Developmental and post-injury cortical gliogenesis: a genetic fate-mapping study with Nestin-CreER mice.
ABSTRACT: The primary sources of cortical gliogenesis, either during development or after adult brain injury, remain uncertain. We previously generated Nestin-CreER mice to fate-map the progeny of radial glial cells (RG), a source of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the nervous system. Here, we show that Nestin-CreER mice label another population of glial progenitors, namely the perinatal subventricular zone (SVZ) glioblasts, if they are crossed with stop-floxed EGFP mice and receive tamoxifen in late embryogenesis (E16-E18). Quantification showed E18 tamoxifen-induction labeled more perinatal SVZ glioblasts than RG and transitional RG combined in the newborn brain (54% vs. 22%). Time-lapse microscopy showed SVZ-glioblasts underwent complex metamorphosis and often-reciprocal transformation into transitional RG. Surprisingly, the E10-dosed RG progenitors produced astrocytes, but no oligodendrocytes, whereas E18-induction fate-mapped both astrocytes and NG2+ oligodendrocyte precursors in the postnatal brain. These results suggest that cortical oligodendrocytes mostly derive from perinatal SVZ glioblast progenitors. Further, by combining genetic fate-mapping and BrdU-labeling, we showed that cortical astrocytes cease proliferation soon after birth (
Project description:Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a specialized brain niche located on the walls of the lateral ventricle. Under physiological conditions, NSCs generate a large number of young neurons and some oligodendrocytes, however the mechanisms controlling cell proliferation and migration are unclear. In vitro, epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling has been shown to be an important mediator of cell proliferation and migration in the adult brain; however, the primary SVZ progenitors that respond to EGF are not well known. In this study, we isolated SVZ type-B astrocytes and cultured them under different EGF concentrations. We found a dose-dependent effect of EGF on proliferation rates and migration of SVZ type-B astrocytes. We found that GFAP+ type-B astrocytes gave rise to highly migratory and proliferating cells that expressed Olig2 and NG2. After EGF withdrawal, a significant number of EGF-stimulated cells differentiated into S100beta+/O4+ oligodendrocytes. This study provides new insights about the production of oligodendrocytes derived from the astrocyte NSCs residing in the adult SVZ. To be able to manipulate the endogenous adult progenitors, it is crucial to identify and isolate the responding primary precursors and determine the extracellular signals that regulate their cell division, migration, and fate.
Project description:Limited knowledge about human oligodendrogenesis prompted us to explore the lineage relationship between cortical radial glia (RG) cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the human fetal forebrain. RG cells were isolated from cortical ventricular/subventricular zone and their progeny was followed in vitro. One portion of RG cells differentiated into cells of OL lineage identified by cell-type specific antibodies, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRalpha), NG2, O4, myelin basic protein, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. Moreover, using Cre Lox fate mapping (brain lipid binding protein-Cre/Floxed-yellow fluorescent protein) we established a direct link between RG cells and OL progenitors. In vitro generation of RG-derived O4(+) OL progenitors was enhanced by addition of sonic hedgehog (SHH) and reduced by the SHH inhibitor, cyclopamine, suggesting the role of SHH signaling in this process. In summary, our in vitro experiments revealed that a portion of cortical RG cells isolated from human forebrain at the second trimester of gestation generates OL progenitors and this suggests a role of SHH in this process.
Project description:The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus are known as neurogenic niches. We show that the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus comprises BrdU<sup>+</sup> newly proliferating cells co-expressing NG2 (oligodendrocyte progenitors) and RIP (pre-myelinating oligodendrocytes), suggesting their differentiation toward mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). ME cells can generate neurospheres (NS) in vitro, which differentiate mostly to OLs compared with SVZ-NS that typically generate neurons. Interestingly, this population of oligodendrocyte progenitors is increased in the ME from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-affected mice. Notably, the thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) expressed by astrocytes, acts as negative regulator of oligodendrogenesis in vitro and is downregulated in the ME of EAE mice. Importantly, transplanted ME-NS preferentially differentiate to MBP<sup>+</sup> OLs compared with SVZ-NS in Shiverer mice. Hence, discovering the ME as a new site for myelin-producing cells has a great importance for advising future therapy for demyelinating diseases and spinal cord injury.
Project description:Radial Glia (RG) cells constitute the major population of neural progenitors of the mouse developing brain. These cells are located in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the cerebral cortex and during neurogenesis they support the generation of cortical neurons. Later on, during brain maturation, RG cells give raise to glial cells and supply the adult mouse brain of Neural Stem Cells (NSC). Here we used a novel transgenic mouse line expressing the CreER(T2) under the control of AspM promoter to monitor the progeny of an early cohort of RG cells during neurogenesis and in the post natal brain. Long term fate mapping experiments demonstrated that AspM-expressing RG cells are multi-potent, as they can generate neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of the adult mouse brain. Furthermore, AspM descendants give also rise to proliferating progenitors in germinal niches of both developing and post natal brains. In the latter--i.e. the Sub Ventricular Zone--AspM descendants acquired several feature of neural stem cells, including the capability to generate neurospheres in vitro. We also performed the selective killing of these early progenitors by using a Nestin-GFP(flox)-TK allele. The forebrain specific loss of early AspM expressing cells caused the elimination of most of the proliferating cells of brain, a severe derangement of the ventricular zone architecture, and the impairment of the cortical lamination. We further demonstrated that AspM is expressed by proliferating cells of the adult mouse SVZ that can generate neuroblasts fated to become olfactory bulb neurons.
Project description:New neurons and oligodendrocytes are continuously produced in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mammalian brains. Under normal conditions, the SVZ primary precursors (type B1 cells) generate type C cells, most of which differentiate into neurons, with a small subpopulation giving rise to oligodendrocytes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling induces dramatic proliferation and migration of SVZ progenitors, a process that could have therapeutic applications. However, the fate of cells derived from adult neural stem cells after EGF stimulation remains unknown. Here, we specifically labeled SVZ B1 cells and followed their progeny after a 7-day intraventricular infusion of EGF. Cells derived from SVZ B1 cells invaded the parenchyma around the SVZ into the striatum, septum, corpus callosum, and fimbria-fornix. Most of these B1-derived cells gave rise to cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage, including local NG2+ progenitors, and pre-myelinating and myelinating oligodendrocytes. SVZ B1 cells also gave rise to a population of highly-branched S100beta+/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ cells in the striatum and septum, but no neuronal differentiation was observed. Interestingly, when demyelination was induced in the corpus callosum by a local injection of lysolecithin, an increased number of cells derived from SVZ B1 cells and stimulated to migrate and proliferate by EGF infusion differentiated into oligodendrocytes at the lesion site. This work indicates that EGF infusion can greatly expand the number of progenitors derived from the SVZ primary progenitors which migrate and differentiate into oligodendroglial cells. This expanded population could be used for the repair of white matter lesions.
Project description:Progenitors that express NG2-proteoglycan are the predominant self-renewing cells within the CNS. NG2 progenitors replenish oligodendrocyte populations within the intact stem cell niche, and cycling NG2 cells are among the first cells to react to CNS insults. We investigated the role of NG2 progenitors after spinal cord injury and how bone morphogen protein signals remodel the progressive postinjury (PI) niche. Progeny labeled by an NG2-specific reporter virus undergo a coordinated shift in differentiation profile. NG2 progeny born 24 h PI produce scar-forming astrocytes and transient populations of novel phagocytic astrocytes shown to contain denatured myelin within cathepsin-D-labeled endosomes, but NG2 progenitors born 7 d PI differentiate into oligodendrocytes and express myelin on processes that wrap axons. Analysis of spinal cord mRNA shows a temporal shift in the niche transcriptome of ligands that affect PI remodeling and direct progenitor differentiation. We conclude that NG2 progeny are diverse lineages that obey progressive cues after trauma to replenish the injured niche.
Project description:The mammalian CNS contains a ubiquitous population of glial progenitors known as NG2+ cells that have the ability to develop into oligodendrocytes and undergo dramatic changes in response to injury and demyelination. Although it has been reported that NG2+ cells are multipotent, their fate in health and disease remains controversial. Here, we generated PDGF?R-CreER transgenic mice and followed their fate in vivo in the developing and adult CNS. These studies revealed that NG2+ cells in the postnatal CNS generate myelinating oligodendrocytes, but not astrocytes or neurons. In regions of neurodegeneration in the spinal cord of ALS mice, NG2+ cells exhibited enhanced proliferation and accelerated differentiation into oligodendrocytes but remained committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage. These results indicate that NG2+ cells in the normal CNS are oligodendrocyte precursors with restricted lineage potential and that cell loss and gliosis are not sufficient to alter the lineage potential of these progenitors.
Project description:Cortical spreading depression (SD) is propagating neuronal and glial depolarization and is thought to underly the pathophysiology of migraine. We have reported that cortical SD facilitates the proliferative activity of NG2-containing progenitor cells (NG2 cells) that give rise to oligodendrocytes and immature neurons under the physiological conditions in the adult mammalian cortex. Astrocytes have an important role in the maintenance of neuronal functions and alleviate neuronal damage after intense neuronal excitation, including SD and seizures. We here investigated whether SD promotes astrocyte generation from NG2 cells following SD stimuli. Spreading depression was induced by epidural application of 1?mol/L KCl solution in adult rats. We investigated the cell fate of NG2 cells following SD-induced proliferation using 5'-bromodeoxyuridine labeling and immunohistochemical analysis. Newly generated astrocytes were observed only in the SD-stimulated cortex, but not in the contralateral cortex or in normal cortex. The astrocytes were generated from proliferating NG2 cells. Astrogenesis depended on the number of SD stimuli, and was accompanied by suppression of oligodendrogenesis. These observations indicate that the cell fate of NG2 cells was shifted from oligodendrocytes to astrocytes depending on SD stimuli, suggesting activity-dependent tissue remodeling for maintenance of brain functions.
Project description:NG2-expressing cells (NG2 cells or polydendrocytes) generate oligodendrocytes throughout the CNS and a subpopulation of protoplasmic astrocytes in the gray matter of the ventral forebrain. The mechanisms that regulate their oligodendrocyte or astrocyte fate and the degree to which they exhibit lineage plasticity in vivo have remained unclear. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2 is required for oligodendrocyte specification and differentiation. We have found that Olig2 expression is spontaneously downregulated in NG2 cells in the normal embryonic ventral forebrain as they differentiate into astrocytes. To further examine the role of Olig2 in NG2 cell fate determination, we used genetic fate mapping of NG2 cells in constitutive and tamoxifen-inducible Olig2 conditional knockout mice in which Olig2 was deleted specifically in NG2 cells. Constitutive deletion of Olig2 in NG2 cells in the neocortex and corpus callosum but not in ventral forebrain caused them to convert their fate into astrocytes, with a concomitant severe reduction in the number of oligodendrocytes and myelin. Deletion of Olig2 in NG2 cells in perinatal mice also resulted in astrocyte generation from neocortical NG2 cells. These observations indicate that the developmental fate of NG2 cells can be switched by altering a single transcription factor Olig2.
Project description:The adult mammalian brain and spinal cord contain glial precursors that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? subunit (PDGFRA) and the NG2 proteoglycan. These "NG2 cells" descend from oligodendrocyte precursors in the perinatal CNS and continue to generate myelinating oligodendrocytes in the gray and white matter of the postnatal brain. It has been proposed that NG2 cells can also generate reactive astrocytes at sites of CNS injury or demyelination. To test this we examined the fates of PDGFRA/NG2 cells in the mouse spinal cord during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)--a demyelinating condition that models some aspects of multiple sclerosis in humans. We administered tamoxifen to Pdgfra-CreER(T2):Rosa26R-YFP mice to induce yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression in PDGFRA/NG2 cells and their differentiated progeny. We subsequently induced EAE and observed a large (>4-fold) increase in the local density of YFP(+) cells, >90% of which were oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Many of these became CC1-positive, NG2-negative differentiated oligodendrocytes that expressed myelin markers CNP and Tmem10/Opalin. PDGFRA/NG2 cells generated very few GFAP(+)-reactive astrocytes (1-2% of all YFP(+) cells) or NeuN(+) neurons (<0.02%). Thus, PDGFRA/NG2 cells act predominantly as a reservoir of new oligodendrocytes in the demyelinated spinal cord.