Role of indigenous iron in improving sludge dewaterability through peroxidation.
ABSTRACT: Improvement of sludge dewaterability is important for reducing the total costs for the treatment and disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, we investigate the use of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing reagent for the conditioning of waste activated sludge. Significant improvement to sludge dewaterability was attained after the addition of hydrogen peroxide at 30 mg/g TS and 28 mg/g TS under acidic conditions (pH = 3.0), with the highest reduction of capillary suction time being 68% and 56%, respectively, for sludge containing an iron concentration of 56 mg Fe/g TS and 25 mg Fe/g TS, respectively. The observations were due to Fenton reactions between the iron contained in sludge (indigenous iron) and hydrogen peroxide. For the sludge with an insufficient level of indigenous iron, the addition of ferrous chloride was found to be able to improve the sludge dewaterability. The results firstly indicated that indigenous iron can be utilized similarly as the externally supplied iron salt to improve sludge dewaterability through catalyzing the Fenton reactions.
Project description:Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000.
Project description:Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play important roles in regulating the dewaterability of sludge. This study sought to elucidate the influence of EPS on the dewaterability of sludge during bioleaching process. Results showed that, in bioleaching system with the co-inoculation of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 (A. t+A. f system), the capillary suction time (CST) of sludge reduced from 255.9 s to 25.45 s within 48 h, which was obviously better than the controls. The correlation analysis between sludge CST and sludge EPS revealed that the sludge EPS significantly impacted the dewaterability of sludge. Sludge CST had correlation with protein content in slime and both protein and polysaccharide contents in TB-EPS and Slime+LB+TB layers, and the decrease of protein content in slime and decreases of both protein and polysaccharide contents in TB-EPS and Slime+LB+TB layers improved sludge dewaterability during sludge bioleaching process. Moreover, the low sludge pH (2.92) and the increasing distribution of Fe in the solid phase were another two factors responsible for the improvement of sludge dewaterability during bioleaching. This study suggested that during sludge bioleaching the growth of Acidithiobacillus species resulted in the decrease of sludge pH, the increasing distribution of Fe in the solid phase, and the decrease of EPS content (mainly including protein and/or polysaccharide) in the slime, TB-EPS, and Slime+LB+TB layers, all of which are helpful for sludge dewaterability enhancement.
Project description:Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion.
Project description:Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10?mg NO2--N/L for 5?h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247?±?8?L CH4/kg VS to 317?±?1?L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360?±?6?L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6?±?1.4% in the control to 18.2?±?0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.
Project description:Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), acrylamide, and methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were used as co-monomers to produce a sludge dewatering agent carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-poly(acrylamide-methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) (CCPAD) by UV-induced graft polymerization. Single-factor experiments and response surface methodology were employed to investigate and optimize the grafting rate, grafting efficiency, and intrinsic viscosity influenced by the total monomer concentration, CMCS concentration, cationic degree, pH value, and illumination time. The structure, surface morphology, and thermal stability of CCPAD were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential thermal-thermogravimetry. The raw sludge with 97.9% water content was sourced from the concentrated tank of a sewage treatment plant and used in the sludge condition experiments. In addition, CCPAD was applied as the sludge conditioner to investigate the effects of cationic degree, intrinsic viscosity, and pH on the supernatant turbidity, moisture content, specific resistance to filtration, and sludge settling ratio. Moreover, the mechanism of sludge conditioning by CCPAD was discussed by examining the zeta potential and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content of the supernatant. The sludge dewatering results confirmed that CCPAD had excellent performance for improving sludge dewaterability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study investigated the feasibility of enhancing anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with triple, dual, and individual pretreatment of waste activated sludge with heat, alkalinity, and hydrogen peroxide. These pretreatments disrupt sludge flocs, organisms' cell walls, extracellular polymeric substance, and intracellular organic matter, which increase biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of activate sludge. In addition, the influence of various variables on methane production was analyzed using the response surface methodology with the quadratic model. Eventually, an optimized temperature and chemical concentration for the highest methane production and lowest chemical usage is suggested. RESULTS:The highest amount of methane production was obtained from the sludge pretreated with triple pretreatment (heat (90?°C), alkaline (pH?=?12), and hydrogen peroxide (30?mg H2O2/g TS)), which had better performance with 96% higher methane production than that of the control sample with temperature of 25?°C approximately and a pH?=?8. Response surface methodology with a quadratic model was also used for analyzing the influence of temperature, pH, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on anaerobic digestion efficiency. It was revealed that the optimized temperature, pH, and hydrogen peroxide concentration for maximizing methane production and solubilization of sludge and minimizing thermal energy and chemical additives of the pretreatments are 83.2?°C, pH?=?10.6 and 34.8?mg H2O2/g TS, respectively, has the desirability of 0.67. CONCLUSION:This study reveals that triple pretreatment of waste activated sludge performed better than dual and individual pretreatment, respectively, in all desirable output parameters including increasing methane production as the most important output, increasing in COD solubilization, protein and polysaccharide, and decreasing in VSS solubilization.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion (AD), being the most effective treatment method of waste activated sludge (WAS), allows for safe disposal. The present study deals with the electro-Fenton (EF) pretreatment for enhancing the WAS biogas potential with low-cost iron electrodes. The effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics of sludge was assessed. Following EF pretreatment, the pH, conductivity, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased to 7.5, 13.72 mS/cm, 4.1 g/L, and 925 mg/L, respectively. Capillary suction time (CST) analysis highlighted the dewaterability effect of EF on WAS, as demonstrated by the decrease in CST from 429 to 180 s following 30 min of pretreatment. Batch digestion assays presented an increase in the biogas yield to 0.135 L/g volatile solids (VS) after 60 min of EF pretreatment in comparison to raw sludge (0.08 L/g VS). Production of biogas was also found to improve during semi-continuous fermentation of EF-pretreated sludge conducted in a lab-scale reactor. In comparison to raw sludge, EF-pretreated sludge produced the highest biogas yield (0.81 L biogas/g VS) with a high COD removal rate, reaching 96.6% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.5 g VS/L. d. Results revealed that the EF process could be an effective WAS disintegration method with maximum recovery of bioenergy during AD.
Project description:Chemical conditioning has been used for enhancing wastewater sludge dewaterability for many years, but the characteristics of odorous pollutants emission in sludge conditioning were still unclear. In this work, the transfer behavior of different odorous pollutants between air, liquid and solid phases under typical chemical conditioning processes for high-pressure dewatering was systematically investigated. The results indicated that that besides hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3), 21 kinds of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while the concentrations and composition of odorous pollutants varied greatly for different conditioning processes. VOCs were composed by three main constituents including benzenes, halogeno benzene and hydrocarbons. According to mass balance analysis, about 50% of VOCs adsorbed within sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) fraction. Since EPS was damaged and/or flocculation in different chemical conditioning processes, VOCs distributed in solid phase transformed into liquid phase and then released into air. The discrepancies in mass of odorous pollutants before and after chemical conditioning were likely to be related to chemical conversion under acidification, oxidation and precipitation in the presence of ferric ions.
Project description:Cationic polyacrylamides have been employed widely to improve sludge dewatering performance, but the cationic units are randomly distributed in the molecular chain, which restricts the further enhancement of dewaterability. Common template technology to prepare block copolymers requiring a huge number of templates reduces the polymer purity and molecular weight. Here, we adopted the surface-active monomer benzyl dimethyl 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl ammonium chloride (BDMDAC) to synthesize cationic microblocky polyacrylamide initiated by ultrasound. The reactivity ratio of monomers suggested that novel cationic monomer BDMDAC had higher homopolymerization ability, and was thus more prone to forming a microblock structure. The statistical analysis of sequence-length distribution indicated that the number and length of cationic segments increased in the PAB molecules. In addition, the characteristic results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provided evidence for the synthesis of copolymer with cationic microblocks. Finally, the results of dewatering tests demonstrated that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved by adding the synthesized novel flocculants, and the sludge-specific resistance to filtration, filter cake moisture content and residual turbidity all reached a minimum (68.7%, 5.4 × 1012 m·kg<sup>-1</sup>, and 2.6 NTU, respectively) at 40 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>. The PAB flocs were large, compact, difficult to break, and easy to regrow. Furthermore, PAB was more effective in the removal of protein from soluble extracellular polymeric substances (SEPSs). In summary, this study provides a novel solution to synthesize cationic microblock polyacrylamide for improving sludge dewatering.
Project description:In ovarian endometrioma, much iron, which is derived from blood in cyst, deposit in stroma. This iron generates oxidative stress by Fenton reaction, which is supposed to affect endometriotic stromal cells. We used gene expression microarrays to find influence of oxidative stress on endometriotic stromal cells. Gene expression microarrays revealed no statistically differences caused by oxidative stress. Overall design: 9 samples, which were 3 immortalized eutopic endometrial cells from patients without endometriosis, 3 immoralized eutopic endometrial cells from patients with ovarian endometrioma and 3 immortalized endometriotic stromal cells from patients with ovarian endometrioma, were treated with 1uM hydrogen peroxide for 60 hours and 9 controls untreated with hydrogen peroxide were prepared. A total of 18 microarrays were used for 9 samples treated with hydrogen peroxide and 9 controls.