Longitudinal relations between stress and depressive symptoms in youth: coping as a mediator.
ABSTRACT: The present prospective study examined the relations among stressful life events, coping, and depressive symptoms in children at varied risk for depression. Participants were 227 children between 7 and 17 years old (mean age = 12.13 years, SD = 2.31, 54.6 % female) who were part of a longitudinal study of depressed and nondepressed parents and their children. Youth completed measures assessing stressful life events and coping strategies at four time points over 22 months. Children's depressive symptoms were assessed at each time point by clinical interviews of parents and children, and children's self-report. Structural equation modeling indicated that stressful life events significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses of the indirect effects in three different models revealed that primary control engagement coping and disengagement coping strategies partially mediated the relation between stressful life events and children's depressive symptoms across time. Regarding the direction of effects, more consistent relations were found for coping as a mediator of the link from stress to depressive symptoms than from symptoms to stress. Thus, one potential mechanism by which stressful life events may contribute to depressive symptoms in children is through less use of primary control coping and greater use of disengagement coping strategies. This is consistent with the view that the adverse effects of stress may contribute to impairments in the ability to cope effectively.
Project description:The present research explored whether components of social identity, namely ingroup ties, affect, and centrality, were differentially linked to mental health and inflammatory immune responses, and whether rumination mediated those relations. Study 1 (N = 138) indicated that stronger ingroup ties were associated with fewer mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress) symptoms; those relations were mediated by the tendency for individuals with strong ties to rely less on ruminative coping to deal with a stressful life event. Study 2 (N = 54) demonstrated that ingroup ties were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, dispositional rumination, as well as stress-linked inflammatory elements at the physiological level. Consistent associations for centrality and ingroup affect were absent, suggesting that ingroup ties may have unique health benefits.
Project description:Mindfulness training has gained popularity in the scientific field and has been proposed as an efficient way for emotional regulation. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is designed especially for depressive people in reducing risk of depression relapse and is recommended in national guidelines as a treatment choice for relapse prevention in recurrent depression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on depressive symptoms of international students and probe into the mediating role of mindfulness in stressful events and depression. In addition, we introduced a new kind of mindfulness training, the breathing exercise-based mindfulness training, which is based on the integration of Buddhism and Daoism. Self-report questionnaires assessing the coping style, abnormal depressive behavior, and stressful live events were completed in 260 international students in China (mean?age = 21.4 years). The results showed that (1) many international students showed depression symptoms, (2) stressful life events play a completely mediating role in the initiation of depression and anxiety, and (3) mindfulness training for 8 weeks significantly reduced the depressive symptoms, and it was also related to a positive coping style. This study has certain theoretical significance in exploring the mechanism of the occurrence and development of depression among international students and provides useful tools for this special group of international students. In addition, the international students can also learn Chinese culture through the training. These findings indicate that mindfulness training and positive coping style are interrelated with treating depressive symptoms for international students.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Reassessing coping involves efforts to wait patiently for an appropriate opportunity to act or for a change or improvement in the situation, and can be observed in individuals encountering a stressful relationship event. It was hypothesized that reassessing coping would be negatively associated with depressive symptoms.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional Web-based survey was conducted in order to test this hypothesis by examining relationships between coping strategies including reassessing coping, distancing coping and constructive coping for stressful relationship events and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,500 individuals recruited from the general populations of the United States, Australia, and China.<h4>Results</h4>Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that scores on coping strategies predicted depressive symptom scores in the samples from all three countries with medium or large effect sizes. Further, the beta values for reassessing coping scores were negative and significant in all samples, indicating that the hypothesis was supported for each of the population samples surveyed. In addition, distancing coping, which reflects strategies that attempt to actively damage, disrupt, and dissolve a stressful relationship, was associated with high levels of depressive symptoms.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Reassessing coping for interpersonal stressors was be negatively associated with depressive symptoms in sample from general populations of the United States, Australia, and China.
Project description:The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck Depression Inventory), child depression (Children's Depression Inventory), and children's externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report Form) were assessed annually. Data analyses using dynamic latent difference score structural equation models indicated that the observed relations between mothers' and adolescents' symptoms were stable across the 6 years. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted subsequent elevations in children's depressive symptoms and in their externalizing problems over time. Among mothers with high initial levels of depression, children's depressive symptoms predicted subsequent declines in mothers' depressive symptoms. Children's externalizing problems were not related to subsequent change in maternal symptoms.
Project description:Background:Adults with adverse childhood experiences and exposure to adverse life events experience a diverse array of physical, mental, and social health problems across their lifespan. Adult exposure to emotional trauma, physical injury, or other adverse life events may result in the development of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding individuals' response to stress and their coping strategies is as important as the stimulus or the causes of the stress for effective stress management interventions. Methods:This is a mixed quantitative and qualitative online survey study which explores the coping strategies to stress in adults with adverse childhood experiences and exposure to adverse life events through analysis of emerging themes from survey questionnaire responses of study participants. Results:Participants who respond to stress through adaptive coping focused either on problem-solving, 17.6% (32 out of 188), or on emotion-focused coping, 45.2% (85 out of 188). Participants engaged in problem-solving mainly through therapy such as counseling and other professional stress management, whereas those who chose emotion-focused coping used diverse strategies including practicing mindfulness, meditation, and yoga; using humor and jokes; seeking higher power or religious pursuits; engaging in physical or breathing exercises; and seeking social support. Participants who practiced maladaptive coping styles constituted 37.2% (70 out of 188) of respondents and resorted to avoidance of the stressful condition, withdrawal from a stressful environment, disengagement from stressful relationships, and use and abuse of drugs and/or alcohol. Conclusion:An understanding of emerging themes in coping strategies calls for collaborative and multidisciplinary approaches in the design, implementation, and execution of health education and promotion programs tailored to meet the diverse needs of priority populations. Stress management educators need to take into account the vulnerabilities of individuals who resort to maladaptive coping and institute evidence-based behavioral and social service intervention strategies, including life skills training, to prevent the consequences of maladaptive coping and to enhance the self-efficacy of individuals to cope more effectively with stress and stressful life events.
Project description:This study investigated whether longitudinal changes in inflammatory physiology moderated the relationship between recent stressful life events and subsequent depressive symptoms in adolescence. A diverse sample of adolescents representative of an urban community (N?=?129; Age at baseline?=?12.5?years; 48.8% female; 55.0% African American) completed measures of stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and two annual blood draws (BD1 and BD2). Controlling for inflammatory activity at BD1, depression at BD1, demographics and the time between assessments, increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6; b?=?0.878, p?=?.007) and C-reactive protein (CRP; b?=?0.252, p?=?.024) from BD1 to BD2 interacted with recent stressful life events before BD1 to predict severity of depressive symptoms at BD2. Similar associations were evident for IL-6 (b?=?2.074, p?=?.040) and CRP (b?=?0.919, p?=?.050) when considering acute stressful life events that had occurred within the two weeks before the first blood collection. More frequent stressful life events before BD1 predicted significantly more severe depressive symptoms at BD2, but only for adolescents with moderate (50th percentile) and high (84th percentile) levels of IL-6 and CRP at BD2. In conclusion, adolescents who experienced both recent stressful life events and larger increases in inflammatory activity following these stressors were at increased risk for more severe depressive symptoms after approximately one year. The findings indicate that the interaction of stress and larger changes in inflammatory activity following these stressors are prognostic risk factors for depression severity in adolescents.
Project description:Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of depressed parents. One hundred eighty parents with a history of depression and their children ages 9-15 completed measures assessing youths' stress associated with parental depression (RSQ), symptoms of anxiety and depression (YSR and CBCL), and coping (RSQ). The results support the hypothesis that secondary control coping is a transdiagnostic correlate of symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. Youth stress related to parental depression and primary control coping were specific correlates of youth depressive symptoms and not anxiety symptoms. Disengagement coping was not a significant correlate of symptoms of anxiety or depression in youth. Results suggest that there are both transdiagnostic and specific correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. The current study provides evidence to suggest specific types of stress and strategies to cope with this stress demonstrate specificity to symptoms of anxiety and depression in high-risk offspring of depressed parents. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between stress, coping, and symptoms to inform prevention and treatment research.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made little progress in identifying variants linked to depression. We hypothesized that examining depressive symptoms and considering gene-environment interaction (GxE) might improve efficiency for gene discovery. We therefore conducted a GWAS and genome-wide by environment interaction study (GWEIS) of depressive symptoms.Using data from the SHARe cohort of the Women's Health Initiative, comprising African Americans (n = 7,179) and Hispanics/Latinas (n = 3,138), we examined genetic main effects and GxE with stressful life events and social support. We also conducted a heritability analysis using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Replication was attempted in four independent cohorts.No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance for main effects in either discovery sample. The top signals in African Americans were rs73531535 (located 20 kb from GPR139, P = 5.75 × 10(-8) ) and rs75407252 (intronic to CACNA2D3, P = 6.99 × 10(-7) ). In Hispanics/Latinas, the top signals were rs2532087 (located 27 kb from CD38, P = 2.44 × 10(-7) ) and rs4542757 (intronic to DCC, P = 7.31 × 10(-7) ). In the GEWIS with stressful life events, one interaction signal was genome-wide significant in African Americans (rs4652467; P = 4.10 × 10(-10) ; located 14 kb from CEP350). This interaction was not observed in a smaller replication cohort. Although heritability estimates for depressive symptoms and stressful life events were each less than 10%, they were strongly genetically correlated (rG = 0.95), suggesting that common variation underlying self-reported depressive symptoms and stressful life event exposure, though modest on their own, were highly overlapping in this sample.Our results underscore the need for larger samples, more GEWIS, and greater investigation into genetic and environmental determinants of depressive symptoms in minorities.
Project description:The transition to parenthood (TTP) is a stressful life event for most couples. Therefore, the way both partners jointly cope with stress (i.e., dyadic coping) is important for the prevention of individual adjustment problems (e.g., depression). For dyadic coping to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms, efforts of both partners should be equal. However, many couples experience a decrease of equity in task division within the domestic sphere across the TTP. The current study investigates the equity of a specific skill within the 'relationship sphere', because similarly to a decreased equity in household and childcare, a decreased equity of dyadic coping is likely to be associated with poorer individual adjustment. We collected longitudinal self-report data on dyadic coping and depressive symptoms from 104 mixed-gender first-time parents (n = 208 individuals) from pregnancy until 40 weeks postpartum. We created an equity score for men and women that measured their perceived difference between received and provided dyadic coping. On average, women reported providing more and receiving less dyadic coping than men. While both genders agreed on this distribution, men did perceive a higher equity of dyadic coping than women. Furthermore, the decrease of equity perceived by women across TTP was not visible in men. In line with our assumptions based on the equity theory, perceived equity of dyadic coping was associated with depressive symptoms in a curvilinear manner: Decreases in women's perceived equity in either direction (over- or underbenefit) were associated with more depressive symptoms in women and their male partners. This association was found above and beyond the beneficial effect of dyadic coping itself. This implies that not only how well partners support each other in times of stress, but also how equal both partners' efforts are, is important for their individual adjustment across TTP.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Although numerous studies address the relationships of depression with coping processes directed toward approaching or avoiding stressful experiences, the large majority are cross-sectional in design, assess coping processes at only one timepoint, or solely include prediction of the linear slope of depressive symptoms. In this research, coping processes were investigated as predictors of depressive symptoms, symptom trajectory classes (consistently high, recovery, consistently low), and major depressive episodes (MDEs) over 12 months in the cancer context. METHOD:Women (N = 460) within 4 months of breast cancer diagnosis completed assessments of cancer-related coping processes, depressive symptoms, and MDEs at 7 points across 1 year. RESULTS:Beyond sociodemographic and medical variables, coping through cancer-related avoidance an average of 2 months after diagnosis was associated with likelihood of being in the high depressive symptom trajectory class and occurrence of a MDE during the year. Less decline in avoidant coping over time also predicted poor outcomes. In contrast, high initial engagement in approach-oriented coping, as well as increases in coping through emotional expression and acceptance, were associated with lower depressive symptoms across assessments and higher likelihood of being in the recovery or low trajectory class. CONCLUSIONS:Greater engagement in cancer-related avoidant coping was associated with all three indicators of depression, and greater approach-oriented coping was related to more favorable outcomes (except MDE). Sustained or increasing coping through emotional expression or acceptance predicted recovery from initially high depressive symptoms. Approach- and avoidance-oriented coping processes constitute malleable targets for preventive and ameliorative approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).