Cortical plasticity induced by transplantation of embryonic somatostatin or parvalbumin interneurons.
ABSTRACT: GABAergic inhibition has been shown to play an important role in the opening of critical periods of brain plasticity. We recently have shown that transplantation of GABAergic precursors from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the source of neocortical parvalbumin- (PV(+)) and somatostatin-expressing (SST(+)) interneurons, can induce a new period of ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) after the endogenous period has closed. Among the diverse subtypes of GABAergic interneurons PV(+) cells have been thought to play the crucial role in ODP. Here we have used MGE transplantation carrying a conditional allele of diphtheria toxin alpha subunit and cell-specific expression of Cre recombinase to deplete PV(+) or SST(+) interneurons selectively and to investigate the contributions of each of these types of interneurons to ODP. As expected, robust plasticity was observed in transplants containing PV(+) cells but in which the majority of SST(+) interneurons were depleted. Surprisingly, transplants in which the majority of PV(+) cells were depleted induced plasticity as effectively as those containing PV(+) cells. In contrast, depleting both cell types blocked induction of plasticity. These findings reveal that PV(+) cells do not play an exclusive role in ODP; SST(+) interneurons also can drive cortical plasticity and contribute to the reshaping of neural networks. The ability of both PV(+) and SST(+) interneurons to induce de novo cortical plasticity could help develop new therapeutic approaches for brain repair.
Project description:The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST) interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE)-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP.
Project description:In the mammalian cortex, about 60% of GABAergic interneurons, mainly including parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) and somatostatin (SST+) interneurons are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) in the subpallium and tangentially migrate to the cortex. Here we analyze the role of the Sp9 transcription factor in regulating the development of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. We show that SP9 is widely expressed in the MGE subventricular zone (SVZ) and in MGE-derived migrating interneurons. By analyzing Sp9 null and conditional mutant mice, we demonstrate that Sp9 promotes MGE progenitor proliferation in the SVZ and is required for the normal patterning of tangential migration and the laminar distribution of MGE-derived cortical GABAergic interneurons. Loss of Sp9 function results in a ~50% reduction of MGE-derived cortical interneurons, an ectopic aggregation of MGE-derived neurons in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, and an increased ratio of SST+/PV+ cortical interneurons. Finally, we provide evidence that Sp9 regulates MGE derived cortical interneuron development through promoting expression of the Lhx6 and Lhx8 transcription factors. Overall design: Medial ganglionic eminence mRNA profiles of embryonic 12.5 wild type (WT) and sp9 null mutant mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using using an illumina high-seq 2500
Project description:Mutations in the phosphatase PTEN are strongly implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate the function of Pten in cortical GABAergic neurons using conditional mutagenesis in mice. Loss of Pten results in a preferential loss of SST(+) interneurons, which increases the ratio of parvalbumin/somatostatin (PV/SST) interneurons, ectopic PV(+) projections in layer I, and inhibition onto glutamatergic cortical neurons. Pten mutant mice exhibit deficits in social behavior and changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) power. Using medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) transplantation, we test for cell-autonomous functional differences between human PTEN wild-type (WT) and ASD alleles. The PTEN ASD alleles are hypomorphic in regulating cell size and the PV/SST ratio in comparison to WT PTEN. This MGE transplantation/complementation assay is efficient and is generally applicable for functional testing of ASD alleles in vivo.
Project description:Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived GABAergic cortical interneurons (cINs) consist of multiple subtypes that are involved in many cortical functions. They also have a remarkable capacity to migrate, survive and integrate into cortical circuitry after transplantation into postnatal cortex. These features have engendered considerable interest in generating distinct subgroups of interneurons from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for the study of interneuron fate and function, and for the development of cell-based therapies. Although advances have been made, the capacity to generate highly enriched pools of subgroup fate-committed interneuron progenitors from PSCs has remained elusive. Previous studies have suggested that the two main MGE-derived interneuron subgroups--those expressing somatostatin (SST) and those expressing parvalbumin (PV)--are specified in the MGE from Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors at higher or lower levels of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, respectively. To further explore the role of Shh and other factors in cIN fate determination, we generated a reporter line such that Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors express mCherry and postmitotic Lhx6-expressing MGE-derived interneurons express GFP. Manipulations of Shh exposure and time in culture influenced the subgroup fates of ESC-derived interneurons. Exposure to higher Shh levels, and collecting GFP-expressing precursors at 12 days in culture, resulted in the strongest enrichment for SST interneurons over those expressing PV, whereas the strongest enrichment for PV interneurons was produced by lower Shh and by collecting mCherry-expressing cells after 17 days in culture. These findings confirm that fate determination of cIN subgroups is crucially influenced by Shh signaling, and provide a system for the further study of interneuron fate and function.
Project description:GABAergic interneurons have many important functions in cortical circuitry, a reflection of their cell diversity. The developmental origins of this diversity are poorly understood. Here, we identify rostral-caudal regionality in Wnt exposure within the interneuron progenitor zone delineating the specification of the two main interneuron subclasses. Caudally situated medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors receive high levels of Wnt signaling and give rise to somatostatin (SST)-expressing cortical interneurons. By contrast, parvalbumin (PV)-expressing basket cells originate mostly from the rostral MGE, where Wnt signaling is attenuated. Interestingly, rather than canonical signaling through ?-catenin, signaling via the non-canonical Wnt receptor Ryk regulates interneuron cell-fate specification in vivo and in vitro. Indeed, gain of function of Ryk intracellular domain signaling regulates SST and PV fate in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that Ryk signaling acts in a graded fashion. These data reveal an important role for non-canonical Wnt-Ryk signaling in establishing the correct ratios of cortical interneuron subtypes.
Project description:Recent studies indicate that the location of neurogenesis within the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) critically influences the fate determination of cortical interneuron subgroups, with parvalbumin (Pv) interneurons originating from subventricular zone divisions and somatostatin (Sst) interneurons primarily arising from apical divisions. The aPKC-CBP and Notch signaling pathways regulate the transition from apical to basal progenitor and their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. We find that aPKC inhibition enhances intermediate neurogenesis from stem cell-derived MGE progenitors, resulting in a markedly increased ratio of Pv- to Sst-expressing interneurons. Conversely, inhibition of Notch signaling enriches for Sst subtypes at the expense of Pv fates. These findings confirm that the mode of neurogenesis influences the fate of MGE-derived interneurons and provide a means of further enrichment for the generation of specific interneuron subgroups from pluripotent stem cells.
Project description:Immature neurons generated by the subpallial MGE tangentially migrate to the cortex where they become parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) and somatostatin (SST+) interneurons. Here, we show that the Sp9 transcription factor controls the development of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. SP9 is expressed in the MGE subventricular zone and in MGE-derived migrating interneurons. Sp9 null and conditional mutant mice have approximately 50% reduction of MGE-derived cortical interneurons, an ectopic aggregation of MGE-derived neurons in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, and an increased ratio of SST+/PV+ cortical interneurons. RNA-Seq and SP9 ChIP-Seq reveal that SP9 regulates MGE-derived cortical interneuron development through controlling the expression of key transcription factors Arx, Lhx6, Lhx8, Nkx2-1, and Zeb2 involved in interneuron development, as well as genes implicated in regulating interneuron migration Ackr3, Epha3, and St18. Thus, Sp9 has a central transcriptional role in MGE-derived cortical interneuron development.
Project description:Although it is well established that the ventral telencephalon is the primary source of GABAergic cortical interneurons in rodents, little is known about the specification of specific interneuron subtypes. It is also unclear whether the potential to achieve a given fate is established at their place of origin or by signals received during their migration to or during their maturation within the cerebral cortex. Using both in vivo and in vitro transplantation techniques, we find that two major interneuron subgroups have largely distinct origins within the MGE. Somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons are primarily generated within the dorsal MGE, while parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons primarily originate from the ventral MGE. In addition, we show that significant heterogeneity exists between gene expression patterns in the dorsal and ventral MGE. These results suggest that, like the spinal cord, neuronal fate determination in the ventral telencephalon is largely the result of spatially segregated, molecularly distinct microdomains arranged on the dorsal-ventral axis.
Project description:A strong GABAergic tone imposes sparse levels of activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This balance is challenged by the addition of new granule cells (GCs) with high excitability. How developing GCs integrate within local inhibitory networks remains unknown. We used optogenetics to study synaptogenesis between new GCs and GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV-INs) and somatostatin (SST-INs). PV-INs target the soma, and synapses become mature after 6 weeks. This transition is accelerated by exposure to an enriched environment. PV-INs exert efficient control of GC spiking and participate in both feedforward and feedback loops, a mechanism that would favor lateral inhibition and sparse coding. SST-INs target the dendrites, and synapses mature after 8 weeks. Outputs from GCs onto PV-INs develop faster than those onto SST-INs. Our results reveal a long-lasting transition wherein adult-born neurons remain poorly coupled to inhibition, which might enhance activity-dependent plasticity of input and output synapses.
Project description:Neuropathic pain is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain. Because symptoms are often unresponsive to conventional methods of pain treatment, new therapeutic approaches are essential. Here, we describe a strategy that not only ameliorates symptoms of neuropathic pain but is also potentially disease modifying. We show that transplantation of immature telencephalic GABAergic interneurons from the mouse medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into the adult mouse spinal cord completely reverses the mechanical hypersensitivity produced by peripheral nerve injury. Underlying this improvement is a remarkable integration of the MGE transplants into the host spinal cord circuitry, in which the transplanted cells make functional connections with both primary afferent and spinal cord neurons. By contrast, MGE transplants were not effective against inflammatory pain. Our findings suggest that MGE-derived GABAergic interneurons overcome the spinal cord hyperexcitability that is a hallmark of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.