L-2-Hydroxyglutarate: an epigenetic modifier and putative oncometabolite in renal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Through unbiased metabolomics, we identified elevations of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). 2HG can inhibit 2-oxoglutaratre (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenases that mediate epigenetic events, including DNA and histone demethylation. 2HG accumulation, specifically the d enantiomer, can result from gain-of-function mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1, IDH2) found in several different tumors. In contrast, kidney tumors demonstrate elevations of the l enantiomer of 2HG (l-2HG). High-2HG tumors demonstrate reduced DNA levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), consistent with 2HG-mediated inhibition of ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC. l-2HG elevation is mediated in part by reduced expression of l-2HG dehydrogenase (L2HGDH). L2HGDH reconstitution in RCC cells lowers l-2HG and promotes 5hmC accumulation. In addition, L2HGDH expression in RCC cells reduces histone methylation and suppresses in vitro tumor phenotypes. Our report identifies l-2HG as an epigenetic modifier and putative oncometabolite in kidney cancer.Here, we report elevations of the putative oncometabolite l-2HG in the most common subtype of kidney cancer and describe a novel mechanism for the regulation of DNA 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the metabolic basis for the epigenetic landscape of renal cancer.
Project description:L-2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2HG) is an oncometabolite found elevated in renal tumors. However, this molecule may have physiologic roles that extend beyond its association with cancer as L-2HG levels are elevated in response to hypoxia and during <i>Drosophila</i> larval development. L-2HG is known to be metabolized by L-2HG dehydrogenase (L2HGDH), and loss of L2HGDH leads to elevated L-2HG levels. Despite being highly expressed in the kidney, L2HGDH's role in renal metabolism has not been explored. Here, we report our findings utilizing a novel CRISPR/Cas9 murine knockout model with a specific focus on the role of L2HGDH in the kidney. Histologically, <i>L2hgdh KO</i> kidneys have no demonstrable histologic abnormalities. However, GC/MS metabolomics demonstrates significantly reduced levels of the TCA cycle intermediate succinate in multiple tissues. Isotope labeling studies with [U-<sup>13</sup>C] glucose demonstrate that restoration of L2HGDH in renal cancer cells (which lowers L-2HG) leads to enhanced incorporation of label into TCA cycle intermediates. Subsequent biochemical studies demonstrate that L-2HG can inhibit the TCA cycle enzyme ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Bioinformatic analysis of mRNA expression data from renal tumors demonstrates that L2HGDH is co-expressed with genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes as well as the gene encoding the transcription factor PGC-1?, which is known to regulate mitochondrial metabolism. Restoration of PGC-1? in renal tumor cells results in increased L2HGDH expression with a concomitant reduction if L-2HG levels. Collectively, our studies provide new insight into the physiologic role for L2HGDH as well as mechanisms that promote L-2HG accumulation in disease states.
Project description:Metabolic reprogramming in breast tumors is linked to increases in putative oncogenic metabolites that may contribute to malignant transformation. We previously showed that accumulation of the oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), in breast tumors was associated with MYC signaling, but not with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, suggesting a distinct mechanism for increased 2HG in breast cancer. Here, we determined that D-2HG is the predominant enantiomer in human breast tumors and show that the D-2HG-producing mitochondrial enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, iron-containing protein 1 (ADHFE1), is a breast cancer oncogene that decreases patient survival. We found that MYC upregulates ADHFE1 through changes in iron metabolism while coexpression of both ADHFE1 and MYC strongly enhanced orthotopic tumor growth in MCF7 cells. Moreover, ADHFE1 promoted metabolic reprogramming with increased formation of D-2HG and reactive oxygen, a reductive glutamine metabolism, and modifications of the epigenetic landscape, leading to cellular dedifferentiation, enhanced mesenchymal transition, and phenocopying alterations that occur with high D-2HG levels in cancer cells with IDH mutations. Together, our data support the hypothesis that ADHFE1 and MYC signaling contribute to D-2HG accumulation in breast tumors and show that D-2HG is an oncogenic metabolite and potential driver of disease progression.
Project description:Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer via production of the "oncometabolite" D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Elevated D-2HG can block differentiation of malignant cells by functioning as a competitive inhibitor of ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG)-dependent enzymes, including Jumonji family histone lysine demethylases. 2HG is a chiral molecule that can exist in either the D-enantiomer or the L-enantiomer. Although cancer-associated IDH1/2 mutants produce D-2HG, biochemical studies have demonstrated that L-2HG also functions as a potent inhibitor of ?-KG-dependent enzymes. Here we report that under conditions of oxygen limitation, mammalian cells selectively produce L-2HG via enzymatic reduction of ?-KG. Hypoxia-induced L-2HG is not mediated by IDH1 or IDH2, but instead results from promiscuous substrate usage primarily by lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). During hypoxia, the resulting increase in L-2HG is necessary and sufficient for the induction of increased methylation of histone repressive marks, including histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3).
Project description:Canonical mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 produce high levels of the R-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which is a competitive inhibitor of ?-ketoglutarate (?KG)-dependent enzymes and a putative oncometabolite. Mutant IDH1 collaborates with HoxA9 to induce monocytic leukemia in vivo. We used two mouse models and a patient-derived acute myeloid leukemia xenotransplantation (PDX) model to evaluate the in vivo transforming potential of R-2HG, S-2HG and ?KG independent of the mutant IDH1 protein. We show that R-2HG, but not S-2HG or ?KG, is an oncometabolite in vivo that does not require the mutant IDH1 protein to induce hyperleukocytosis and to accelerate the onset of murine and human leukemia. Thus, circulating R-2HG acts in a paracrine manner and can drive the expansion of many different leukemic and preleukemic clones that may express wild-type IDH1, and therefore can be a driver of clonal evolution and diversity. In addition, we show that the mutant IDH1 protein is a stronger oncogene than R-2HG alone when comparable intracellular R-2HG levels are achieved. We therefore propose R-2HG-independent oncogenic functions of mutant IDH1 that may need to be targeted in addition to R-2HG production to exploit the full therapeutic potential of IDH1 inhibition.
Project description:Mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or its mitochondrial homolog IDH2 can lead to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. To date, mutations in three active site arginine residues, IDH1 R132, IDH2 R172 and IDH2 R140, have been shown to result in the neomorphic production of 2HG. Here we report on three additional 2HG-producing IDH1 mutations: IDH1 R100, which is affected in adult glioma, IDH1 G97, which is mutated in colon cancer cell lines and pediatric glioblastoma, and IDH1 Y139. All these new mutants stereospecifically produced 2HG's (R) enantiomer. In contrast, we find that the IDH1 SNPs V71I and V178I, as well as a number of other single-sample reports of IDH non-synonymous mutation, did not elevate cellular 2HG levels in cells and retained the wild-type ability for isocitrate-dependent NADPH production. Finally, we report the existence of additional rare, but recurring mutations found in lymphoma and thyroid cancer, which while failing to elevate 2HG nonetheless displayed loss of function, indicating a possible tumorigenic mechanism for a non-2HG-producing subset of IDH mutations in some malignancies. These data broaden our understanding of how IDH mutations may contribute to cancer through either neomorphic R(-)-2HG production or reduced wild-type enzymatic activity, and highlight the potential value of metabolite screening in identifying IDH-mutated tumors associated with elevated oncometabolite levels.
Project description:Approximately 20% of unselected cases and 30% cytogenetically diploid cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 80% of grade II-III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas carry mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. IDH1/2 mutations prevent oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) and modulate the function of IDH (neomorphic activity) thereby facilitating reduction of ?-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), a putative oncometabolite. D-2HG is thought to act as a competitive inhibitor of ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases that include prolyl hydroxylases and chromatin-modifying enzymes. The end result is a global increase of cellular DNA hypermethylation and alterations of the cellular epigenetic state, which has been proposed to play a role in the development of a variety of tumors. In this review, we provide an update on potential molecular mechanisms linking IDH1/2 mutations and the resulting oncometabolite, D-2HG, with malignant transformation. In addition, in patients with AML and glioma we focus on the associations between IDH1/2 mutations and clinical, morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics.
Project description:Metabolic profiling of cancer cells has recently been established as a promising tool for the development of therapies and identification of cancer biomarkers. Here we characterized the metabolomic profile of human breast tumors and uncovered intrinsic metabolite signatures in these tumors using an untargeted discovery approach and validation of key metabolites. The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) accumulated at high levels in a subset of tumors and human breast cancer cell lines. We discovered an association between increased 2HG levels and MYC pathway activation in breast cancer, and further corroborated this relationship using MYC overexpression and knockdown in human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. Further analyses revealed globally increased DNA methylation in 2HG-high tumors and identified a tumor subtype with high tissue 2HG and a distinct DNA methylation pattern that was associated with poor prognosis and occurred with higher frequency in African-American patients. Tumors of this subtype had a stem cell-like transcriptional signature and tended to overexpress glutaminase, suggestive of a functional relationship between glutamine and 2HG metabolism in breast cancer. Accordingly, 13C-labeled glutamine was incorporated into 2HG in cells with aberrant 2HG accumulation, whereas pharmacologic and siRNA-mediated glutaminase inhibition reduced 2HG levels. Our findings implicate 2HG as a candidate breast cancer oncometabolite associated with MYC activation and poor prognosis.
Project description:Deranged metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, playing a significant role in driving the disease process. One such example is the induction of carcinogenesis by the oncometabolite D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), which is produced by the mutated enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) occurring in subsets of leukaemias and brain tumours. The oncogenic property of D-2HG appears to stem from its ability to interfere with the activities of ?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, including the Jumonji family histone demethylases. Here, we find in colorectal cancer cells that even in the absence of IDH mutation, the levels of D-2HG and its enantiomer L-2HG were elevated through glutamine anaplerosis. D-2HG, but not L-2HG, increased the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 of the promoter region of ZEB1, a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and increased the expression of the ZEB1 gene to directly induce EMT in colorectal cancer cells. EMT promotes the ability of cancer cells to invade the local tissue and enter into the bloodstream, leading to distant organ metastasis. D-2HG levels were elevated in colorectal cancer specimens, particularly in those associated with distant metastasis, supporting the observations in vitro and implicating the contribution of D-2HG in metastasis, the major cause of death in this disease.
Project description:Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 and -2 have recently been described in glioma. This mutation leads to a neomorphic enzymatic activity as the conversion of isocitrate to alpha ketoglutarate (?KG) is replaced by the conversion of ?KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) with NADPH oxidation. It has been suggested that this oncometabolite D-2HG via inhibition of ?KG-dioxygenases is involved in multiple functions such as epigenetic modifications or hypoxia responses. The present study is aimed at deciphering how the mutant IDH can affect cancer pathogenesis, in particular with respect to its associated oncometabolite D-2HG. We show that the overexpression of mutant IDH in glioma cells or treatment with D-2HG triggered an increase in cell proliferation. However, although mutant IDH reduced cell sensitivity to the apoptotic inducer etoposide, D-2HG exhibited no effect on apoptosis. Instead, we found that the apoptotic effect was mediated through the mitochondrial NADH pool reduction and could be inhibited by oxamate. These data show that besides D-2HG production, mutant IDH affects other crucial metabolite pools. These observations lead to a better understanding of the biology of IDH mutations in gliomas and their response to therapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:Elevation of L-2-hydroxylgutarate (L-2-HG) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is due in part to reduced expression of L-2-HG dehydrogenase (L2HGDH). However, the contribution of L-2-HG to renal carcinogenesis and insight into the biochemistry and targets of this small molecule remains to be elucidated. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Genetic and pharmacologic approaches to modulate L-2-HG levels were assessed for effects on in vitro and in vivo phenotypes. Metabolomics was used to dissect the biochemical mechanisms that promote L-2-HG accumulation in RCC cells. Transcriptomic analysis was utilized to identify relevant targets of L-2-HG. Finally, bioinformatic and metabolomic analyses were used to assess the L-2-HG/L2HGDH axis as a function of patient outcome and cancer progression. RESULTS:L2HGDH suppresses both in vitro cell migration and in vivo tumor growth and these effects are mediated by L2HGDH's catalytic activity. Biochemical studies indicate that glutamine is the predominant carbon source for L-2-HG via the activity of malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2). Inhibition of the glutamine-MDH2 axis suppresses in vitro phenotypes in an L-2-HG-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo growth of RCC cells with basal elevation of L-2-HG is suppressed by glutaminase inhibition. Transcriptomic and functional analyses demonstrate that the histone demethylase KDM6A is a target of L-2-HG in RCC. Finally, increased L-2-HG levels, L2HGDH copy loss, and lower L2HGDH expression are associated with tumor progression and/or worsened prognosis in patients with RCC. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our studies provide biochemical and mechanistic insight into the biology of this small molecule and provide new opportunities for treating L-2-HG-driven kidney cancers.