Oncogenic Kit signals on endolysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum are essential for neoplastic mast cell proliferation.
ABSTRACT: Kit is a receptor-type tyrosine kinase found on the plasma membrane. It can transform mast cells through activating mutations. Here, we show that a mutant Kit from neoplastic mast cells from mice, Kit(D814Y), is permanently active and allows cells to proliferate autonomously. It does so by activating two signalling pathways from different intracellular compartments. Mutant Kit from the cell surface accumulates on endolysosomes through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which requires Kit's kinase activity. Kit(D814Y) is constitutively associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but the complex activates Akt only on the cytoplasmic surface of endolysosomes. It resists destruction because it is under-ubiquitinated. Kit(D814Y) also appears in the endoplasmic reticulum soon after biosynthesis, and there, can activate STAT5 aberrantly. These mechanisms of oncogenic signalling are also seen in rat and human mast cell leukemia cells. Thus, oncogenic Kit signalling occurs from different intracellular compartments, and the mutation acts by altering Kit trafficking as well as activation.
Project description:Gain-of-function mutations in Kit receptor tyrosine kinase result in the development of a variety of cancers, such as mast cell tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), acute myeloid leukemia, and melanomas. The drug imatinib, a selective inhibitor of Kit, is used for treatment of mutant Kit-positive cancers. However, mutations in the Kit kinase domain, which are frequently found in neoplastic mast cells, confer an imatinib resistance, and cancers expressing the mutants can proliferate in the presence of imatinib. Recently, we showed that in neoplastic mast cells that endogenously express an imatinib-resistant Kit mutant, Kit causes oncogenic activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) but only on endolysosomes and on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Here, we show a strategy for inhibition of the Kit-PI3K-Akt pathway in neoplastic mast cells by M-COPA (2-methylcoprophilinamide), an inhibitor of this secretory pathway. In M-COPA-treated cells, Kit localization in the ER is significantly increased, whereas endolysosomal Kit disappears, indicating that M-COPA blocks the biosynthetic transport of Kit from the ER. The drug greatly inhibits oncogenic Akt activation without affecting the association of Kit with PI3K, indicating that ER-localized Kit-PI3K complex is unable to activate Akt. Importantly, M-COPA but not imatinib suppresses neoplastic mast cell proliferation through inhibiting anti-apoptotic Akt activation. Results of our M-COPA treatment assay show that Kit can activate Erk not only on the ER but also on other compartments. Furthermore, Tyr568/570, Tyr703, Tyr721, and Tyr936 in Kit are phosphorylated on the ER, indicating that these five tyrosine residues are all phosphorylated before mutant Kit reaches the plasma membrane (PM). Our study provides evidence that Kit is tyrosine-phosphorylated soon after synthesis on the ER but is unable to activate Akt and also demonstrates that M-COPA is efficacious for growth suppression of neoplastic mast cells.
Project description:Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors.In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16-20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations.No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16-20 of any of the MCTs examined.In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs.
Project description:The endocytic delivery of macromolecules from the mammalian cell surface for degradation by lysosomal acid hydrolases requires traffic through early endosomes to late endosomes followed by transient (kissing) or complete fusions between late endosomes and lysosomes. Transient or complete fusion results in the formation of endolysosomes, which are hybrid organelles from which lysosomes are re-formed. We have used synthetic membrane-permeable cathepsin substrates, which liberate fluorescent reporters upon proteolytic cleavage, as well as acid phosphatase cytochemistry to identify which endocytic compartments are acid hydrolase active. We found that endolysosomes are the principal organelles in which acid hydrolase substrates are cleaved. Endolysosomes also accumulated acidotropic probes and could be distinguished from terminal storage lysosomes, which were acid hydrolase inactive and did not accumulate acidotropic probes. Using live-cell microscopy, we have demonstrated that fusion events, which form endolysosomes, precede the onset of acid hydrolase activity. By means of sucrose and invertase uptake experiments, we have also shown that acid-hydrolase-active endolysosomes and acid-hydrolase-inactive, terminal storage lysosomes exist in dynamic equilibrium. We conclude that the terminal endocytic compartment is composed of acid-hydrolase-active, acidic endolysosomes and acid hydrolase-inactive, non-acidic, terminal storage lysosomes, which are linked and function in a lysosome regeneration cycle.
Project description:Cholesterol dyshomeostasis has been linked to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). In furthering the understanding of mechanisms by which increased levels of circulating cholesterol augments the risk of developing sporadic AD, others and we have reported that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) enters brain parenchyma by disrupting the blood-brain barrier and that endolysosome de-acidification plays a role in LDL-induced amyloidogenesis in neurons. Here, we tested the hypothesis that endolysosome de-acidification was central to amyloid-? (A?) generation and that acidifying endolysosomes protects against LDL-induced increases in A? levels in neurons. We demonstrated that LDL, but not HDL, de-acidified endolysosomes and increased intraneuronal and secreted levels of A?. ML-SA1, an agonist of endolysosome-resident TRPML1 channels, acidified endolysosomes, and TRPML1 knockdown attenuated ML-SA1-induced endolysosome acidification. ML-SA1 blocked LDL-induced increases in intraneuronal and secreted levels of A? as well as A? accumulation in endolysosomes, prevented BACE1 accumulation in endolysosomes, and decreased BACE1 activity levels. LDL downregulated TRPML1 protein levels, and TRPML1 knockdown worsens LDL-induced increases in A?. Our findings suggest that endolysosome acidification by activating TRPML1 may represent a protective strategy against sporadic AD.
Project description:We recently reported that the isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif present at the C-terminus of human RhoB protein promotes intraluminal vesicle delivery of proteins in cells from organisms as phylogenetically apart as fungi and humans. Here we build on these observations by showing that chimeras of fluorescent proteins bearing this sequence, namely, CINCCKVL, which become isoprenylated and palmitoylated in cells, may be used to mark endolysosomes while preserving their morphology. Indeed, these chimeric proteins are devoid of the effects derived from overexpression of fluorescent constructs of full-length, active proteins widely used as endolysosomal markers, such as Lamp1 or Rab7, which cause lysosomal enlargement, or RhoB, which induces actin stress fibers. Moreover, the fact that lipidation-dependent endolysosomal localization of CINCCKVL chimeras can be ascertained in a wide variety of cells indicates that they follow a path toward endolysosomes that is conserved in diverse species. Therefore, CINCCKVL chimeras serve as robust tools to mark these late endocytic compartments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:KIT tyrosine kinase is expressed in mast cells, interstitial cells of Cajal, and hematopoietic cells. Permanently active KIT mutations lead these host cells to tumorigenesis, and to such diseases as mast cell leukemia (MCL), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, we reported that in MCL, KIT with mutations (D816V, human; D814Y, mouse) traffics to endolysosomes (EL), where it can then initiate oncogenic signaling. On the other hand, KIT mutants including KITD814Y in GIST accumulate on the Golgi, and from there, activate downstream. KIT mutations, such as N822K, have been found in 30% of core binding factor-AML (CBF-AML) patients. However, how the mutants are tyrosine-phosphorylated and where they activate downstream molecules remain unknown. Moreover, it is unclear whether a KIT mutant other than KITD816V in MCL is able to signal on EL. METHODS:We used leukemia cell lines, such as Kasumi-1 (KITN822K, AML), SKNO-1 (KITN822K, AML), and HMC-1.1 (KITV560G, MCL), to explore how KIT transduces signals in these cells and to examine the signal platform for the mutants using immunofluorescence microscopy and inhibition of intracellular trafficking. RESULTS:In AML cell lines, KITN822K aberrantly localizes to EL. After biosynthesis, KIT traffics to the cell surface via the Golgi and immediately migrates to EL through endocytosis in a manner dependent on its kinase activity. However, results of phosphorylation imaging show that KIT is preferentially activated on the Golgi. Indeed, blockade of KITN822K migration to the Golgi with BFA/M-COPA inhibits the activation of KIT downstream molecules, such as AKT, ERK, and STAT5, indicating that KIT signaling occurs on the Golgi. Moreover, lipid rafts in the Golgi play a role in KIT signaling. Interestingly, KITV560G in HMC-1.1 migrates and activates downstream in a similar manner to KITN822K in Kasumi-1. CONCLUSIONS:In AML, KITN822K mislocalizes to EL. Our findings, however, suggest that the mutant transduces phosphorylation signals on lipid rafts of the Golgi in leukemia cells. Unexpectedly, the KITV560G signal platform in MCL is similar to that of KITN822K in AML. These observations provide new insights into the pathogenic role of KIT mutants as well as that of other mutant molecules.
Project description:Mastocytosis associated with germline KIT activating mutations is exceedingly rare. We report the unique clinicopathologic features of a patient with systemic mastocytosis caused by a de novo germline KIT K509I mutation.We sought to investigate the effect of the germline KIT K509I mutation on human mast cell development and function.Primary human mast cells derived from CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors were examined for growth, development, survival, and IgE-mediated activation. In addition, a mast cell transduction system that stably expressed the KIT K509I mutation was established.KIT K509I biopsied mast cells were round, CD25(-), and well differentiated. KIT K509I progenitors cultured in stem cell factor (SCF) demonstrated a 10-fold expansion compared with progenitors from healthy subjects and developed into mature hypergranular mast cells with enhanced antigen-mediated degranulation. KIT K509I progenitors cultured in the absence of SCF survived but lacked expansion and developed into hypogranular mast cells. A KIT K509I mast cell transduction system revealed SCF-independent survival to be reliant on the preferential splicing of KIT at the adjacent exonic junction.Germline KIT mutations associated with mastocytosis drive a well-differentiated mast cell phenotype distinct to that of somatic KIT D816V disease, the oncogenic potential of which might be influenced by SCF and selective KIT splicing.
Project description:Cooperating genetic events are likely to contribute to the phenotypic diversity of KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis. In this study, 44 patients with KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis were evaluated for coexisting NRAS, KRAS, HRAS or MRAS mutations. Activating NRAS mutations were identified in 2 of 8 patients with advanced disease. NRAS mutations were not found in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis. To better understand the clonal evolution of mastocytosis, we evaluated the cell compartments impacted by the NRAS and KIT mutations. Clonal mast cells harbored both mutations. KIT-D816V was not detected in bone marrow CD34(+) progenitors, whereas the NRAS mutation was present. These findings suggest that NRAS mutations may have the potential to precede KIT-D816V in clonal development. Unlike other mature lineages, mast cell survival is dependent on KIT and the presence of these two activating mutations may have a greater impact on the expansion of this cell compartment and in resultant disease severity.
Project description:KIT is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors which is expressed on a variety of haematopoietic cells including mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent activation of KIT is critical for mast cell homeostasis and function. However, when KIT is inappropriately activated, accumulation of mast cells in tissues results in mastocytosis. Such dysregulated KIT activation is a manifestation of specific activating point mutations within KIT, with the human D816V mutation considered as a hallmark of human systemic mastocytosis. A number of other activating mutations in KIT have recently been identified and these mutations may also contribute to aberrant mast cell growth. In addition to its role in mast cell growth, differentiation and survival, localized concentration gradients of SCF may control the targeting of mast cells to specific tissues and, once resident within these tissues, mast cell activation by antigen may also be amplified by SCF. Thus, KIT inhibitors may have potential application in multiple conditions linked to mast cells including systemic mastocytosis, anaphylaxis, and asthma. In this review, we discuss the role of KIT in the context of mast cells in these disease states and how recent advances in the development of inhibitors of KIT activity and function may offer novel therapies for the treatment of these disorders.
Project description:KIT is a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor whose ligand stem cell factor (SCF) triggers homodimerization and activation of downstream effector pathways involved in cell survival, proliferation, homing, or differentiation. KIT-activating mutations are major oncogenic drivers in subsets of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in mast cell leukemia, and in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The overexpression of SCF and/or wild-type (WT) KIT is also observed in a number of cancers, including 50% of AML and small cell lung cancer. The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in these pathologies is, however, hampered by initial or acquired resistance following treatment. Using antibody phage display, we obtained two antibodies (2D1 and 3G1) specific for the most membrane proximal extracellular immunoglobulin domain (D5) of KIT, which is implicated in KIT homodimerization. Produced as single chain variable antibody fragments fused to the Fc fragment of a human IgG1, bivalent 2D1-Fc and 3G1-Fc inhibited KIT-dependent growth of leukemic cell lines expressing WT KIT (UT7/Epo) or constitutively active KIT mutants, including the TKI imatinib-resistant KIT D816V mutant (HMC1.2 cell line). In all models, either expressing WT KIT or mutated KIT, 2D1 and 3G1-Fc induced KIT internalization and sustained surface downregulation. However, interestingly, KIT degradation was only observed in leukemic cell lines with oncogenic KIT, a property likely to limit the toxicity of these antibodies in patients. These fully human antibody formats may represent therapeutic tools to target KIT signaling in leukemia or GIST, and to bypass TKI resistance of certain KIT mutants.