Addition of lenalidomide to rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (RICER) in first-relapse/primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with a poor prognosis. Outcomes are particularly poor following immunochemotherapy failure or relapse within 12 months of induction. We conducted a Phase I/II trial of lenalidomide plus RICE (rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) (RICER) as a salvage regimen for first-relapse or primary refractory DLBCL. Dose-escalated lenalidomide was combined with RICE every 14 d. After three cycles of RICER, patients with chemosensitive disease underwent stem cell collection and consolidation with BEAM [BCNU (carmustine), etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan] followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT). Patients who recovered from autoSCT toxicities within 90 d initiated maintenance treatment with lenalidomide 25 mg daily for 21 d every 28 d for 12 months. No dose-limiting or unexpected toxicities occurred with lenalidomide 25 mg plus RICE. Grade 3/4 haematological toxicities resolved appropriately, and planned dose density and dose intensity of RICER were preserved. No lenalidomide or RICE dose reductions were required in any of the three cycles. After two cycles of RICER, nine of 15 patients (60%) achieved a complete response, and two achieved a partial response (13%). Combining lenalidomide with RICE is feasible, and results in promising response rates (particularly complete response rates) in high-risk DLBCL patients.
Project description:We sought to develop a safe and effective outpatient salvage regimen by replacing ifosfamide within the (R)ICE (rituximab, ifosfomide, carboplatin, etoposide) regimen with bendamustine (T(R)EC) via a multicentre phase I/II study for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Therapy consisted of 60-120 mg/m2 per day bendamustine on days 1 and 2 in combination with carboplatin, etoposide and rituximab (only for CD20+ lymphoma) used in the (R)ICE regimen for up to 2 cycles. The objectives were to define a maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of bendamustine, determine safety and toxicity, assess efficacy, and evaluate impact on stem cell collection. Forty-eight patients were treated of which 71% had refractory disease. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended phase II dose of bendamustine was 120 mg/m2 per day on days 1 and 2. Response rates were 85% (70% complete response, CR) in HL, and 65% (40% CR) in DLBCL. Stem cell collection was successful in 30 of 32 patients. The most common non-haematological toxicities ?grade 3 were febrile neutropenia (8%) and dehydration (8%). The T(R)EC regimen safely yields high response rates, successfully mobilizes peripheral blood stem cells and compares favourably to RICE, offering an effective outpatient treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL and HL.
Project description:The outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poor, particularly in patients ineligible for stem cell transplantation or who fail induction therapy or salvage therapy. The phase 1b portion of this open-label, dose-escalation (3+3+3 design) study examined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary safety and activity of the regimen in transplant-ineligible adults with histologically confirmed relapsed/refractory DLBCL after at least 1 prior therapy. Patients received once-daily 560 mg ibrutinib, 375 mg/m2 intravenous rituximab day 1 of cycles 1 to 6, and 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg lenalidomide days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle. Forty-five patients were treated; median time since diagnosis was 14.1 months, and 51% of the patients had non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) DLBCL, 33% had transformed DLBCL, 60% were refractory, and 27% were primary refractory. Because of dose-limiting toxicities, a de-escalation cohort (10 mg lenalidomide) was initiated, and with subsequent re-escalation up to 25 mg lenalidomide, the MTD was not reached. In response-evaluable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 44% (complete response [CR], 28%); among them, the ORR was 65% (CR, 41%) in non-GCB and 69% and 56% in relapsed (n = 16) and secondary refractory (n = 27) disease, respectively. Overall and for non-GCB, median response duration was 15.9 months, with 2 patients receiving therapy beyond 3 years. Phase 2 was initiated with 20 mg lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory non-GCB, whereas the phase 1b 25-mg lenalidomide cohort was being completed; an additional 25-mg cohort in phase 2 is currently ongoing. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02077166.
Project description:To evaluate the strategy of using high-dose etoposide mobilization followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) refractory to rituximab-based chemotherapy. Forty patients with refractory DLBCL were treated with high-dose etoposide for stem cell mobilization. All patients were in progressive disease (PD) prior to mobilization and underwent high-dose chemotherapy followed by APBSCT. Successful PBSC mobilization was achieved in all patients. Twenty-three patients (57.5%) showed a clinical response to high-dose etoposide. After APBSCT, 17 patients (42.5%) achieved CR. The 2-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were higher in patients responding to high-dose etoposide (64.1% and 77.7%) compared to those without response (11.8% and 11.8%; P?<?0.001 for both). The response to high-dose etoposide mobilization therapy was an independent prognostic factor for CR achievement, PFS and OS after APBSCT. High-dose etoposide mobilization chemotherapy followed by APBSCT could rescue a proportion of patients with refractory DLBCL who responded to etoposide mobilization regimen.
Project description:Lenalidomide and bortezomib are active in relapsed and relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). In preclinical studies, lenalidomide sensitized MM cells to bortezomib and dexamethasone. This phase I, dose-escalation study (ie, NCT00153933) evaluated safety and determined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide plus bortezomib in patients with relapsed or with relapsed and refractory MM.Patients received lenalidomide 5, 10, or 15 mg/d on days 1 through 14 and received bortezomib 1.0 or 1.3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of 21-day cycles. Dexamethasone (20mg or 40 mg on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12) was added for progressive disease after two cycles. Primary end points were safety and MTD determination.Thirty-eight patients were enrolled across six dose cohorts. The MTD was lenalidomide 15 mg/d plus bortezomib 1.0 mg/m(2). Dose-limiting toxicities (n = 1 for each) were grade 3 hyponatremia and herpes zoster reactivation and grade 4 neutropenia. The most common treatment-related, grades 3 to 4 toxicities included reversible neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukopenia. Among 36 response-evaluable patients, 61% (90% CI, 46% to 75%) achieved minimal response or better. Among 18 patients who had dexamethasone added, 83% (90% CI, 62% to 95%) achieved stable disease or better. Median overall survival was 37 months.Lenalidomide plus bortezomib was well tolerated and showed promising activity with durable responses in patients with relapsed and relapsed/refractory MM, including patients previously treated with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and/or thalidomide. The combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone is being investigated in a phase II study in this setting and in newly diagnosed MM.
Project description:Carfilzomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, has shown safety and efficacy in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. This phase I study in patients with relapsed or progressive multiple myeloma assessed the safety and tolerability of escalating doses of carfilzomib in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (CRd) to identify the dose for a phase II expansion study.Patients with multiple myeloma who relapsed after 1 to 3 prior regimens enrolled into dose-escalation cohorts. CRd was administered on 28-day dosing cycles: carfilzomib 15 to 27 mg/m(2) on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16; lenalidomide 10 to 25 mg on days 1 to 21; and dexamethasone 40 mg weekly.Forty patients enrolled in six cohorts. Prior treatment included bortezomib (75%) and lenalidomide (70%); 20% and 36% were refractory overall. The maximum tolerated dose was not identified, and the highest dose combination tested was recommended for the phase II study. The most common toxicities of any grade were fatigue (62.5%), neutropenia (55.5%), and diarrhea (52.5%). Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (42.5%), thrombocytopenia (32.5%), and lymphopenia (27.5%), with no grade 3/4 neuropathy reported. Proteasome inhibition 1-hour after dose was more than 80% in cycles 1 and 2. Among all patients, the overall response rate was 62.5%, the clinical benefit response rate was 75.0%, and the median duration of response and progression-free survival were 11.8 and 10.2 months, respectively.The maximum planned CRd dose, carfilzomib 27 mg/m(2), lenalidomide 25 mg, and dexamethasone 40 mg, was recommended for further study, with promising safety and efficacy.
Project description:Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas (DLBCL) are the most frequent Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). The addition of Rituximab to the standard chemotherapy CHOP improved the outcome in this patients, but so far 40% of patients experienced relapse or progressive disease. Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent, had direct tumoricidal and antiangiogenetic actions on tumor cells and was able to modulate tumor-cell microenvironment, with the restoration of impaired T-cell activity and the formation of immuno-synapsis. Based on these actions, lenalidomide represented an active drug on aggressive relapsed NHL. In this review, the most relevant clinical trials for the use of lenalidomide in DLBCL were reported. Monotherapy with lenalidomide showed an activity in term of overall response rate, with acceptable hematological and extrahematological toxicities in relapsed/refractory aggressive NHL. The role of lenalidomide as salvage therapy in both cell of origin patterns in DLBCL (germinal center B-cell/activated B-cell) was reported in preliminary data. Preliminary data regarding the role of lenalidomide in addition to chemoimmunotherapy (R-CHOP) in first line clinical trials were discussed; data of safety, feasibility and efficacy were promising.
Project description:This phase 1 dose-escalation study evaluated pomalidomide, bortezomib (subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV)) and low-dose dexamethasone (LoDEX) in lenalidomide-refractory and proteasome inhibitor-exposed relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). In 21-day cycles, patients received pomalidomide (1-4?mg days 1-14), bortezomib (1-1.3?mg/m2 days 1, 4, 8 and 11 for cycles 1-8; days 1 and 8 for cycle ?9) and LoDEX. Primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Thirty-four patients enrolled: 12 during escalation, 10 in the MTD IV bortezomib cohort and 12 in the MTD SC bortezomib cohort. Patients received a median of 2 prior lines of therapy; 97% bortezomib exposed. With no dose-limiting toxicities, MTD was defined as the maximum planned dose: pomalidomide 4 mg, bortezomib 1.3?mg/m2 and LoDEX. All patients discontinued treatment by data cutoff (2 April 2015). The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (44%) and thrombocytopenia (26%), which occurred more frequently with IV than SC bortezomib. No grade 3/4 peripheral neuropathy or deep vein thrombosis was reported. Overall response rate was 65%. Median duration of response was 7.4 months. Pomalidomide, bortezomib and LoDEX was well tolerated and effective in lenalidomide-refractory and bortezomib-exposed patients with RRMM.
Project description:This phase 1 dose-escalation study determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral pomalidomide (4 dose levels) administered on days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). After four cycles, patients who progressed or had not achieved minimal response (serum and urine M-protein reduction of ? 25% and ? 50%) could receive dexamethasone 40 mg per week. Safety and efficacy were evaluated. Thirty-eight patients who had received both bortezomib and lenalidomide (median 6 prior therapies) were enrolled; 63% were refractory to both lenalidomide and bortezomib. There were four dose-limiting toxicities (grade 4 neutropenia) at 5 mg per day and so the MTD was 4 mg per day. Rates of peripheral neuropathy and venous thromboembolism were low (? 5%). Among the 38 patients enrolled (including 22 with added dexamethasone), 42% achieved minimal response or better, 21% achieved partial response or better, and 3% achieved complete response. Median duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 4.6, 4.6, and 18.3 months, respectively. Pomalidomide 4 mg per day on days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle, with or without dexamethasone (40 mg/week), has encouraging activity with manageable toxicity in RRMM, including those refractory to both lenalidomide and bortezomib. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00833833.
Project description:Attempts to improve upon the activity of ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) include the addition of targeted therapies. The combination of lenalidomide and rituximab demonstrated an overall response rate (ORR) of 66% with a complete response (CR) of 12% in the relapsed/refractory setting. Based on these data, we conducted a phase 1 study of rituximab (R), lenalidomide (L), and ibrutinib (I) in relapsed/refractory CLL. Patients received R 375 mg/m2 cycles 1 to 6 day 1, L on cycles 1 to 12 days 1 to 21, and I until disease progression. Dose escalation used a standard 3+3 design from a dose level (DL) of L 5 mg (DL1) and increasing to 15 mg (DL3) for a total of 3 dose levels. Twelve patients were enrolled; there were 2 dose-limiting toxicities of grade 4 neutropenia at DL3; thus, DL2 was the recommended phase 2 dose. A high incidence of sustained grade 4 neutropenia occurred at all dose levels, prompting study withdrawal in 5 patients, despite growth factor support. The ORR was 67%; ORR at the RP2D was 100% (1 CR). The 12-month progression-free survival at the RP2D was 83%. Preliminary efficacy data with the triplet did not appear superior to prior reports of the rituximab-lenalidomide doublet or single-agent ibrutinib. Given these findings and the sustained neutropenia, this regimen was not pursued. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02200848.
Project description:In the postrituximab era, approximately half of the patients with relapsed or refractory (rel/ref) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) fail to achieve a chemosensitive response to standard salvage therapy, and are thus ineligible to proceed to autologous stem cell transplantation with curative intent. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib demonstrates single-agent activity in rel/ref DLBCL, particularly of non-germinal center (non-GC) cell of origin. We conducted a single-center phase 1 study evaluating dose-escalated ibrutinib, in a 3-by-3 design, in combination with rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (R-ICE) in physiologically transplant-eligible rel/ref DLBCL patients. Twenty-one patients have been treated and are evaluable for toxicity with no dose-limiting toxicities observed through expansion with ibrutinib at 840 mg daily at dose level 3. Of the 20 patients evaluable for response, per modern International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma criteria, 11 patients achieved complete remission (CR) and 7 patients achieved partial remission for an overall response rate of 90%. All evaluable patients with non-GC DLBCL achieved a metabolic CR. Ibrutinib in combination with R-ICE demonstrates tolerability and efficacy in rel/ref DLBCL, particularly of non-GC phenotype. This treatment program warrants further investigation in later-phase studies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02219737.