Solution NMR characterization of WT CXCL8 monomer and dimer binding to CXCR1 N-terminal domain.
ABSTRACT: Chemokine CXCL8 and its receptor CXCR1 are key mediators in combating infection and have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers but monomer alone binds CXCR1 with high affinity. CXCL8 function involves binding two distinct CXCR1 sites - the N-terminal domain (Site-I) and the extracellular/transmembrane domain (Site-II). Therefore, higher monomer affinity could be due to stronger binding at Site-I or Site-II or both. We have now characterized the binding of a human CXCR1 N-terminal domain peptide (hCXCR1Ndp) to WT CXCL8 under conditions where it exists as both monomers and dimers. We show that the WT monomer binds the CXCR1 N-domain with much higher affinity and that binding is coupled to dimer dissociation. We also characterized the binding of two CXCL8 monomer variants and a trapped dimer to two different hCXCR1Ndp constructs, and observe that the monomer binds with ?10- to 100-fold higher affinity than the dimer. Our studies also show that the binding constants of monomer and dimer to the receptor peptides, and the dimer dissociation constant, can vary significantly as a function of pH and buffer, and so the ability to observe WT monomer peaks is critically dependent on NMR experimental conditions. We conclude that the monomer is the high affinity CXCR1 agonist, that Site-I interactions play a dominant role in determining monomer vs. dimer affinity, and that the dimer plays an indirect role in regulating monomer function.
Project description:Interleukin-8 (CXCL8), a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine, exerts its function by activating the CXCR1 receptor that belongs to class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Receptor activation involves interactions between the CXCL8 N-terminal loop and CXCR1 N-terminal domain (N-domain) residues (Site-I) and between the CXCL8 N-terminal and CXCR1 extracellular/transmembrane residues (Site-II). CXCL8 exists in equilibrium between monomers and dimers, and it is known that the monomer binds CXCR1 with much higher affinity and that Site-I interactions are largely responsible for the differences in monomer vs. dimer affinity. Here, using backbone 15N-relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, we characterized the dynamic properties of the CXCL8 monomer and the CXCR1 N-domain in the free and bound states. The main chain of CXCL8 appears largely rigid on the picosecond time scale as evident from high order parameters (S²). However, on average, S² are higher in the bound state. Interestingly, several residues show millisecond-microsecond (ms-?s) dynamics only in the bound state. The CXCR1 N-domain is unstructured in the free state but structured with significant dynamics in the bound state. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data indicate that both enthalpic and entropic factors contribute to affinity, suggesting that increased slow dynamics in the bound state contribute to affinity. In sum, our data indicate a critical and complex role for dynamics in driving CXCL8 monomer-CXCR1 Site-I interactions.
Project description:Interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8) plays a critical role in orchestrating the immune response by binding and activating the receptor CXCR1 that belongs to the GPCR class. IL-8 exists as both monomers and dimers, and both bind CXCR1 but with differential affinities. It is well established that the monomer is the high-affinity ligand and that the interactions between the ligand N-loop and receptor N-domain play a critical role in determining binding affinity. In order to characterize the structural basis of differential binding of the IL-8 monomer and dimer to the CXCR1 N-domain, we analyzed binding-induced NMR chemical shift and peak intensity changes and show that they are exquisitely sensitive and can provide detailed insights into the binding process. We used three IL-8 variants, a designed monomer, a trapped disulfide-linked dimer, and WT at dimeric concentrations. NMR data for the monomer show that nonsequential residues that span the entire N-loop are involved in the binding process and that the binding is mediated by a network of extensive direct and indirect coupled interactions. Interestingly, in the case of WT, binding induces dissociation of the dimer-receptor complex to the monomer-receptor complex, and in the case of the trapped dimer, binding results in increased global conformational flexibility. Increased dynamics is evidence of unfavorable interactions, indicating that binding of the WT dimer triggers conformational changes that disrupt dimer-interface interactions, resulting in its dissociation. These results together provide evidence that binding is not a localized event but results in extensive coupled interactions within the monomer and across the dimer interface and that these interactions play a fundamental role in determining binding affinity.
Project description:Chemokine CXCL8 plays a pivotal role in host immune response by recruiting neutrophils to the infection site. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers, and mediates recruitment by interacting with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and activating CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. How CXCL8 monomer and dimer interactions with both receptors and GAGs mediate trafficking is poorly understood. In particular, both haptotactic (mediated by GAG-bound chemokine) and chemotactic (mediated by soluble chemokine) gradients have been implicated, and whether it is the free or the GAG-bound CXCL8 monomer and/or dimer that activates the receptor remains unknown. Using solution NMR spectroscopy, we have now characterized the binding of heparin-bound CXCL8 monomer and dimer to CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptor N-domains. Our data provide compelling evidence that heparin-bound monomers and dimers are unable to bind either of the receptors. Cellular assays also indicate that heparin-bound CXCL8 is impaired for receptor activity. Considering dimer binds GAGs with higher affinity, dimers will exist predominantly in the GAG-bound form and the monomer in the free form. We conclude that GAG interactions determine the levels of free CXCL8, and that it is the free, and not GAG-bound, CXCL8 that activates the receptors and mediates recruitment of blood neutrophils to the infected tissue.
Project description:Interleukin-8 (CXCL8, IL-8) is a proinflammatory chemokine important for the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses via its interaction with G-protein coupled receptors, including CXC receptor 1 (CXCR1). CXCL8 exists as both a monomer and as a dimer at physiological concentrations, yet the molecular basis of CXCL8 interaction with its receptor as well as the importance of CXCL8 dimer formation remain poorly characterized. Although several biological studies have indicated that both the CXCL8 monomer and dimer are active, biophysical studies have reported conflicting results regarding the binding of CXCL8 to CXCR1. To clarify this problem, we expressed and purified a peptide (hCXCR1pep) corresponding to the N-terminal region of human CXCR1 (hCXCR1) and utilized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to interrogate the binding of wild-type CXCL8 and a previously reported mutant (CXCL8M) that stabilizes the monomeric form. Our data reveal that the CXCL8 monomer engages hCXCR1pep with a slightly higher affinity than the CXCL8 dimer, but that the CXCL8 dimer does not dissociate upon binding hCXCR1pep. These investigations also showed that CXCL8 is dynamic on multiple timescales, which may help explain the versatility in this interleukin for engaging its target receptors.
Project description:All chemokines share a common structural scaffold that mediate a remarkable variety of functions from immune surveillance to organogenesis. Chemokines are classified as CXC or CC on the basis of conserved cysteines, and the two subclasses bind distinct sets of GPCR class of receptors and also have markedly different quaternary structures, suggesting that the CXC/CC motif plays a prominent role in both structure and function. For both classes, receptor activation involves interactions between chemokine N-loop and receptor N-domain residues (Site-I), and between chemokine N-terminal and receptor extracellular/transmembrane residues (Site-II). We engineered a CC variant (labeled as CC-CXCL8) of the chemokine CXCL8 by deleting residue X (CXC ? CC), and found its structure is essentially similar to WT. In stark contrast, CC-CXCL8 bound poorly to its cognate receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 (K(i) > 1 ?m). Further, CC-CXCL8 failed to mobilize Ca(2+) in CXCR2-expressing HL-60 cells or recruit neutrophils in a mouse lung model. However, most interestingly, CC-CXCL8 mobilizes Ca(2+) in neutrophils and in CXCR1-expressing HL-60 cells. Compared with the WT, CC-CXCL8 binds CXCR1 N-domain with only ?5-fold lower affinity indicating that the weak binding to intact CXCR1 must be due to its weak binding at Site-II. Nevertheless, this level of binding is sufficient for receptor activation indicating that affinity and activity are separable functions. We propose that the CXC motif functions as a conformational switch that couples Site-I and Site-II interactions for both receptors, and that this coupling is critical for high affinity binding but differentially regulates activation.
Project description:The CXCL1/CXCR2 axis plays a crucial role in recruiting neutrophils in response to microbial infection and tissue injury, and dysfunction in this process has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Chemokines exist as monomers and dimers, and compelling evidence now exists that both forms regulate in vivo function. Therefore, knowledge of the receptor activities of both CXCL1 monomer and dimer is essential to describe the molecular mechanisms by which they orchestrate neutrophil function. The monomer-dimer equilibrium constant (~20 ?m) and the CXCR2 binding constant (1 nm) indicate that WT CXCL1 is active as a monomer. To characterize dimer activity, we generated a trapped dimer by introducing a disulfide across the dimer interface. This disulfide-linked CXCL1 dimer binds CXCR2 with nanomolar affinity and shows potent agonist activity in various cellular assays. We also compared the receptor binding mechanism of this dimer with that of a CXCL1 monomer, generated by deleting the C-terminal residues that stabilize the dimer interface. We observe that the binding interactions of the dimer and monomer to the CXCR2 N-terminal domain, which plays an important role in determining affinity and activity, are essentially conserved. The potent activity of the CXCL1 dimer is novel: dimers of the CC chemokines CCL2 and CCL4 are inactive, and the dimer of the CXC chemokine CXCL8 (which is closely related to CXCL1) is marginally active for CXCR1 but shows variable activity for CXCR2. We conclude that large differences in dimer activity among different chemokine-receptor pairs have evolved for fine-tuned leukocyte function.
Project description:Chemokine CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a crucial role in directing neutrophils and oligodendrocytes to combat infection/injury and tumour cells in metastasis development. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers and interaction of both forms with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediate these diverse cellular processes. However, very little is known regarding the structural basis underlying CXCL8-GAG interactions. There are conflicting reports on the affinities, geometry and whether the monomer or dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. To resolve these issues, we characterized the binding of a series of heparin-derived oligosaccharides [heparin disaccharide (dp2), heparin tetrasaccharide (dp4), heparin octasaccharide (dp8) and heparin 14-mer (dp14)] to the wild-type (WT) dimer and a designed monomer using solution NMR spectroscopy. The pattern and extent of binding-induced chemical shift perturbation (CSP) varied between dimer and monomer and between longer and shorter oligosaccharides. NMR-based structural models show that different interaction modes coexist and that the nature of interactions varied between monomer and dimer and oligosaccharide length. MD simulations indicate that the binding interface is structurally plastic and provided residue-specific details of the dynamic nature of the binding interface. Binding studies carried out under conditions at which WT CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers provide unambiguous evidence that the dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. Together, our data indicate that a set of core residues function as the major recognition/binding site, a set of peripheral residues define the various binding geometries and that the structural plasticity of the binding interface allows multiplicity of binding interactions. We conclude that structural plasticity most probably regulates in vivo CXCL8 monomer/dimer-GAG interactions and function.
Project description:Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a member of the chemokine superfamily, exists as both monomers and dimers, and mediates its function by binding to neutrophil CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor class. It is now well established that the monomer functions as a high-affinity ligand, but the binding affinity of the dimer remains controversial. The approximately 1000-fold difference between monomer-dimer equilibrium constant (microM) and receptor binding constant (nM) of IL-8 does not allow receptor-binding affinity measurements of the native IL-8 dimer. In this study, we overcame this roadblock by creating a "trapped" nondissociating dimer that contains a disulfide bond across the dimer interface at the 2-fold symmetry point. The NMR studies show that the structure of this trapped dimer is indistinguishable from the native dimer. The trapped dimer, compared to a trapped monomer, bound CXCR1 with approximately 70-fold and CXCR2 with approximately 20-fold lower affinities. Receptor binding involves two interactions, between the IL-8 N-loop and receptor N-domain residues, and between IL-8 N-terminal and receptor extracellular loop residues. In contrast to a trapped monomer that bound an isolated CXCR1 N-domain peptide with microM affinity, the trapped dimer failed to show any binding, indicating that dimerization predominantly perturbs the binding of only the N-loop residues. These results demonstrate that only the monomer is a high-affinity ligand for both receptors, and also provide a structural basis for the lower binding affinity of the dimer.
Project description:Rapid mobilization of neutrophils from vasculature to the site of bacterial/viral infections and tissue injury is a critical step in successful resolution of inflammation. The chemokine CXCL8 plays a central role in recruiting neutrophils. A characteristic feature of CXCL8 is its ability to reversibly exist as both monomers and dimers, but whether both forms exist in vivo, and if so, the relevance of each form for in vivo function is not known. In this study, using a 'trapped' non-associating monomer and a non-dissociating dimer, we show that (i) wild type (WT) CXCL8 exists as both monomers and dimers, (ii) the in vivo recruitment profiles of the monomer, dimer, and WT are distinctly different, and (iii) the dimer is essential for initial robust recruitment and the WT is most active for sustained recruitment. Using a microfluidic device, we also observe that recruitment is not only dependent on the total amount of CXCL8 but also on the steepness of the gradient, and the gradients created by different CXCL8 variants elicit different neutrophil migratory responses. CXCL8 mediates its function by binding to CXCR2 receptor on neutrophils and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on endothelial cells. On the basis of our data, we propose that dynamic equilibrium between CXCL8 monomers and dimers and their differential binding to CXCR2 and GAGs mediates and regulates in vivo neutrophil recruitment. Our finding that both CXCL8 monomer and dimer are functional in vivo is novel, and indicates that the CXCL8 monomer-dimer equilibrium and neutrophil recruitment are intimately linked in health and disease.
Project description:The ELR-CXC chemokines are important to neutrophil inflammation in many acute and chronic diseases. Among them, CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8), the expression levels of which are elevated in many inflammatory diseases, binds to both the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors with high affinity. Recently, an analogue of human CXCL8, CXCL8(3-72)K11R/G31P (hG31P) has been developed. It has been demonstrated that hG31P is a high affinity antagonist for both the CXCR1 and CXCR2. Herein, we have determined the solution structure and the CXCR1 N-terminal peptide binding sites of hG31P by NMR spectroscopy. We have found that the displacement within the tertiary structure of the 30 s loop and the N-terminal region and more specifically change of the loop conformation (especially H33), of hG31P may affect its binding to the CXCR1 receptor and thereby inhibit human neutrophil chemotactic responses induced by ELR-CXC chemokines. Our results provide a structural basis for future clinical investigations of this CXCR1/CXCR2 receptor antagonist and for the further development of CXCL8 based antagonists.