Peroxisomal lipid synthesis regulates inflammation by sustaining neutrophil membrane phospholipid composition and viability.
ABSTRACT: Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is altered in metabolic disorders and cancer. Conventional FAS null mice die in utero, so effects of whole-body inhibition of lipogenesis following development are unknown. Inducible global knockout of FAS (iFASKO) in mice was lethal due to a disrupted intestinal barrier and leukopenia. Conditional loss of FAS was associated with the selective suppression of granulopoiesis without disrupting granulocytic differentiation. Transplantation of iFASKO bone marrow into wild-type mice followed by Cre induction resulted in selective neutrophil depletion, but not death. Impaired lipogenesis increased ER stress and apoptosis in neutrophils by preferentially decreasing peroxisome-derived membrane phospholipids containing ether bonds. Inducible global knockout of PexRAP, a peroxisomal enzyme required for ether lipid synthesis, also produced neutropenia. FAS knockdown in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells caused cell loss that was partially rescued by ether lipids. Inhibiting ether lipid synthesis selectively constrains neutrophil development, revealing an unrecognized pathway in immunometabolism.
Project description:De novo lipogenesis in adipocytes, especially with high fat feeding, is poorly understood. We demonstrate that an adipocyte lipogenic pathway encompassing fatty acid synthase (FAS) and PexRAP (peroxisomal reductase activating PPAR?) modulates endogenous PPAR? activation and adiposity. Mice lacking FAS in adult adipose tissue manifested increased energy expenditure, increased brown fat-like adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. FAS knockdown in embryonic fibroblasts decreased PPAR? transcriptional activity and adipogenesis. FAS-dependent alkyl ether phosphatidylcholine species were associated with PPAR? and treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with one such ether lipid increased PPAR? transcriptional activity. PexRAP, a protein required for alkyl ether lipid synthesis, was associated with peroxisomes and induced during adipogenesis. PexRAP knockdown in cells decreased PPAR? transcriptional activity and adipogenesis. PexRAP knockdown in mice decreased expression of PPAR?-dependent genes and reduced diet-induced adiposity. These findings suggest that inhibiting PexRAP or related lipogenic enzymes could treat obesity and diabetes.
Project description:MicroRNAs are universal post-transcriptional regulators in genomes. They have the ability of buffering gene expressional programs, contributing to robustness of biological systems and playing important roles in development, physiology and diseases. Here, we identified a microRNA, miR-125a, as a positive regulator of granulopoiesis. MiR125a knockout mice show reduced infiltration of neutrophils in the lung and alleviated tissue destruction after endotoxin challenge as a consequence of decreased neutrophil numbers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this significant reduction of neutrophils was due to impaired development of granulocyte precursors to mature neutrophils in an intrinsic manner. We showed that Socs3, a critical repressor for granulopoiesis, was a target of miR-125a. Overall, our study revealed a new microRNA regulating granulocyte development and supported a model in which miR-125a acted as a fine-tuner of granulopoiesis.
Project description:Neutrophil migration to the site of bacterial infection is a critical step in host defense. Exclusively produced in the bone marrow, neutrophil release into the blood is tightly controlled. Although the chemokine CXCL1 induces neutrophil influx during bacterial infections, its role in regulating neutrophil recruitment, granulopoiesis, and neutrophil mobilization in response to lung infection-induced sepsis is unclear. Here, we used a murine model of intrapulmonary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection to investigate the role of CXCL1 in host defense, granulopoiesis, and neutrophil mobilization. Our results demonstrate that CXCL1 augments neutrophil influx to control bacterial growth in the lungs, as well as bacterial dissemination, resulting in improved host survival. This was shown in Cxcl1 -/- mice, which exhibited defective amplification of early neutrophil precursors in granulocytic compartments, and CD62L- and CD49d-dependent neutrophil release from the marrow. Administration of recombinant CXCL2 and CXCL5 after infection rescues the impairments in neutrophil-dependent host defense in Cxcl1 -/- mice. Taken together, these findings identify CXCL1 as a central player in host defense, granulopoiesis, and mobilization of neutrophils during Gram-positive bacterial pneumonia-induced sepsis.
Project description:Although carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is an activation marker for neutrophils and delays neutrophil apoptosis, the role of CEACAM1 in granulopoiesis and neutrophil-dependent host immune responses has not been investigated. CEACAM1 expression correlated with granulocytic differentiation, and Ceacam1(-/-) mice developed neutrophilia because of loss of the Src-homology-phosphatase-1 (SHP-1)-dependent inhibition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat3) pathway provided by CEACAM1. Moreover, Ceacam1(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to Listeria Monocytogenes (LM) infection with an accelerated mortality. Reintroduction of CEACAM1 into Ceacam1(-/-) bone marrow restored normal granulopoiesis and host sensitivity to LM infection, while mutation of its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) abrogated this restoration. shRNA-mediated reduction of Stat3 amounts rescued normal granulopoiesis, attenuating host sensitivity to LM infection in Ceacam1(-/-) mice. Thus, CEACAM1 acted as a coinhibitory receptor for G-CSFR regulating granulopoiesis and host innate immune response to bacterial infections.
Project description:Fatty acid synthase (FAS) promotes energy storage through de novo lipogenesis and participates in signaling by the nuclear receptor PPAR? in noncardiac tissues. To determine if de novo lipogenesis is relevant to cardiac physiology, we generated and characterized FAS knockout in the myocardium (FASKard) mice. FASKard mice develop normally, manifest normal resting heart function, and have normal cardiac PPAR? signaling as well as fatty acid oxidation. However, they decompensate with stress. Most die within 1 h of transverse aortic constriction, probably due to arrhythmia. Voltage clamp measurements of FASKard cardiomyocytes show hyperactivation of L-type calcium channel current that could not be reversed with palmitate supplementation. Of the classic regulators of this current, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) but not protein kinase A signaling is activated in FASKard hearts, and knockdown of FAS in cultured cells activates CaMKII. In addition to being intolerant of the stress of acute pressure, FASKard hearts were also intolerant of the stress of aging, reflected as persistent CaMKII hyperactivation, progression to dilatation, and premature death by ?1 year of age. CaMKII signaling appears to be pathogenic in FASKard hearts because inhibition of its signaling in vivo rescues mice from early mortality after transverse aortic constriction. FAS was also increased in two mechanistically distinct mouse models of heart failure and in the hearts of humans with end stage cardiomyopathy. These data implicate a novel relationship between FAS and calcium signaling in the heart and suggest that FAS induction in stressed myocardium represents a compensatory response to protect cardiomyocytes from pathological calcium flux.
Project description:The intestinal mucus barrier prevents pathogen invasion and maintains host-microbiota homeostasis. We show that fatty acid synthase (FAS), an insulin-responsive enzyme essential for de novo lipogenesis, helps maintain the mucus barrier by regulating Mucin 2, the dominant mucin in the colon and a central component of mucus. Inducible Cre recombinase-directed inactivation of the FAS gene in the colonic epithelium of mice is associated with disruptions in the intestinal mucus barrier as well as increased intestinal permeability, colitis, systemic inflammation, and changes in gut microbial ecology. FAS deficiency blocked the generation of palmitoylated Mucin 2, which must be S-palmitoylated at its N terminus for proper secretion and function. Furthermore, a diabetic mouse model exhibited lower FAS levels and a decreased mucus layer, which could be restored with insulin treatment. Thus, the role of FAS in maintaining intestinal barrier function may explain the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation in diabetes and other disorders.
Project description:Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) signaling has been shown to be crucial for the modulation of neutrophil development and functionality. As this signaling pathway is significantly suppressed by type I interferons (IFNs), we aimed to study how the regulation of neutrophil differentiation and phenotype is altered in IFN-deficient mice during granulopoiesis. The composition of bone marrow granulocyte progenitors and their Nampt expression were assessed in bone marrow of type I IFN receptor knockout (Ifnar1-/-) mice and compared to wild-type animals. The impact of NAMPT inhibition on the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of murine bone marrow progenitors, as well as of murine 32D and human HL-60 neutrophil-like cell lines, was estimated. The progressive increase of Nampt expression during neutrophil progenitor maturation could be observed, and it was more prominent in IFN-deficient animals. Altered composition of bone marrow progenitors in these mice correlated with the dysregulation of apoptosis and altered differentiation of these cells. We observed that NAMPT is vitally important for survival of early progenitors, while at later stages it delays the differentiation of neutrophils, with moderate effect on their survival. This study shows that IFN-deficiency leads to the elevated NAMPT expression in the bone marrow, which in turn modulates neutrophil development and differentiation, even in the absence of tumor-derived stimuli.
Project description:Normally, neutrophil pools are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms that require the transcription factor C/EBP?. Inflammation, however, induces neutrophilia through a distinct pathway of "emergency" granulopoiesis that is dependent on C/EBP?. Here, we show in mice that alum triggers emergency granulopoiesis through the IL-1RI-dependent induction of G-CSF. G-CSF/G-CSF-R neutralization impairs proliferative responses of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) to alum, but also abrogates the acute mobilization of BM neutrophils, raising the possibility that HSPC responses to inflammation are an indirect result of the exhaustion of BM neutrophil stores. The induction of neutropenia, via depletion with Gr-1 mAb or myeloid-specific ablation of Mcl-1, elicits G-CSF via an IL-1RI-independent pathway, stimulating granulopoietic responses indistinguishable from those induced by adjuvant. Notably, C/EBP?, thought to be necessary for enhanced generative capacity of BM, is dispensable for increased proliferation of HSPC to alum or neutropenia, but plays a role in terminal neutrophil differentiation during granulopoietic recovery. We conclude that alum elicits a transient increase in G-CSF production via IL-1RI for the mobilization of BM neutrophils, but density-dependent feedback sustains G-CSF for accelerated granulopoiesis.
Project description:Homeostasis of neutrophils-the blood cells that respond first to infection and tissue injury-is critical for the regulation of immune responses and regulated through granulopoiesis, a multi-stage process by which neutrophils differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells. Granulopoiesis is a highly dynamic process and altered in certain clinical conditions, such as pathologic and iatrogenic neutropenia, described as demand-adapted granulopoiesis. The regulation of granulopoiesis under stress is not completely understood because studies of granulopoiesis dynamics have been hampered by technical limitations in defining neutrophil precursors. Here, we define a population of neutrophil precursor cells in the bone marrow with unprecedented purity, characterized by the lineage<sup>-</sup>CD11b<sup>+</sup>Ly6G<sup>lo</sup>Ly6B<sup>int</sup>CD115<sup>-</sup>, which we call NeuPs (Neutrophil Precursors). We demonstrated that NeuPs differentiate into mature and functional neutrophils both in vitro and in vivo. By analyzing the gene expression profiles of NeuPs, we also identified NeuP stage-specific genes and characterized patterns of gene regulation throughout granulopoiesis. Importantly, we found that NeuPs have the potential to proliferate, but the proliferation decreased in multiple different hematopoietic stress settings, indicating that proliferating NeuPs are poised at a critical step to regulate granulopoiesis. Our findings will facilitate understanding how the hematopoietic system maintains homeostasis and copes with the demands of granulopoiesis.
Project description:Endothelial dysfunction leads to lethal vascular complications in diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Here, we demonstrate that de novo lipogenesis, an insulin-dependent process driven by the multifunctional enzyme fatty-acid synthase (FAS), maintains endothelial function by targeting endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) to the plasma membrane. In mice with endothelial inactivation of FAS (FASTie mice), eNOS membrane content and activity were decreased. eNOS and FAS were physically associated; eNOS palmitoylation was decreased in FAS-deficient cells, and incorporation of labeled carbon into eNOS-associated palmitate was FAS-dependent. FASTie mice manifested a proinflammatory state reflected as increases in vascular permeability, endothelial inflammatory markers, leukocyte migration, and susceptibility to LPS-induced death that was reversed with an NO donor. FAS-deficient endothelial cells showed deficient migratory capacity, and angiogenesis was decreased in FASTie mice subjected to hindlimb ischemia. Insulin induced FAS in endothelial cells freshly isolated from humans, and eNOS palmitoylation was decreased in mice with insulin-deficient or insulin-resistant diabetes. Thus, disrupting eNOS bioavailability through impaired lipogenesis identifies a novel mechanism coordinating nutritional status and tissue repair that may contribute to diabetic vascular disease.