Probing structurally altered and aggregated states of therapeutically relevant proteins using GroEL coupled to bio-layer interferometry.
ABSTRACT: The ability of a GroEL-based bio-layer interferometry (BLI) assay to detect structurally altered and/or aggregated species of pharmaceutically relevant proteins is demonstrated. Assay development included optimizing biotinylated-GroEL immobilization to streptavidin biosensors, combined with biophysical and activity measurements showing native and biotinylated GroEL are both stable and active. First, acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) was incubated under conditions known to promote (40°C) and inhibit (heparin addition) molten globule formation. Heat exposed (40°C) FGF-1 exhibited binding to GroEL-biosensors, which was significantly diminished in the presence of heparin. Second, a polyclonal human IgG solution containing 6-8% non-native dimer showed an increase in higher molecular weight aggregates upon heating by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The poly IgG solution displayed binding to GroEL-biosensors initially with progressively increased binding upon heating. Enriched preparations of the IgG dimers or monomers showed significant binding to GroEL-biosensors. Finally, a thermally treated IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution also demonstrated increased GroEL-biosensor binding, but with different kinetics. The bound complexes could be partially to fully dissociated after ATP addition (i.e., specific GroEL binding) depending on the protein, environmental stress, and the assay's experimental conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of GroEL-mAb complexes, released from the biosensor, also confirmed interaction of bound complexes at the GroEL binding site with heat-stressed mAb. Results indicate that the GroEL-biosensor-BLI method can detect conformationally altered and/or early aggregation states of proteins, and may potentially be useful as a rapid, stability-indicating biosensor assay for monitoring the structural integrity and physical stability of therapeutic protein candidates.
Project description:Stabilizing the folded state of metastable and/or aggregation-prone proteins through exogenous ligand binding is an appealing strategy for decreasing disease pathologies caused by protein folding defects or deleterious kinetic transitions. Current methods of examining binding of a ligand to these marginally stable native states are limited because protein aggregation typically interferes with analysis. Here, we describe a rapid method for assessing the kinetic stability of folded proteins and monitoring the effects of ligand stabilization for both intrinsically stable proteins (monomers, oligomers, and multidomain proteins) and metastable proteins (e.g., low Tm) that uses a new GroEL chaperonin-based biolayer interferometry (BLI) denaturant pulse platform. A kinetically controlled denaturation isotherm is generated by exposing a target protein, immobilized on a BLI biosensor, to increasing denaturant concentrations (urea or GuHCl) in a pulsatile manner to induce partial or complete unfolding of the attached protein population. Following the rapid removal of the denaturant, the extent of hydrophobic unfolded/partially folded species that remains is detected by an increased level of GroEL binding. Because this kinetic denaturant pulse is brief, the amplitude of binding of GroEL to the immobilized protein depends on the duration of the exposure to the denaturant, the concentration of the denaturant, wash times, and the underlying protein unfolding-refolding kinetics; fixing all other parameters and plotting the GroEL binding amplitude versus denaturant pulse concentration result in a kinetically controlled denaturation isotherm. When folding osmolytes or stabilizing ligands are added to the immobilized target proteins before and during the denaturant pulse, the diminished population of unfolded/partially folded protein manifests as a decreased level of GroEL binding and/or a marked shift in these kinetically controlled denaturation profiles to higher denaturant concentrations. This particular platform approach can be used to identify small molecules and/or solution conditions that can stabilize or destabilize thermally stable proteins, multidomain proteins, oligomeric proteins, and, most importantly, aggregation-prone metastable proteins.
Project description:Affinity proteins binding to antibody constant regions have proved to be invaluable tools in biotechnology. Here, protein engineering was used to expand the repertoire of available immunoglobulin binding proteins via improvement of the binding strength between the widely used staphylococcal protein A-derived Z domain and the important immunoglobulin isotype mouse IgG? (mIgG?). Addressing seven positions in the 58-residue three-helix bundle Z domain by single or double amino acid substitutions, a total of 170 variants were individually constructed, produced in E. coli and tested for binding to a set of mouse IgG? monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The best variant, denoted Z(F5I) corresponding to a Phe to Ile substitution at position 5, showed a typical ten-fold higher affinity than the wild-type as determined by biosensor technology. Eight amino acid positions in the Z(F5I) variant were separately mutated to cysteine for incorporation of a photoactivable maleimide-benzophenone (MBP) group as a probe for site-specific photoconjugation to Fc of mIgG?, The best photocoupling efficiency to mIgG? Fc was seen when the MBP group was coupled to Cys at position 32, resulting in adduct formation to more than 60% of all heavy chains, with no observable non-selective conjugation to the light chains. A similar coupling yield was obtained for a panel of 19 different mIgG? mAbs, indicating a general characteristic. To exemplify functionalization of a mIgG? antibody via site-specific biotinylation, the Z(F5I-Q32C-MBP) protein was first biotinylated using an amine reactive reagent and subsequently photoconjugated to an anti-human interferon-gamma mIgG? mAb. When comparing the specific antigen binding ability of the probe-biotinylated mAb to that of the directly biotinylated mAb, a significantly higher bioactivity was observed for the sample biotinylated using the Z(F5I-Q32C-MBP) probe. This result indicates that the use of a site-specific and affinity probe-mediated conjugation strategy can result in antibody reagents with increased assay sensitivity.
Project description:A cantilever-based protein biosensor has been developed providing a customizable multilayer platform for the detection of antibodies. It consists of a biotin-terminated PEG layer pre-functionalized on the gold-coated cantilever surface, onto which NeutrAvidin is adsorbed through biotin/NeutrAvidin specific binding. NeutrAvidin is used as a bridge layer between the biotin-coated surface and the biotinylated biomolecules, such as biotinylated bovine serum albumin (biotinylated BSA), forming a multilayer sensor for direct antibody capture. The cantilever biosensor has been successfully applied to the detection of mouse anti-BSA (m-IgG) and sheep anti-BSA(s-IgG) antibodies. As expected, the average differential surface stress signals of about 5.7 ± 0.8 × 10(-3) N/m are very similar for BSA/m-IgG and BSA/s-IgG binding, i.e., they are independent of the origin of the antibody. A statistic evaluation of 112 response curves confirms that the multilayer protein cantilever biosensor shows high reproducibility. As a control test, a biotinylated maltose binding protein was used for detecting specificity of IgG, the result shows a signal of bBSA layer in response to antibody is 5.8 × 10(-3) N/m compared to bMBP. The pre-functionalized biotin/PEG cantilever surface is found to show a long shelf-life of at least 40 days and retains its responsivity of above 70% of the signal when stored in PBS buffer at 4 °C. The protein cantilever biosensor represents a rapid, label-free, sensitive and reliable detection technique for a real-time protein assay.
Project description:Despite their popularity, electrochemical biosensors often suffer from low sensitivity. One possible approach to overcome low sensitivity in protein biosensors is to utilize multivalent ligand-receptor interactions. Controlling the spatial arrangement of ligands on surfaces is another crucial aspect of electrochemical biosensor design. We have synthesized and characterized five biotinylated trinuclear ruthenium clusters as potential new biosensor platforms: [Ru(3)O(OAc)(6)CO(4-BMP)(py)](0) (3), [Ru(3)O(OAc)(6)CO(4-BMP)(2)](0) (4), [Ru(3)O(OAc)(6)L(4-BMP)(py)](+) (8), [Ru(3)O(OAc)(6)L(4-BMP)(2)](+) (9), and [Ru(3)O(OAc)(6)L(py)(2)](+) (10) (OAc = acetate, 4-BMP = biotin aminomethylpyridine, py = pyridine, L = pyC16SH). HABA/avidin assays and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to evaluate the avidin binding properties of 3 and 4. The binding constants were found to range from (6.5-8.0) × 10(6) M(-1). Intermolecular protein binding of 4 in solution was determined by native gel electrophoresis. QM, MM, and MD calculations show the capability for the bivalent cluster, 4, to intramolecularly bind to avidin. Electrochemical measurements in solution of 3a and 4a show shifts in E(1/2) of -58 and -53 mV in the presence of avidin, respectively. Self-assembled monolayers formed with 8-10 were investigated as a model biosensor system. Diluent/cluster ratio and composition were found to have a significant effect on the ability of avidin to adequately bind to the cluster. Complexes 8 and 10 showed negligible changes in E(1/2), while complex 9 showed a shift in E(1/2) of -43 mV upon avidin addition. These results suggest that multivalent interactions can have a positive impact on the sensitivity of electrochemical protein biosensors.
Project description:This work quantifies the impact of steric crowding on whole antibody (Ab) receptor immobilization and target Ab detection and also demonstrates how the versatile biotin/streptavidin receptor immobilization system must be tuned to optimize target detection in designing biosensors. Results are demonstrated on a label-free optical biosensor fabricated from n-type macroporous porous silicon (PSi) with approximately 88-107 nm diameter pores. We employ a sandwich assay scheme comprising a linking chemistry (biotin/streptavidin) to attach biotinylated anti-rabbit IgG (receptor) to detect rabbit IgG (target). A "bottom-up" approach was taken to investigate each layer of the sandwich assay to optimize target binding. Steric crowding was observed to hinder subsequent layer binding for each layer in the sandwich (biotin, streptavidin, and receptor). Our results give definitive evidence that the onset of steric crowding within the biotin layer occurs at a surface coverage of 57%, which is much higher compared to that from published work on well-ordered self-assembled biotin monolayers on planar gold surfaces. This difference is attributed to the topographical heterogeneity of the PSi substrate. Streptavidin (SA) binding to surface-linked biotin was altered by preblocking the streptavidin binding sites with biotin. Through consistent trends in data, preblocking SA was shown to reduce steric crowding within the SA layer, which translated into increased receptor immobilization. The final detection range of rabbit IgG was 0.07-3 mg mL(-1) (0.4-17 ng mm(-2)), and binding specificity was demonstrated by employing an anti-chicken IgG control receptor. This study underlines the importance of considering binding avidity and surface topography in optimizing chip-based biosensors.
Project description:The nucleotide-free chaperonin GroEL is capable of capturing transient unfolded or partially unfolded states that flicker in and out of existence due to large-scale protein dynamic vibrational modes. In this work, three short vignettes are presented to highlight our continuing advances in the application of GroEL biosensor biolayer interferometry (BLI) technologies and includes expanded uses of GroEL as a molecular scaffold for electron microscopy determination. The first example presents an extension of the ability to detect dynamic pre-aggregate transients in therapeutic protein solutions where the assessment of the kinetic stability of any folded protein or, as shown herein, quantitative detection of mutant-type protein when mixed with wild-type native counterparts. Secondly, using a BLI denaturation pulse assay with GroEL, the comparison of kinetically controlled denaturation isotherms of various von Willebrand factor (vWF) triple A domain mutant-types is shown. These mutant-types are single point mutations that locally disorder the A1 platelet binding domain resulting in one gain of function and one loss of function phenotype. Clear, separate, and reproducible kinetic deviations in the mutant-type isotherms exist when compared with the wild-type curve. Finally, expanding on previous electron microscopy (EM) advances using GroEL as both a protein scaffold surface and a release platform, examples are presented where GroEL-protein complexes can be imaged using electron microscopy tilt series and the low-resolution structures of aggregation-prone proteins that have interacted with GroEL. The ability of GroEL to bind hydrophobic regions and transient partially folded states allows one to employ this unique molecular chaperone both as a versatile structural scaffold and as a sensor of a protein's folded states.
Project description:Implantable and wearable biosensors that enable monitoring of biophysical and biochemical parameters over long durations are highly attractive for early and presymptomatic diagnosis of pathological conditions and timely clinical intervention. Poor stability of antibodies used as biorecognition elements and the lack of effective methods to refresh the biosensors upon demand without severely compromising the functionality of the biosensor remain significant challenges in realizing protein biosensors for long-term monitoring. Here, we introduce a novel method involving organosilica encapsulation of antibodies for preserving their biorecognition capability under harsh conditions, typically encountered during the sensor refreshing process, and elevated temperature. Specifically, a simple aqueous rinsing step using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution refreshes the biosensor by dissociating the antibody-antigen interactions. Encapsulation of the antibodies with an organosilica layer is shown to preserve the biorecognition capability of otherwise unstable antibodies during the SDS treatment, thus ultimately facilitating the refreshability of the biosensor over multiple cycles. Harnessing this method, we demonstrate the refreshability of plasmonic biosensors for anti-IgG (model bioanalyte) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) (a biomarker for acute and chronic kidney injury). The novel encapsulation approach demonstrated can be easily extended to other transduction platforms to realize refreshable biosensors for monitoring of protein biomarkers over long durations.
Project description:Protein-protein interactions play an important role in the investigation of biomolecules. In this paper, we reported on the use of a reduced graphene oxide microshell (RGOM)-based optical biosensor for the determination of goat anti-rabbit IgG. The biosensor was prepared through a self-assembly of monolayers of monodisperse polystyrene microspheres, combined with a high-temperature reduction, in order to decorate the RGOM with rabbit IgG. The periodic microshells allowed a simpler functionalization and modification of RGOM with bioreceptor units, than reduced graphene oxide (RGO). With additional antibody-antigen binding, the RGOM-based biosensor achieved better real-time and label-free detection. The RGOM-based biosensor presented a more satisfactory response to goat anti-rabbit IgG than the RGO-based biosensor. This method is promising for immobilizing biomolecules on graphene surfaces and for the fabrication of biosensors with enhanced sensitivity.
Project description:Advancement of hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI technology toward clinical settings demonstrates the considerable interest in this modality for diagnostic imaging. The number of contrast agents, termed biosensors, for 129 Xe MRI that respond to specific biological targets, has grown and diversified. Directly functionalized xenon-carrying macrocycles, such as the large family of cryptophane-based biosensors, are good for localization-based imaging and provide contrast before and after binding events occur. Noncovalently functionalized constructs, such as cucurbituril- and cyclodextrin-based biosensors, benefit from commercial availability and optimal exchange dynamics for CEST imaging. In this work, we report the first directly functionalized cucurbituril used as a xenon biosensor. Biotinylated cucurbituril (btCB7) gives rise to a 129 Xe hyperCEST response at the unusual shift of ?=28?ppm when bound to its protein target with substantial CEST contrast. We posit that the observed chemical shift is due to the deformation of btCB7 upon binding to avidin, caused by proximity to the protein surface. Conformational searches and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations support this hypothesis. This construct combines the strengths of both families of biosensors, enables a multitude of biological targets through avidin conjugation, and demonstrates the advantages of functionalized cucurbituril-based biosensors.
Project description:Glycosylation, as the most prominent posttranslational modification, is recognized as an important quality attribute of monoclonal antibodies affected by various bioprocess parameters and cellular physiology. A method of lectin-based bio-layer interferometry (LBLI) to relatively rank galactosylation and fucosylation levels was developed. For this purpose, Fc-glycosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) was recombinantly produced with varying bioprocess conditions in 15?L bioreactor and accumulated IgG was harvested. The reliability, the robustness and the applicability of LBLI to different samples has been proven. Data obtained from LC-MS analysis served as reference and were compared to the LBLI results. The introduced method is based on non-fluidic bio-layer interferometry (BLI), which becomes recently a standard tool for determining biomolecular interactions in a label-free, real-time and high-throughput manner. For the intended purpose, biotinylated lectins were immobilized on disposable optical fiber streptavidin (SA) biosensor tips. Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) was used to detect the core fucose and Ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA120) to determine galactosylation levels. In our case study it could be shown that fucosylation was not affected by variations in glucose feed concentration and cultivation temperature. However, the galactosylation could be correlated with the ratio of mean specific productivity (q<sub>P</sub> ) and ammonium (q<sub>NH4+</sub> ) but was unrelated to the ratio of mean q<sub>P</sub> and the specific glucose consumption (q<sub>gluc</sub> ). This presented method strengthens the applicability of the BLI platform, which already enables measurement of several product related characteristics, such as product quantity as well as kinetic rates (k<sub>d</sub> ,k<sub>on</sub> ) and affinity constants (k<sub>D</sub> ) analysis.