A protein complex containing Epo1p anchors the cortical endoplasmic reticulum to the yeast bud tip.
ABSTRACT: The cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) of yeast underlies the plasma membrane (PM) at specific contact sites to enable a direct transfer of information and material between both organelles. During budding, directed movement of cER to the young bud followed by subsequent anchorage at its tip ensures the faithful inheritance of this organelle. The ER membrane protein Scs2p tethers the cER to the PM and to the bud tip through so far unknown receptors. We characterize Epo1p as a novel member of the polarisome that interacts with Scs2p exclusively at the cell tip during bud growth and show that Epo1p binds simultaneously to the Cdc42p guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein Bem3p. Deletion of EPO1 or deletion of BEM3 in a polarisome-deficient strain reduces the amount of cER at the tip. This analysis therefore identifies Epo1p as a novel and important component of the polarisome that promotes cER tethering at sites of polarized growth.
Project description:Tubules of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) spread into the buds of yeast by an actin-based mechanism and, upon entry, become attached to the polarisome, a proteinaceous micro-compartment below the tip of the bud. The minimal tether between polarisome and cortical ER is formed by a protein complex consisting of Epo1, a member of the polarisome, Scs2, a membrane protein of the ER and Cdc42 guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein Bem3. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between Epo1 and Bem3. In addition, we characterize through the hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange assay the interface between Scs2 and Epo1. Our findings provide a first structural insight into the molecular architecture of the link between cortical ER and the polarisome.
Project description:Ptc1p, a type 2C protein phosphatase, is required for a late step in cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In ptc1? cells, ER tubules migrate from the mother cell and contact the bud tip, yet fail to spread around the bud cortex. This defect results from the failure to inactivate a bud tip-associated pool of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase, Slt2p. Here we report that the polarisome complex affects cER inheritance through its effects on Slt2p, with different components playing distinct roles: Spa2p and Pea2p are required for Slt2p retention at the bud tip, whereas Bni1p, Bud6p, and Sph1p affect the level of Slt2p activation. Depolymerization of actin relieves the ptc1? cER inheritance defect, suggesting that in this mutant the ER becomes trapped on the cytoskeleton. Loss of Sec3p also blocks ER inheritance, and, as in ptc1? cells, this block is accompanied by activation of Slt2p and is reversed by depolymerization of actin. Our results point to a common mechanism for the regulation of ER inheritance in which Slt2p activity at the bud tip controls the association of the ER with the actin-based cytoskeleton.
Project description:Mitochondria accumulate at neuronal and immunological synapses and yeast bud tips and associate with the ER during phospholipid biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial fission. Here we show that mitochondria are associated with cortical ER (cER) sheets underlying the plasma membrane in the bud tip and confirm that a deletion in YPT11, which inhibits cER accumulation in the bud tip, also inhibits bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. Time-lapse imaging reveals that mitochondria are anchored at specific sites in the bud tip. Mmr1p, a member of the DSL1 family of tethering proteins, localizes to punctate structures on opposing surfaces of mitochondria and cER sheets underlying the bud tip and is recovered with isolated mitochondria and ER. Deletion of MMR1 impairs bud tip anchorage of mitochondria without affecting mitochondrial velocity or cER distribution. Deletion of the phosphatase PTC1 results in increased Mmr1p phosphorylation, mislocalization of Mmr1p, defects in association of Mmr1p with mitochondria and ER, and defects in bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. These findings indicate that Mmr1p contributes to mitochondrial inheritance as a mediator of anchorage of mitochondria to cER sheets in the yeast bud tip and that Ptc1p regulates Mmr1p phosphorylation, localization, and function.
Project description:A key multiprotein complex involved in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and secretory machinery required for polarized growth in fungi, is the polarisome. Recognized core constituents in budding yeast are the proteins Spa2, Pea2, Aip3/Bud6, and the key effector Bni1. Multicellular fungi display a more complex polarized morphogenesis than yeasts, suggesting that the filamentous fungal polarisome might fulfill additional functions. In this study, we compared the subcellular organization and dynamics of the putative polarisome components BUD-6 and BNI-1 with those of the bona fide polarisome marker SPA-2 at various developmental stages of Neurospora crassa. All three proteins exhibited a yeast-like polarisome configuration during polarized germ tube growth, cell fusion, septal pore plugging and tip repolarization. However, the localization patterns of all three proteins showed spatiotemporally distinct characteristics during the establishment of new polar axes, septum formation and cytokinesis, and maintained hyphal tip growth. Most notably, in vegetative hyphal tips BUD-6 accumulated as a subapical cloud excluded from the Spitzenkörper (Spk), whereas BNI-1 and SPA-2 partially colocalized with the Spk and the tip apex. Novel roles during septal plugging and cytokinesis, connected to the reinitiation of tip growth upon physical injury and conidial maturation, were identified for BUD-6 and BNI-1, respectively. Phenotypic analyses of gene deletion mutants revealed additional functions for BUD-6 and BNI-1 in cell fusion regulation, and the maintenance of Spk integrity. Considered together, our findings reveal novel polarisome-independent functions of BUD-6 and BNI-1 in Neurospora, but also suggest that all three proteins cooperate at plugged septal pores, and their complex arrangement within the apical dome of mature hypha might represent a novel aspect of filamentous fungal polarisome architecture.
Project description:Cell polarization is of paramount importance for proliferation, differentiation, development, and it is altered during carcinogenesis. Polarization is a reversible process controlled by positive and negative feedback loops. How polarized factors are redistributed is not fully understood and is the focus of this work. In <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>, mutants defective in haspin kinase exhibit stably polarized landmarks and are sensitive to mitotic delays. Here, we report a new critical role for haspin in polarisome dispersion; failure to redistribute polarity factors, in turn, leads to nuclear segregation defects and cell lethality. We identified a mitotic role for GTP-Ras in regulating the local activation of the Cdc42 GTPase, resulting in its dispersal from the bud tip to a homogeneous distribution over the plasma membrane. GTP-Ras2 physically interacts with Cdc24 regulateing its mitotic distribution. Haspin is shown to promote a mitotic shift from a bud tip-favored to a homogenous PM fusion of Ras-containing vesicles. In absence of haspin, active Ras is not redistributed from the bud tip; Cdc24 remains hyperpolarized promoting the activity of Cdc42 at the bud tip, and the polarisome fails to disperse leading to erroneously positioned mitotic spindle, defective nuclear segregation, and cell death after mitotic delays. These findings describe new functions for key factors that modulate cell polarization and mitotic events, critical processes involved in development and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Cell polarity is essential for many cellular functions including division and cell-fate determination. Although RhoGTPase signaling and vesicle trafficking are both required for the establishment of cell polarity, the mechanisms by which they are coordinated are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast RhoGAP (GTPase activating protein), Bem3, is targeted to sites of polarized growth by the endocytic and recycling pathways. Specifically, deletion of SLA2 or RCY1 led to mislocalization of Bem3 to depolarized puncta and accumulation in intracellular compartments, respectively. Bem3 partitioned between the plasma membrane and an intracellular membrane-bound compartment. These Bem3-positive structures were polarized towards sites of bud emergence and were mostly observed during the pre-mitotic phase of apical growth. Cell biological and biochemical approaches demonstrated that this intracellular Bem3 compartment contained markers for both the endocytic and secretory pathways, which were reminiscent of the Spitzenkörper present in the hyphal tips of growing fungi. Importantly, Bem3 was not a passive cargo, but recruited the secretory Rab protein, Sec4, to the Bem3-containing compartments. Moreover, Bem3 deletion resulted in less efficient localization of Sec4 to bud tips during early stages of bud emergence. Surprisingly, these effects of Bem3 on Sec4 were independent of its GAP activity, but depended on its ability to efficiently bind endomembranes. This work unveils unsuspected and important details of the relationship between vesicle traffic and elements of the cell polarity machinery: (1) Bem3, a cell polarity and peripherally associated membrane protein, relies on vesicle trafficking to maintain its proper localization; and (2) in turn, Bem3 influences secretory vesicle trafficking.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc24p functions at least in part as a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor for the Rho-family GTPase Cdc42p. A genetic screen designed to identify possible additional targets of Cdc24p instead identified two previously known genes, MSB1 and CLA4, and one novel gene, designated MSB3, all of which appear to function in the Cdc24p-Cdc42p pathway. Nonetheless, genetic evidence suggests that Cdc24p may have a function that is distinct from its Cdc42p guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor activity; in particular, overexpression of CDC42 in combination with MSB1 or a truncated CLA4 in cells depleted for Cdc24p allowed polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and polarized cell growth, but not successful cell proliferation. MSB3 has a close homologue (designated MSB4) and two more distant homologues (MDR1 and YPL249C) in S. cerevisiae and also has homologues in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila (pollux), and humans (the oncogene tre17). Deletion of either MSB3 or MSB4 alone did not produce any obvious phenotype, and the msb3 msb4 double mutant was viable. However, the double mutant grew slowly and had a partial disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, but not of the septins, in a fraction of cells that were larger and rounder than normal. Like Cdc42p, both Msb3p and Msb4p localized to the presumptive bud site, the bud tip, and the mother-bud neck, and this localization was Cdc42p dependent. Taken together, the data suggest that Msb3p and Msb4p may function redundantly downstream of Cdc42p, specifically in a pathway leading to actin organization. From previous work, the BNI1, GIC1, and GIC2 gene products also appear to be involved in linking Cdc42p to the actin cytoskeleton. Synthetic lethality and multicopy suppression analyses among these genes, MSB, and MSB4, suggest that the linkage is accomplished by two parallel pathways, one involving Msb3p, Msb4p, and Bni1p, and the other involving Gic1p and Gic2p. The former pathway appears to be more important in diploids and at low temperatures, whereas the latter pathway appears to be more important in haploids and at high temperatures.
Project description:The polarisome comprises a network of proteins that organizes polar growth in yeast and filamentous fungi. The yeast formin Bni1 and the actin nucleation-promoting factor Bud6 are subunits of the polarisome that together catalyze the formation of actin cables below the tip of yeast cells. We identified YFR016c (Aip5) as an interaction partner of Bud6 and the polarisome scaffold Spa2. Yeast cells lacking Aip5 display a reduced number of actin cables. Aip5 binds with its N-terminal region to Spa2 and with its C-terminal region to Bud6. Both interactions collaborate to localize Aip5 at bud tip and neck, and are required to stimulate the formation of actin cables. Our experiments characterize Aip5 as a novel subunit of a complex that regulates the number of actin filaments at sites of polar growth.
Project description:The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can switch between yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal morphologies. To investigate whether the distinctive characteristics of hyphae are due to increased activity of the Cdc42 GTPase, strains lacking negative regulators of Cdc42 were constructed. Unexpectedly, the deletion of the Cdc42 Rho guanine dissociation inhibitor RDI1 resulted in reduced rather than enhanced polarized growth. However, when cells lacking both Cdc42 GTPase-activating proteins, encoded by RGA2 and BEM3, were grown under pseudohyphal-promoting conditions the bud was highly elongated and lacked a constriction at its base, so that its shape resembled a hyphal germ tube. Moreover, a Spitzenkörper was present at the bud tip, a band of disorganized septin was present at bud base, true septin rings formed within the bud, and nuclei migrated out of the mother cell before the first mitosis. These are all characteristic features of a hyphal germ tube. Intriguingly, we observed hyphal-specific phosphorylation of Rga2, suggesting a possible mechanism for Cdc42 activation during normal hyphal development. In contrast, expression of Cdc42(G12V), which is constitutively GTP bound because it lacks GTPase activity, resulted in swollen cells with prominent and stable septin bars. These results suggest the development of hyphal-specific characteristics is promoted by Cdc42-GTP in a process that also requires the intrinsic GTPase activity of Cdc42.
Project description:The src homology region 3 (SH3) domain-bearing protein Bem1p and the Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p are important for bud emergence in Saccharomyces cervisiae. Here, we present evidence that through its second SH3 domain, Bem1p binds to the structurally and functionally similar proteins Boi1p and Boi2p, each of which contain an SH3 and pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Deletion of BOI1 and BO12 together leads to impaired morphogenesis and poor ability. A PH domain-bearing segment of Boi1p that lacks the Bem1p-binding site is necessary and sufficient for function. This segment of Boi1p displays a two-hybrid interaction with Cdc42p, suggesting that Boi1p either binds directly to or is part of a larger complex that contains Cdc42p. Consistent with these possibilities, overexpression of Boi1p inhibits bud emergence, but this inhibition is counteracted by cooverexpression of Cdc42p. Increased expression of the Rho-type GTPase Rho3p, which is implicated in bud growth defects of boil boi2 mutants, suggesting that Boi1p and Boi2p may also play roles in the activation or function of Rho3p. These findings provide an example of a tight coupling in function between PH domain-bearing proteins and both Rho-type GTPases and SH3 domain-containing proteins, and they raise the possibility that Boi1p and Boi2 play a role in linking the actions of Cdc42p and Rho3p.