ABSTRACT: Klotho (KL) is a newly discovered aging suppressor gene. In mice, the KL gene extends the lifespan when overexpressed and shortens the lifespan when disrupted. This study investigated if KL deficiency affects BP and salt sensitivity using KL mutant heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (WT) mice (9 weeks of age, 16 mice per group). Notably, systolic BP in KL(+/-) mice began to increase at the age of 15 weeks, reached a peak level at the age of 17 weeks, and remained elevated thereafter, whereas systolic BP remained consistent in WT mice. High salt (HS) intake further increased BP in KL(+/-) mice but did not affect BP in WT mice. Blockade of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), involved in monocyte chemotaxis, by a specific CCR2 antagonist (INCB3284) abolished the HS-induced increase in BP in KL(+/-) mice. Furthermore, HS loading substantially increased the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and the infiltration of macrophages and T cells in kidneys in KL(+/-) mice, and treatment with INCB3284 abolished these effects. Treatment of KL(+/-) mice with INCB3284 also attenuated the increased renal expressions of serum glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1, thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, and ATP synthase ? along with the renal structural damage and functional impairment induced by HS loading. In conclusion, KL deficiency caused salt-sensitive hypertension and renal damage by CCR2-mediated inflammation.
Project description:Histone methylation, a determinant of chromatin structure and gene transcription, was thought to be irreversible, but recent evidence suggests that lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1, Kdm1a) induces demethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) or H3K9 and thereby alters gene transcription. We previously demonstrated a human LSD1 phenotype associated with salt-sensitive hypertension. To test the hypothesis that LSD1 plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) via vascular mechanisms and gene transcription, we measured BP and examined vascular function and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) expression in thoracic aorta of male wild-type (WT) and heterozygous LSD1 knockout mice (LSD1(+/-)) fed either a liberal salt (HS; 4% NaCl) or restricted salt diet (LS; 0.08% NaCl). BP was higher in LSD1(+/-) than WT mice on the HS diet but not different between LSD1(+/-) and WT mice on the LS diet. Further examination of the mechanisms of this salt-sensitive hypertension in LSD1(+/-) mice on the HS diet demonstrated that plasma renin activity and plasma levels and urinary excretion of aldosterone were less in LSD1(+/-) than WT, suggesting suppressed renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In contrast, phenylephrine (Phe)-induced aortic contraction was greater in LSD1(+/-) than WT mice on the HS diet. Treatment of aortic rings with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; a blocker of guanylate cyclase) enhanced Phe contraction in LSD1(+/-) compared with WT mice on the HS diet. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation was less in LSD1(+/-) than WT mice on the HS diet. Endothelium removal or pretreatment with N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (blocker of NOS) or ODQ abolished Ach-induced relaxation in aorta of WT but had minimal effect in LSD1(+/-). Vascular relaxation to sodium nitroprusside, an exogenous NO donor and guanylate cyclase activator, was decreased in LSD1(+/-) vs. WT mice on the HS diet. RT-PCR and Western blots revealed decreased eNOS mRNA expression and eNOS and guanylate cyclase protein in the heart and aorta of LSD1(+/-) compared with WT mice on HS diet. Thus, during the HS diet, LSD1 deficiency is associated with hypertension, enhanced vascular contraction, and reduced relaxation via NO-cGMP pathway. The data support a role for LSD1-mediated histone demethylation in the regulation of NOS/guanylate cyclase gene expression, vascular function, and BP during the HS diet.
Project description:Collectrin, encoded by the Tmem27 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein with approximately 50% homology with angiotensin converting enzyme 2, but without a catalytic domain. Collectrin is most abundantly expressed in the kidney proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia, where it has an important role in amino acid transport. Collectrin is also expressed in endothelial cells throughout the vasculature, where it regulates L-arginine uptake. We previously reported that global deletion of collectrin leads to endothelial dysfunction, augmented salt sensitivity, and hypertension. Here, we performed kidney crosstransplants between wild-type (WT) and collectrin knockout (Tmem27Y/- ) mice to delineate the specific contribution of renal versus extrarenal collectrin on BP regulation and salt sensitivity. On a high-salt diet, WT mice with Tmem27Y/- kidneys had the highest systolic BP and were the only group to exhibit glomerular mesangial hypercellularity. Additional studies showed that, on a high-salt diet, Tmem27Y/- mice had lower renal blood flow, higher abundance of renal sodium-hydrogen antiporter 3, and lower lithium clearance than WT mice. In WT mice, administration of angiotensin II for 2 weeks downregulated collectrin expression in a type 1 angiotensin II receptor-dependent manner. This downregulation coincided with the onset of hypertension, such that WT and Tmem27Y/- mice had similar levels of hypertension after 2 weeks of angiotensin II administration. Altogether, these data suggest that salt sensitivity is determined by intrarenal collectrin, and increasing the abundance or activity of collectrin may have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of hypertension and salt sensitivity.
Project description:Chronic high-salt diet-associated renal injury is a key risk factor for the development of hypertension. However, the mechanism by which salt triggers kidney damage is poorly understood. Our study investigated how high salt (HS) intake triggers early renal injury by considering the 'gut-kidney axis'. We fed mice 2% NaCl in drinking water continuously for 8 weeks to induce early renal injury. We found that the 'quantitative' and 'qualitative' levels of the intestinal microflora were significantly altered after chronic HS feeding, which indicated the occurrence of enteric dysbiosis. In addition, intestinal immunological gene expression was impaired in mice with HS intake. Gut permeability elevation and enteric bacterial translocation into the kidney were detected after chronic HS feeding. Gut bacteria depletion by non-absorbable antibiotic administration restored HS loading-induced gut leakiness, renal injury and systolic blood pressure elevation. The fecal microbiota from mice fed chronic HS could independently cause gut leakiness and renal injury. Our current work provides a novel insight into the mechanism of HS-induced renal injury by investigating the role of the intestine with enteric bacteria and gut permeability and clearly illustrates that chronic HS loading elicited renal injury and dysfunction that was dependent on the intestine.
Project description:IL-10 (interleukin-10) has been suggested to play a protective role in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular disorders. This study examined the role of endogenous IL-10 in salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury induced by AngII. Responses to chronic AngII (400 ng/min per kilogram body weight; osmotic minipump) infusion were evaluated in IL-10 gene knockout mice fed with either normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) or high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet, and these responses were compared with those in wild-type mice. Normal salt diets or HS diets were given alone for the first 2 weeks and then with AngII treatment for an additional 2 weeks (n=6 in each group). Arterial pressure was continuously monitored by implanted radio-telemetry, and a 24-hour urine collection was performed by metabolic cages on the last day of the experimental period. Basal mean arterial pressure was lower in IL-10 gene knockout mice than in wild-type (98±3 versus 113±3 mm Hg) mice. Mean arterial pressure responses to normal salt/HS alone or to the AngII+normal salt treatment were similar in both strains. However, the increase in mean arterial pressure induced by the AngII+HS treatment was significantly lower in IL-10 gene knockout mice (15±5% versus 37±3%) compared with wild-type mice. Renal tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (?3-folds) and urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate/nitrite (1.2±0.1 versus 0.2±0.02 µmol/L/24 hours) were higher in IL-10 gene knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that an increase in nitric oxide production helps to mitigate salt-sensitive hypertension induced by AngII and suggest that a compensatory interaction between IL-10 and nitric oxide exists in modulating AngII-induced responses during HS intake.
Project description:Deficiency of the antiaging gene Klotho (KL) induces renal damage and hypertension through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we assessed whether KL regulates expression of CYP11B2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in aldosterone synthesis, in adrenal glands. We found that haplodeficiency of KL(+/-) in mice increased the plasma level of aldosterone by 16 weeks of age, which coincided with spontaneous and persistent elevation of BP. Blockade of aldosterone actions by eplerenone reversed KL deficiency-induced hypertension and attenuated the kidney damage. Protein expression of CYP11B2 was upregulated in adrenal cortex of KL(+/-) mice. KL and CYP11B2 proteins colocalized in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Silencing of KL upregulated and overexpression of KL downregulated CYP11B2 expression in human adrenocortical cells. Notably, silencing of KL decreased expression of SF-1, a negative transcription factor of CYP11B2, but increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a positive transcription factor of CYP11B2, which may contribute to upregulation of CYP11B2 expression. Therefore, these results show that KL regulates adrenal CYP11B2 expression. KL deficiency-induced spontaneous hypertension and kidney damage may be partially attributed to the upregulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone synthesis.
Project description:In this study, we investigated some mechanisms involved in sodium-dependent hypertension of rats exposed to chronic salt (NaCl) intake from weaning until adult age. Weaned male Wistar rats were placed under high (0.90%?w/w, HS) or regular (0.27%?w/w, Cont) sodium diets for 12 weeks. Water consumption, urine output and sodium excretion were higher in HS rats compared to control. Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured by the arterial catheter and found 13.8% higher in HS vs Cont rats. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium caused greater fall in the BP of HS rats (33%), and central antagonism of AT1 receptors (losartan) microinjected into the lateral ventricle reduced BP level of HS, but not of Cont group. Heart rate variability analysis revealed sympathetic prevalence on modulation of the systolic interval. HS diet did not affect creatinine clearance. Kidney histological analysis revealed no significant change in renal corpuscle structure. Sodium and potassium concentrations in CSF were found higher in HS rats despite no change in plasma concentration of these ions. Taken together, data suggest that animals exposed to chronic salt intake to a level close to that reported for human' diet since weaning lead to hypertension, which appears to rely on sodium-driven neurogenic mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dietary sodium and potassium affect the fluctuation in blood pressure (BP) and renal function. Corin, with its enzymatic activity to convert pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) to biologically active ANP, regulates BP, cardiac, and renal functions. We investigated whether corin expression responds to a high-salt (HS) diet to regulate salt and water balance. METHODS:Forty-two volunteers followed 3 sequential diets for 7 days each: a low-salt (LS) diet (3.0 g/day NaCl), a HS diet (18.0 g/day NaCl), followed by an HS diet with K+ supplementation (HS + K+) (18.0 g/day NaCl and 4.5 g/day KCl). RESULTS:Corin level was higher with the HS diet than the LS and HS + K+ diets and was positively correlated with systolic BP (SBP) and 24-hour urinary Na+ and microalbumin (U-mALB) excretion. In rodents, serum and renal levels of corin were transiently increased with the HS diet and were decreased if the HS diet was continued for up to 7 days. HS loading increased SBP, 24-hour urinary Na+, U-mALB excretion, and the expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 (PCSK6), a corin activator. Knockdown of PCSK6 or corin in high salt-treated M1-cortical collecting duct (M1-CCD) cells increased the expression of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) and ?-epithelial Na+ channel (?-ENaC). CONCLUSIONS:Short-term HS may induce the PCSK6-corin-ANP-AQP2/?-ENaC pathway in the kidney. Enhanced serum corin level in humans and rodents is positively correlated with HS-induced SBP and 24-hour urinary Na+ and U-mALB excretion, which suggests that corin is involved in the salt-water balance in response to HS intake. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:Public Trials Registry Number NCT02915315.
Project description:Klotho is an anti-aging gene that shortens the life span when disrupted and extends the lifespan when overexpressed. This study investigated whether autophagy plays a role in Klotho gene deficiency-induced arterial stiffening and hypertension. Klotho mutant heterozygous (KL+/-) mice and age- and sex-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Arteries were examined for autophagy using Western blot assays. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of arterial stiffness, and blood pressure (BP) increased significantly in KL (+/-) mice. The autophagy level, as measured by LC3-II expression and autophagy flux, increased in aortas of KL (+/-) mice, indicating that Klotho gene deficiency upregulated autophagy. Chloroquine diminished Klotho gene deficiency-induced increases in PWV and BP and eliminated the upregulation of autophagic flux in KL (+/-) mice. Klotho gene deficiency-induced arterial stiffness was accompanied by upregulation of MMP9, TGF?-1, TGF?-3, RUNX2, and ALP, but these changes were effectively mitigated by chloroquine. Chloroquine also halted an increase in scleraxis expression in aortas of Klotho (+/-) mice. In cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells, Klotho gene deficiency increased autophagy, leading to upregulation of scleraxis, a key transcription factor of collagen synthesis. Klotho gene deficiency failed to upregulate scleraxis expression when autophagy was inhibited, suggesting that autophagy is a critical mediator of Klotho gene deficiency-induced upregulation of scleraxis. Suppression of enhanced autophagy by chloroquine lessens Klotho gene deficiency-induced arterial stiffening and hypertension by stopping upregulation of MMP9 and scleraxis. The enhanced autophagic activity plays a crucial role in Klotho gene deficiency-induced arterial stiffening and hypertension. KEY MESSAGES: Klotho gene deficiency upregulates autophagy. Upregulation of autophagy plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffening. Autophagy regulates MMP9 activity and scleraxis expression.
Project description:A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) plus calcium channel blocker (CCB) reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl) for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl), NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day), NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day), NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day). Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an ARB plus CCB restores glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in DSS rats.
Project description:Previous studies have suggested that Klotho provides reno-protection against unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (RTF). Because the existing studies are mainly performed using heterozygous Klotho mutant (HT) mice, we focused on the effect of UUO on homozygous Klotho mutant (kl/kl) mice. UUO kidneys from HT mice showed a significantly higher level of RTF and TGF-?/Smad3 signaling than wild-type (WT) mice, whereas both were greatly suppressed in kl/kl mice. Primary proximal tubular epithelial culture cells isolated from kl/kl mice showed no suppression in TGF-?1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) compared to those from HT mice. In the renal epithelial cell line NRK52E, a large amount of inorganic phosphate (Pi), FGF23, or calcitriol was added to the medium to mimic the in vivo homeostasis of kl/kl mice. Neither Pi nor FGF23 antagonized TGF-?1-induced EMT. In contrast, calcitriol ameliorated TGF-?1-induced EMT in a dose dependent manner. A vitamin D3-deficient diet normalized the serum 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 level in kl/kl mice and enhanced UUO-induced RTF and TGF-?/Smad3 signaling. In conclusion, the alleviation of UUO-induced RTF in kl/kl mice was due to the TGF-?1 signaling suppression caused by an elevated serum 1, 25(OH)2 vitamin D3.