Interaction between neuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling and temperature influences sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak: role of nitroso-redox balance.
ABSTRACT: Although nitric oxide (NO) signaling modulates cardiac function and excitation-contraction coupling, opposing results because of inconsistent experimental conditions, particularly with respect to temperature, confound the ability to elucidate NO signaling pathways. Here, we show that temperature significantly modulates NO effects.To test the hypothesis that temperature profoundly affects nitroso-redox equilibrium, thereby affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium (Ca(2+)) leak.We measured SR Ca(2+) leak in cardiomyocytes from wild-type (WT), NO/redox imbalance (neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice-1 [NOS1(-/-)]), and hyper S-nitrosoglutathione reductase-deficient (GSNOR(-/-)) mice. In WT cardiomyocytes, SR Ca(2+) leak increased because temperature decreased from 37°C to 23°C, whereas in NOS1(-/-) cells, the leak suddenly increased when the temperature surpassed 30°C. GSNOR(-/-) cardiomyocytes exhibited low leak throughout the temperature range. Exogenously added NO had a biphasic effect on NOS1(-/-) cardiomyocytes; reducing leak at 37°C but increasing it at subphysiological temperatures. Oxypurinol and Tempol diminished the leak in NOS1(-/-) cardiomyocytes. Cooling from 37°C to 23°C increased reactive oxygen species generation in WT but decreased it in NOS1(-/-) cardiomyocytes. Oxypurinol further reduced reactive oxygen species generation. At 23°C in WT cells, leak was decreased by tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential NOS cofactor. Cooling significantly increased SR Ca(2+) content in NOS1(-/-) cells but had no effect in WT or GSNOR(-/-).Ca(2+) leak and temperature are normally inversely proportional, whereas NOS1 deficiency reverses this effect, increasing leak and elevating reactive oxygen species production because temperature increases. Reduced denitrosylation (GSNOR deficiency) eliminates the temperature dependence of leak. Thus, temperature regulates the balance between NO and reactive oxygen species which in turn has a major effect on SR Ca(2+).
Project description:Although the combined use of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate confers important clinical benefits in patients with heart failure, the underlying mechanism of action is still controversial. We used two models of nitroso-redox imbalance, neuronal NO synthase-deficient (NOS1(-/-)) mice and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats, to test the hypothesis that hydralazine (HYD) alone or in combination with nitroglycerin (NTG) or isosorbide dinitrate restores Ca(2+) cycling and contractile performance and controls superoxide production in isolated cardiomyocytes. The response to increased pacing frequency was depressed in NOS1(-/-) compared with wild type myocytes. Both sarcomere length shortening and intracellular Ca(2+) transient (?[Ca(2+)]i) responses in NOS1(-/-) cardiomyocytes were augmented by HYD in a dose-dependent manner. NTG alone did not affect myocyte shortening but reduced ?[Ca(2+)]i across the range of pacing frequencies and increased myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity thereby enhancing contractile efficiency. Similar results were seen in failing myocytes from the heart failure rat model. HYD alone or in combination with NTG reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) leak, improved SR Ca(2+) reuptake, and restored SR Ca(2+) content. HYD and NTG at low concentrations (1 ?m), scavenged superoxide in isolated cardiomyocytes, whereas in cardiac homogenates, NTG inhibited xanthine oxidoreductase activity and scavenged NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide more efficiently than HYD. Together, these results revealed that by reducing SR Ca(2+) leak, HYD improves Ca(2+) cycling and contractility impaired by nitroso-redox imbalance, and NTG enhanced contractile efficiency, restoring cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.
Project description:We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta(C) (CaMKII-TG) develop dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak and lowering of SR Ca(2+) load. We hypothesized that phospholamban (PLN) ablation would restore SR Ca(2+) load and prevent the decreased ventricular contractility, dilation and mortality seen in CaMKII-TG.Our objectives were to generate CaMKII-TG mice lacking PLN, determine whether the maladaptive effects of cardiac CaMKIIdelta(C) expression were corrected, and establish the mechanistic basis for these changes.CaMKII-TG were crossed with PLN knockout (PLN-KO) mice to generate KO/TG mice. Myocytes from wild type (WT), CaMKII-TG, PLN-KO and KO/TG were compared. The decreased SR Ca(2+) load and twitch Ca(2+) transients seen in CaMKII-TG were normalized in KO/TG. Surprisingly the heart failure phenotype was exacerbated, as indicated by increased left ventricular dilation, decreased ventricular function, increased apoptosis and greater mortality. In KO/TG myocytes SR Ca(2+) sparks and leak were significantly increased, presumably because of the combined effects of restored SR Ca(2+) load and RyR2 phosphorylation. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading was increased in cardiomyocytes from KO/TG versus WT or CaMKII-TG mice and this was dependent on elevated SR Ca(2+) sparks. Cardiomyocytes from KO/TG showed poor viability, improved by inhibiting SR Ca(2+) release and mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading.Normalizing cardiomyocyte SR Ca(2+) loading in the face of elevated CaMKII and RyR2 phosphorylation leads to enhanced SR Ca(2+) leak and mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, associated with exacerbated cell death, heart failure and mortality.
Project description:Altered Ca(2+) homeostasis is a salient feature of heart disease, where the calcium release channel ryanodine receptor (RyR) plays a major role. Accumulating data support the notion that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) regulates the cardiac RyR via S-nitrosylation. We tested the hypothesis that NOS1 deficiency impairs RyR S-nitrosylation, leading to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Diastolic Ca(2+) levels are elevated in NOS1(-/-) and NOS1/NOS3(-/-) but not NOS3(-/-) myocytes compared with wild-type (WT), suggesting diastolic Ca(2+) leakage. Measured leak was increased in NOS1(-/-) and NOS1/NOS3(-/-) but not in NOS3(-/-) myocytes compared with WT. Importantly, NOS1(-/-) and NOS1/NOS3(-/-) myocytes also exhibited spontaneous calcium waves. Whereas the stoichiometry and binding of FK-binding protein 12.6 to RyR and the degree of RyR phosphorylation were not altered in NOS1(-/-) hearts, RyR2 S-nitrosylation was substantially decreased, and the level of thiol oxidation increased. Together, these findings demonstrate that NOS1 deficiency causes RyR2 hyponitrosylation, leading to diastolic Ca(2+) leak and a proarrhythmic phenotype. NOS1 dysregulation may be a proximate cause of key phenotypes associated with heart disease.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) derived from the activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) is involved in S-nitrosylation of key sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) handling proteins. Deficient S-nitrosylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) has a variable effect on SR Ca(2+) leak/sparks in isolated myocytes, likely dependent on the underlying physiological state. It remains unknown, however, whether such molecular aberrancies are causally related to arrhythmogenesis in the intact heart. Here we show in the intact heart, reduced NOS1 activity increased Ca(2+)-mediated ventricular arrhythmias only in the setting of elevated myocardial [Ca(2+)](i). These arrhythmias arose from increased spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release, resulting from a combination of decreased RyR2 S-nitrosylation (RyR2-SNO) and increased RyR2 oxidation (RyR-SOx) (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) from xanthine oxidoreductase activity) and could be suppressed with xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibition (i.e., allopurinol) or nitric oxide donors (i.e., S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO). Surprisingly, we found evidence of NOS1 down-regulation of RyR2 phosphorylation at the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) site (S2814), suggesting molecular cross-talk between nitrosylation and phosphorylation of RyR2. Finally, we show that nitroso-redox imbalance due to decreased NOS1 activity sensitizes RyR2 to a severe arrhythmic phenotype by oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that nitroso-redox imbalance is an important mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias in the intact heart under disease conditions (i.e., elevated [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative stress), and that therapies restoring nitroso-redox balance in the heart could prevent sudden arrhythmic death.
Project description:Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca(2+) leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (?-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When ?-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent evidence has indicated that CaMKII activation can be regulated by cellular oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigate how the cellular second messenger, nitric oxide, mediates CaMKII activity downstream of the adrenergic signaling cascade and promotes the generation of arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in intact cardiomyocytes. Both SCaWs and SR Ca(2+) leak were measured in intact rabbit and mouse ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca-dependent fluorescent dye, fluo-4. CaMKII activity in vitro and immunoblotting for phosphorylated residues on CaMKII, nitric oxide synthase, and Akt were measured to confirm activity of these enzymes as part of the adrenergic cascade. We demonstrate that stimulation of the ?-AR pathway by isoproterenol increased the CaMKII-dependent SR Ca(2+) leak. This increased leak was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 but not nitric oxide synthase 3. In ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mice, isoproterenol stimulation also increased the CaMKII-dependent leak. Critically, in myocytes isolated from nitric oxide synthase 1 knock-out mice this effect is ablated. We show that isoproterenol stimulation leads to an increase in nitric oxide production, and nitric oxide alone is sufficient to activate CaMKII and increase SR Ca(2+) leak. Mechanistically, our data links Akt to nitric oxide synthase 1 activation downstream of ?-AR stimulation. Collectively, this evidence supports the hypothesis that CaMKII is regulated by nitric oxide as part of the adrenergic cascade leading to arrhythmogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ca²? leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) contributes to cardiomyocyte dysfunction. RyR2 Ca²? leak has been related to RyR2 phosphorylation. In these conditions, JTV519 (K201), a 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative and multi-channel blocker, stabilizes RyR2s and decrease SR Ca²? leak. We investigated whether JTV519 stabilizes RyR2s without increasing RyR2 phosphorylation in mice and in non-failing human myocardium and explored underlying mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: SR Ca²? leak was induced by ouabain in murine cardiomyocytes. [Ca²?]-transients, SR Ca²? load and RyR2-mediated Ca²? leak (sparks/waves) were quantified, with or without JTV519 (1?µmol·L?¹). Contribution of Ca²? -/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) was assessed by KN-93 and Western blot (RyR2-Ser(2814) phosphorylation). Effects of JTV519 on contractile force were investigated in non-failing human ventricular trabeculae. KEY RESULTS: Ouabain increased systolic and diastolic cytosolic [Ca²?](i) , SR [Ca²?], and SR Ca²? leak (Ca²? spark (SparkF) and Ca²? wave frequency), independently of CaMKII and RyR-Ser(2814) phosphorylation. JTV519 decreased SparkF but also SR Ca²? load. At matched SR [Ca²?], Ca²? leak was significantly reduced by JTV519, but it had no effect on fractional Ca²? release or Ca²? wave propagation velocity. In human muscle, JTV519 was negatively inotropic at baseline but significantly enhanced ouabain-induced force and reduced its deleterious effects on diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: JTV519 was effective in reducing SR Ca²? leak by specifically regulating RyR2 opening at diastolic [Ca²?](i) in the absence of increased RyR2 phosphorylation at Ser(2814) , extending the potential use of JTV519 to conditions of acute cellular Ca²? overload.
Project description:Studies suggest the potential role of a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak in cardiac contractile dysfunction in sepsis. However, direct supporting evidence is lacking, and the mechanisms underlying this SR leak are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the changes in cardiac Ca2+ handling and contraction in LPS-treated rat cardiomyocytes and a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis produced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). LPS decreased the systolic Ca2+ transient and myocyte contraction as well as SR Ca2+ content. Meanwhile, LPS increased Ca2+ spark-mediated SR Ca2+ leak. Preventing the SR leak with ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker tetracaine restored SR load and increased myocyte contraction. Similar alterations in Ca2+ handling were observed in cardiomyocytes from CLP mice. Treatment with JTV-519, an anti-SR leak drug, restored Ca2+ handling and improved cardiac function. In the LPS-treated cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in RyR2 were increased, whereas the levels of the RyR2-associated FK506-binding protein 1B (FKBP12.6) were decreased. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-specific inhibitor TAK-242 reduced the oxidative stress in LPS-treated cells, decreased the SR leak, and normalized Ca2+ handling and myocyte contraction. Consistently, TLR4 deletion significantly improved cardiac function and corrected abnormal Ca2+ handling in the CLP mice. This study provides evidence for the critical role of the SR Ca2+ leak in the development of septic cardiomyopathy and highlights the therapeutic potential of JTV-519 by preventing SR leak. Furthermore, it reveals that TLR4 activation-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and the resulting oxidative stress in RyR2 contribute to the SR Ca2+ leak.
Project description:Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Electrical and functional abnormalities have been attributed to cardiac fibrosis; however, electrical abnormalities may occur in the absence of overt cardiac histopathology. Here we show that structural and functional remodeling of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) occurs in the mdx mouse model of DMD. RyR2 from mdx hearts were S-nitrosylated and depleted of calstabin2 (FKBP12.6), resulting in "leaky" RyR2 channels and a diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak. Inhibiting the depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 complex with the Ca(2+) channel stabilizer S107 ("rycal") inhibited the SR Ca(2+) leak, inhibited aberrant depolarization in isolated cardiomyocytes, and prevented arrhythmias in vivo. This suggests that diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak via RyR2 due to S-nitrosylation of the channel and calstabin2 depletion from the channel complex likely triggers cardiac arrhythmias. Normalization of the RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak prevents fatal sudden cardiac arrhythmias in DMD.
Project description:Diminished Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is an important contributor to the impaired contractility of the failing heart. Despite extensive effort, the underlying causes of abnormal SR Ca release in heart failure (HF) remain unknown. We used a combination of simultaneous imaging of cytosolic and SR intraluminal [Ca] in isolated cardiomyocytes and recordings from single-ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels reconstituted into lipid bilayers to investigate alterations in intracellular Ca handling in an experimental model of chronic HF. We found that diastolic free [Ca] inside the SR was dramatically reduced because of a Ca leak across the SR membrane, mediated by spontaneous local release events (Ca sparks), in HF myocytes. Additionally, the magnitudes of intrastore Ca depletion signals during global and focal Ca release events were blunted, and [Ca]SR recovery was slowed after global but not focal Ca release in HF myocytes. At the single-RyR level, the sensitivity of RyRs to activation by luminal Ca was greatly enhanced, providing a molecular mechanism for the maintained potentiation of Ca sparks (and increased Ca leak) at reduced intra-SR [Ca] in HF. This work shows that the diminished SR Ca release characteristic of failing myocardium could be explained by increased sensitivity of RyRs to luminal Ca, leading to enhanced spark-mediated SR Ca leak and reduced intra-SR [Ca].
Project description:Ankyrin-B (AnkB) loss-of-function may cause ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in humans. Cardiac myocytes from AnkB heterozygous mice (AnkB(+/-)) show reduced expression and altered localization of Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) and Na/K-ATPase (NKA), key players in regulating [Na](i) and [Ca](i). Here we investigate how AnkB reduction affects cardiac [Na](i), [Ca](i) and SR Ca release. We found reduced NCX and NKA transport function but unaltered [Na](i) and diastolic [Ca](i) in myocytes from AnkB(+/-) vs. wild-type (WT) mice. Ca transients, SR Ca content and fractional SR Ca release were larger in AnkB(+/-) myocytes. The frequency of spontaneous, diastolic Ca sparks (CaSpF) was significantly higher in intact myocytes from AnkB(+/-) vs. WT myocytes (with and without isoproterenol), even when normalized for SR Ca load. However, total ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated SR Ca leak (tetracaine-sensitive) was not different between groups. Thus, in AnkB(+/-) mice SR Ca leak is biased towards more Ca sparks (vs. smaller release events), suggesting more coordinated openings of RyRs in a cluster. This is due to local cytosolic RyR regulation, rather than intrinsic RyR differences, since CaSpF was similar in saponin-permeabilized myocytes from WT and AnkB(+/-) mice. The more coordinated RyRs openings resulted in an increased propensity of pro-arrhythmic Ca waves in AnkB(+/-) myocytes. In conclusion, AnkB reduction alters cardiac Na and Ca transport and enhances the coupled RyR openings, resulting in more frequent Ca sparks and waves although the total SR Ca leak is unaffected. This could enhance the propensity for triggered arrhythmias in AnkB(+/-) mice.