Bidirectional interlocus concerted evolution following allopolyploid speciation in cotton (Gossypium).
ABSTRACT: Polyploidy is a prominent process in plant evolution; yet few data address the question of whether homeologous sequences evolve independently subsequent to polyploidization. We report on ribosomal DNA (rDNA) evolution in five allopolyploid (AD genome) species of cotton (Gossypium) and species representing their diploid progenitors (A genome, D genome). Sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S gene indicate that rDNA arrays are homogeneous, or nearly so, in all diploids and allopolyploids examined. Because these arrays occur at four chromosomal loci in allopolyploid cotton, two in each subgenome, repeats from different arrays must have become homogenized by interlocus concerted evolution. Southern hybridization analysis combined with copy-number estimation demonstrate that this process has gone to completion in the diploids and to completion or near-completion in all allopolyploid species and that it most likely involves the entire rDNA repeat. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that interlocus concerted evolution has been bidirectional in allopolyploid species--i.e., rDNA from four polyploid lineages has been homogenized to a D genome repeat type, whereas sequences from Gossypium mustelinum have concerted to an A genome repeat type. Although little is known regarding the functional significance of interlocus concerted evolution of homeologous sequences, this study demonstrates that the process occurs for tandemly repeated sequences in diploid and polyploid plants. That interlocus concerted evolution can occur bidirectionally subsequent to hybidization and polyploidization has significant implications for phylogeny reconstruction, especially when based on rDNA sequences.
Project description:We investigated concerted evolution of rRNA genes in multiple populations of Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus, two allotetraploids that formed recurrently within the last 80 years following the introduction of three diploids (T. dubius, T. pratensis, and T. porrifolius) from Europe to North America. Using the earliest herbarium specimens of the allotetraploids (1949 and 1953) to represent the genomic condition near the time of polyploidization, we found that the parental rDNA repeats were inherited in roughly equal numbers. In contrast, in most present-day populations of both tetraploids, the rDNA of T. dubius origin is reduced and may occupy as little as 5% of total rDNA in some individuals. However, in two populations of T. mirus the repeats of T. dubius origin outnumber the repeats of the second diploid parent (T. porrifolius), indicating bidirectional concerted evolution within a single species. In plants of T. miscellus having a low rDNA contribution from T. dubius, the rDNA of T. dubius was nonetheless expressed. We have apparently caught homogenization of rDNA repeats (concerted evolution) in the act, although it has not proceeded to completion in any allopolyploid population yet examined.
Project description:Despite the importance of polyploidy in the evolution of plants, patterns of molecular evolution and genomic interactions following polyploidy are not well understood. Nuclear ribosomal DNA is particularly complex with respect to these genomic interactions. The composition of nrDNA tandem arrays is influenced by intra- and interlocus concerted evolution and their expression is characterized by patterns such as nucleolar dominance. To understand these complex interactions it is important to study them in diverse natural polyploid systems. In this study we use direct sequencing to isolate and characterize nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) homeologues from multiple accessions of six different races in the Glycine tomentella allopolyploid complex. The results indicate that in most allopolyploid accessions both homeologous nrDNA repeats are present, but that there are significant biases in copy number toward one homeologue, possibly resulting from interlocus concerted evolution. The predominant homeologue often differs between races and between accessions within a race. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences provides evidence for multiple origins in several of the polyploid races. This evidence for diverse patterns of nrDNA molecular evolution and multiple origins of polyploid races will provide a useful system for future studies of natural variation in patterns of nrDNA expression.
Project description:The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution.The diploid hybrid 2nF1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1. We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of polyploid fish.
Project description:Allopolyploidization is a biological process that has played a major role in plant speciation and evolution. Genomic changes are common consequences of polyploidization, but their dynamics over time are still poorly understood. Coffea arabica, a recently formed allotetraploid, was chosen to study genetic changes that accompany allopolyploid formation. Both RNA-seq and DNA-seq data were generated from two genetically distant C. arabica accessions. Genomic structural variation was investigated using C. canephora, one of its diploid progenitors, as reference genome. The fate of 9047 duplicate homeologous genes was inferred and compared between the accessions. The pattern of SNP density along the reference genome was consistent with the allopolyploid structure. Large genomic duplications or deletions were not detected. Two homeologous copies were retained and expressed in 96% of the genes analyzed. Nevertheless, duplicated genes were found to be affected by various genomic changes leading to homeolog loss or silencing. Genetic and epigenetic changes were evidenced that could have played a major role in the stabilization of the unique ancestral allotetraploid and its subsequent diversification. While the early evolution of C. arabica mainly involved homeologous crossover exchanges, the later stage appears to have relied on more gradual evolution involving gene conversion and homeolog silencing.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hybridization coupled with whole-genome duplication (allopolyploidy) leads to a variety of genetic and epigenetic modifications in the resultant merged genomes. In particular, gene loss and gene silencing are commonly observed post-polyploidization. Here, we investigated DNA methylation as a potential mechanism for gene silencing in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae), a recent and recurrently formed allopolyploid. This species, which also exhibits extensive gene loss, was formed from the diploids T. dubius and T. pratensis. RESULTS: Comparative bisulfite sequencing revealed CG methylation of parental homeologs for three loci (S2, S18 and TDF-44) that were previously identified as silenced in T. miscellus individuals relative to the diploid progenitors. One other locus (S3) examined did not show methylation, indicating that other transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are likely responsible for silencing that homeologous locus. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Tragopogon miscellus allopolyploids employ diverse mechanisms, including DNA methylation, to respond to the potential shock of genome merger and doubling.
Project description:Of the many processes that generate gene duplications, polyploidy is unique in that entire genomes are duplicated. This process has been important in the evolution of many eukaryotic groups, and it occurs with high frequency in plants. Recent evidence suggests that polyploidization may be accompanied by rapid genomic changes, but the evolutionary fate of discrete loci recently doubled by polyploidy (homoeologues) has not been studied. Here we use locus-specific isolation techniques with comparative mapping to characterize the evolution of homoeologous loci in allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and in species representing its diploid progenitors. We isolated and sequenced 16 loci from both genomes of the allopolyploid, from both progenitor diploid genomes and appropriate outgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of the resulting 73.5 kb of sequence data demonstrated that for all 16 loci (14.7 kb/genome), the topology expected from organismal history was recovered. In contrast to observations involving repetitive DNAs in cotton, there was no evidence of interaction among duplicated genes in the allopolyploid. Polyploidy was not accompanied by an obvious increase in mutations indicative of pseudogene formation. Additionally, differences in rates of divergence among homoeologues in polyploids and orthologues in diploids were indistinguishable across loci, with significant rate deviation restricted to two putative pseudogenes. Our results indicate that most duplicated genes in allopolyploid cotton evolve independently of each other and at the same rate as those of their diploid progenitors. These indications of genic stasis accompanying polyploidization provide a sharp contrast to recent examples of rapid genomic evolution in allopolyploids.
Project description:Polyploidization has played an important role in the evolution of vertebrates, particularly at the base of Teleostei-an enormously successful ray-finned fish group with additional genome doublings on lower taxonomic levels. The investigation of post-polyploid genome dynamics might provide important clues about the evolution and ecology of respective species and can help to decipher the role of polyploidy per se on speciation. Few studies have attempted to investigate the dynamics of repetitive DNA sequences in the post-polyploid genome using molecular cytogenetic tools in fishes, though recent efforts demonstrated their usefulness. The demonstrably monophyletic freshwater loach family Botiidae, branching to evolutionary diploid and tetraploid lineages separated >25 Mya, offers a suited model group for comparing the long-term repetitive DNA evolution. For this, we integrated phylogenetic analyses with cytogenetical survey involving Giemsa- and Chromomycin A3 (CMA3)/DAPI stainings and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S/45S rDNA, U2 snDNA and telomeric probes in representative sample of 12 botiid species. The karyotypes of all diploids were composed of 2n = 50 chromosomes, while majority of tetraploids had 2n = 4x = 100, with only subtle interspecific karyotype differences. The exceptional karyotype of Botia dario (2n = 4x = 96) suggested centric fusions behind the 2n reduction. Variable patterns of FISH signals revealed cases of intraspecific polymorphisms, rDNA amplification, variable degree of correspondence with CMA3+ sites and almost no phylogenetic signal. In tetraploids, either additivity or loci gain/loss was recorded. Despite absence of classical interstitial telomeric sites, large blocks of interspersed rDNA/telomeric regions were found in diploids only. We uncovered different molecular drives of studied repetitive DNA classes within botiid genomes as well as the advanced stage of the re-diploidization process in tetraploids. Our results may contribute to link genomic approach with molecular cytogenetic analyses in addressing the origin and mechanism of this polyploidization event.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs) in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae), an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius. RESULTS: Using cDNA-AFLPs, we found differential band patterns that could be attributable to gene silencing, novel expression, and/or maternal/paternal effects between T. mirus and its diploid parents. Subsequent cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that 20 of the 30 genes identified through cDNA-AFLP analysis showed additivity, whereas nine of the 30 exhibited the loss of one parental homeolog in at least one individual. Homeolog loss (versus loss of a restriction site) was confirmed via sequencing. The remaining gene (ADENINE-DNA GLYCOSYLASE) showed ambiguous patterns in T. mirus because of polymorphism in the diploid parent T. dubius. Most (63.6%) of the homeolog loss events were of the T. dubius parental copy. Two genes, NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA and GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE, showed differential expression of the parental homeologs, with the T. dubius copy silenced in some individuals of T. mirus. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic and cDNA CAPS analyses indicated that plants representing multiple populations of this young natural allopolyploid have experienced frequent and preferential elimination of homeologous loci. Comparable analyses of synthetic F1 hybrids showed only additivity. These results suggest that loss of homeologs and changes in gene expression are not the immediate result of hybridization, but are processes that occur following polyploidization, occurring during the early (<40) generations of the young polyploid. Both T. mirus and a second recently formed allopolyploid, T. miscellus, exhibit more homeolog losses than gene silencing events. Furthermore, both allotetraploids undergo biased loss of homeologs contributed by their shared diploid parent, T. dubius. Further studies are required to assess whether the results for the 30 genes so far examined are representative of the entire genome.
Project description:Polyploidization is a major mechanism of speciation in plants. Within the barley genus Hordeum, approximately half of the taxa are polyploids. While for diploid species a good hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships exists, there is little information available for the polyploids (4×, 6×) of Hordeum. Relationships among all 33 diploid and polyploid Hordeum species were analyzed with the low-copy nuclear marker region TOPO6 for 341 Hordeum individuals and eight outgroup species. PCR products were either directly sequenced or cloned and on average 12 clones per individual were included in phylogenetic analyses. In most diploid Hordeum species TOPO6 is probably a single-copy locus. Most sequences found in polyploid individuals phylogenetically cluster together with sequences derived from diploid species and thus allow the identification of parental taxa of polyploids. Four groups of sequences occurring only in polyploid taxa are interpreted as footprints of extinct diploid taxa, which contributed to allopolyploid evolution. Our analysis identifies three key species involved in the evolution of the American polyploids of the genus. (i) All but one of the American tetraploids have a TOPO6 copy originating from the Central Asian diploid H. roshevitzii, the second copy clustering with different American diploid species. (ii) All hexaploid species from the New World have a copy of an extinct close relative of H. californicum and (iii) possess the TOPO6 sequence pattern of tetraploid H. jubatum, each with an additional copy derived from different American diploids. Tetraploid H. bulbosum is an autopolyploid, while the assumed autopolyploid H. brevisubulatum (4×, 6×) was identified as allopolyploid throughout most of its distribution area. The use of a proof-reading DNA polymerase in PCR reduced the proportion of chimerical sequences in polyploids in comparison to Taq polymerase.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS) to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. RESULTS: 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus) to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS) sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. CONCLUSIONS: Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements--for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions--but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These results make the genus a model system for the study of complex chromosomal evolution in plants.