alternative splicing of the CXCR3 gene that mediates the angiostatic activity of CXCR3 ligands and also acts as functional receptor for CXCL4. Human microvascular endothelial cell line-1 (HMEC-1), transfected with either the known CXCR3 (renamed CXCR3-A) or CXCR3-B, bound CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, whereas CXCL4 showed high affinity only for CXCR3-B. Overexpression of CXCR3-A induced an increase of survival, whereas overexpression of CXCR3-B dramatically reduced DNA synthesis and up-regulated apoptotic HMEC-1 death through activation of distinct signal transduction pathways. Remarkably, primary cultures of human microvascular endothelial cells, whose growth is inhibited by CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL4, expressed CXCR3-B, but not CXCR3-A. Finally, monoclonal antibodies raised to selectively recognize CXCR3-B reacted with endothelial cells from neoplastic tissues, providing evidence that CXCR3-B is also expressed in vivo and may account for the angiostatic effects of CXC chemokines.
Project description:We investigated possible cellular receptors for the human CXC chemokine platelet factor-4 variant/CXCL4L1, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. We found that CXCL4L1 has lower affinity for heparin and chondroitin sulfate-E than platelet factor-4 (CXCL4) and showed that CXCL10 and CXCL4L1 could displace each other on microvascular endothelial cells. Labeled CXCL4L1 also bound to CXCR3A- and CXCR3B-transfectants and was displaced by CXCL4L1, CXCL4, and CXCL10. The CXCL4L1 anti-angiogenic activity was blocked by anti-CXCR3 antibodies (Abs) in the Matrigel and cornea micropocket assays. CXCL4L1 application in CXCR3(-/-) or in wild-type mice treated with neutralizing anti-CXCR3 Abs, resulted in reduced inhibitory activity of CXCL4L1 on tumor growth and vascularization of Lewis lung carcinoma. Furthermore, CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 chemoattracted activated T cells, human natural killer cells, and human immature dendritic cells (DCs). Migration of DCs toward CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 was desensitized by preincubation with CXCL10 and CXCL11, inhibited by pertussis toxin, and neutralized by anti-CXCR3 Abs. Chemotaxis of T cells, natural killer cells, and DCs is likely to contribute to the antitumoral action. However, the in vivo data indicate that the angiostatic property of CXCL4L1 is equally important in retarding tumor growth. Thus, both CXCR3A and CXCR3B are implicated in the chemotactic and vascular effects of CXCL4L1.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are recognized targets for the development of therapies against angiogenesis-driven diseases, including cancer. The formation of a ternary complex with the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs), and heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) is required for FGF2 pro-angiogenic activity. Here by using a combination of techniques including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Molecular Dynamics, Surface Plasmon Resonance and cell-based binding assays we clarify the molecular mechanism of inhibition of an angiostatic small molecule, sm27, mimicking the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1. NMR and MD data demonstrate that sm27 engages the heparin-binding site of FGF2 and induces long-range dynamics perturbations along FGF2/FGFR1 interface regions. The functional consequence of the inhibitor binding is an impaired FGF2 interaction with both its receptors, as demonstrated by SPR and cell-based binding assays. We propose that sm27 antiangiogenic activity is based on a twofold-direct and allosteric-mechanism, inhibiting FGF2 binding to both its receptors.
Project description:Macrophages are critical contributors to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. We examined the ability of MKEY, a peptide inhibitor of CXCL4-CCL5 interaction, to influence AAA progression in murine models.AAAs were created in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice by transient infrarenal aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion. Mice were treated with MKEY via intravenous injection either (1) before porcine pancreatic elastase infusion or (2) after aneurysm initiation. Immunostaining demonstrated CCL5 and CCR5 expression on aneurysmal aortae and mural monocytes/macrophages, respectively. MKEY treatment partially inhibited migration of adaptively transferred leukocytes into aneurysmal aortae in recipient mice. Although all vehicle-pretreated mice developed AAAs, aneurysms formed in only 60% (3/5) and 14% (1/7) of mice pretreated with MKEY at 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. MKEY pretreatment reduced aortic diameter enlargement, preserved medial elastin fibers and smooth muscle cells, and attenuated mural macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, and aortic metalloproteinase 2 and 9 expression after porcine pancreatic elastase infusion. MKEY initiated after porcine pancreatic elastase infusion also stabilized or reduced enlargement of existing AAAs. Finally, MKEY treatment was effective in limiting AAA formation after angiotensin II infusion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.MKEY suppresses AAA formation and progression in 2 complementary experimental models. Peptide inhibition of CXCL4-CCL5 interactions may represent a viable translational strategy to limit progression of human AAA disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Angiogenesis plays an important role in the development of multiple myeloma (MM). The interaction between MM cells and the bone marrow microenvironment stimulates the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to the formation of new blood vessels by actively recruiting circulating EPCs. The production of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors is also dysregulated in MM. Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a potent angiostatic cytokine that inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in several animal models.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we stably transfected human myeloma cell lines with the PF4 gene or the sequence encoding its more potent p17-70 peptide and investigated the effects of PF4 and p17-70 on angiogenesis and tumor growth in vitro and in a SCID-rab myeloma model.<h4>Results</h4>PF4 and p17-70 significantly attenuated VEGF production, both in vitro and in vivo. In a migration study using a Transwell system, PF4 or p17-70 markedly suppressed the migration of co-cultured human endothelial progenitor cells. PF4 or p17-70 also caused a significant reduction in microvessel densities in myeloma xenografts and markedly reduced the tumor volume in the SCID mice. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that PF4 and p17-70 significantly extended the overall survival of SCID mice bearing human myeloma xenografts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings indicate that PF4 or p17-70 could be valuable in combating multiple myeloma by disrupting tumor angiogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Primary astrocyte cultures have been used for decades to study astrocyte functions in health and disease. The current primary astrocyte cultures are mostly maintained in serum-containing medium which produces astrocytes with a reactive phenotype as compared to in vivo quiescent astrocytes. The aim of this study was to establish a serum-free astrocyte culture medium that maintains primary astrocytes in a quiescent state. NEW METHOD:Serum free astrocyte base medium (ABM) supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (ABM-FGF2-EGF) or serum supplemented DMEM (MD-10%FBS) was used to culture primary astrocytes isolated from cerebral cortex of postnatal day 1 C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS:Compared to astrocytes cultured in MD-10%FBS medium, astrocytes in ABM-FGF2-EGF had higher process bearing morphologies similar to in vivo astrocytes. Western blot, immunostaining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metabolic assays revealed that astrocytes maintained in ABM-FGF2-EGF had enhanced glycolytic metabolism, higher glycogen content, lower GFAP expression, increased glutamine synthase, and glutamate transporter-1 mRNA levels as compared to astrocytes cultured in MD-10% FBS medium. COMPARISON TO EXISTING METHODS:These observations suggest that astrocytes cultured in ABM-FGF2-EGF media compared to the usual FBS media promote quiescent and biosynthetic phenotype similar to in vivo astrocytes. CONCLUSION:This media provides a novel method for studying astrocytes functions in vitro under physiological and pathological conditions.
Project description:Müller glia can be stimulated to de-differentiate, proliferate and form Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) that regenerate retinal neurons. In the zebrafish retina, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) may be one of the key factors that stimulate the formation of proliferating MGPCs. Currently nothing is known about the influence of HB-EGF on the proliferative potential of Müller glia in retinas of birds and rodents. In the chick retina, we found that levels of both hb-egf and egf-receptor are rapidly and transiently up-regulated following NMDA-induced damage. Although intraocular injections of HB-EGF failed to stimulate cell-signaling or proliferation of Müller glia in normal retinas, HB-EGF stimulated proliferation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. By comparison, inhibition of the EGF-receptor (EGFR) decreased the proliferation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. HB-EGF failed to act synergistically with FGF2 to stimulate the formation of MGPCs in the undamaged retina and inhibition of EGF-receptor did not suppress FGF2-mediated formation of MGPCs. In the mouse retina, HB-EGF stimulated the proliferation of Müller glia following NMDA-induced damage. Furthermore, HB-EGF not only stimulated MAPK-signaling in Müller glia/MGPCs, but also activated mTor- and Jak/Stat-signaling. We propose that levels of expression of EGFR are rate-limiting to the responses of Müller glia to HB-EGF and the expression of EGFR can be induced by retinal damage, but not by FGF2-treatment. We conclude that HB-EGF is mitogenic to Müller glia in both chick and mouse retinas, and HB-EGF is an important player in the formation of MGPCs in damaged retinas.
Project description:Aims:Macrophage phagocytosis of dead cells is a prerequisite for inflammation resolution. Because CXCL4 induces macrophage phagocytosis in vitro, we examined the impact of exogenous CXCL4 infusion on cardiac wound healing and macrophage phagocytosis following myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results:CXCL4 expression significantly increased in the infarct region beginning at Day 3 post-MI, and macrophages were the predominant source. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to coronary artery occlusion, and MI mice were randomly infused with recombinant mouse CXCL4 or saline beginning at 24?h post-MI by mini-pump infusion. Compared with saline controls, CXCL4 infusion dramatically reduced 7?day post-MI survival [10% (3/30) for CXCL4 vs. 47% (7/15) for saline, P?<?0.05] as a result of acute congestive heart failure. By echocardiography, CXCL4 significantly increased left ventricular (LV) volumes and dimensions at Day 5 post-MI (all P?<?0.05), despite similar infarct areas compared with saline controls. While macrophage numbers were similar at Day 5 post-MI, CXCL4 infusion increased Ccr4 and Itgb4 and decreased Adamts8 gene levels in the infarct region, all of which linked to CXCL4-mediated cardiac dilation. Isolated Day 5 post-MI macrophages exhibited comparable levels of M1 and M4 markers between saline and CXCL4 groups. Interestingly, by both ex vivo and in vitro phagocytosis assays, CXCL4 reduced macrophage phagocytic capacity, which was connected to decreased levels of the phagocytosis receptor CD36. In vitro, a CD36 neutralizing antibody (CD36Ab) significantly inhibited macrophage phagocytic capacity. The combination of CXCL4 and CD36Ab did not have an additive effect, indicating that CXCL4 regulated phagocytosis through CD36 signalling. CXCL4 infusion significantly elevated infarct matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels at Day 5 post-MI, and MMP-9 can cleave CD36 as a down-regulation mechanism. Conclusion:CXCL4 infusion impaired macrophage phagocytic capacity by reducing CD36 levels through MMP-9 dependent and independent signalling, leading to higher mortality and LV dilation.
Project description:RATIONALE:Acute lung injury (ALI) causes high mortality, but its molecular mechanisms and therapeutic options remain ill-defined. Gram-negative bacterial infections are the main cause of ALI, leading to lung neutrophil infiltration, permeability increases, deterioration of gas exchange, and lung damage. Platelets are activated during ALI, but insights into their mechanistic contribution to neutrophil accumulation in the lung are elusive. OBJECTIVES:To determine mechanisms of platelet-mediated neutrophil recruitment in ALI. METHODS:Interference with platelet-neutrophil interactions using antagonists to P-selectin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa or a small peptide antagonist disrupting platelet chemokine heteromer formation in mouse models of ALI. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:In a murine model of LPS-induced ALI, we uncover important roles for neutrophils and platelets in permeability changes and subsequent lung damage. Furthermore, platelet depletion abrogated lung neutrophil infiltration, suggesting a sequential participation of platelets and neutrophils. Whereas antagonists to P-selectin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa had no effects on LPS-mediated ALI, antibodies to the platelet-derived chemokines CCL5 and CXCL4 strongly diminished neutrophil eflux and permeability changes. The two chemokines were found to form heteromers in human and murine ALI samples, positively correlating with leukocyte influx into the lung. Disruption of CCL5-CXCL4 heteromers in LPS-, acid-, and sepsis-induced ALI abolished lung edema, neutrophil infiltration, and tissue damage, thereby revealing a causal contribution. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our data identify a novel function of platelet-derived chemokine heteromers during ALI and demonstrate means for therapeutic interference.