CaM Kinase II mediates maladaptive post-infarct remodeling and pro-inflammatory chemoattractant signaling but not acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT: CaMKII was suggested to mediate ischemic myocardial injury and adverse cardiac remodeling. Here, we investigated the roles of different CaMKII isoforms and splice variants in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by the use of new genetic CaMKII mouse models. Although CaMKII?C was upregulated 1 day after I/R injury, cardiac damage 1 day after I/R was neither affected in CaMKII?-deficient mice, CaMKII?-deficient mice in which the splice variants CaMKII?B and C were re-expressed, nor in cardiomyocyte-specific CaMKII?/? double knockout mice (DKO). In contrast, 5 weeks after I/R, DKO mice were protected against extensive scar formation and cardiac dysfunction, which was associated with reduced leukocyte infiltration and attenuated expression of members of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand family, in particular CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, MIP-1?). Intriguingly, CaMKII was sufficient and required to induce CCL3 expression in isolated cardiomyocytes, indicating a cardiomyocyte autonomous effect. We propose that CaMKII-dependent chemoattractant signaling explains the effects on post-I/R remodeling. Taken together, we demonstrate that CaMKII is not critically involved in acute I/R-induced damage but in the process of post-infarct remodeling and inflammatory processes.
Project description:Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was suggested to mediate ischemic myocardial injury and adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the specific functions of the CaMKII isoforms and splice variants in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have not been investigated yet. Thus, we studied the roles of the CaMKII isoforms and splice variants in I/R by the use of various CaMKII mutant mice. CaMKIIδC was up-regulated already one day after I/R injury but surprisingly, acute I/R injury was neither affected in CaMKIIδ-deficient mice, CaMKIIδ-deficient mice in which the splice variants CaMKIIδB and C were re-expressed nor in conditional CaMKIIδ/γ double-knockout mice (DKO). In contrast, 5 weeks after I/R, DKO mice were protected against extensive scar formation and cardiac dysfunction. Leukocyte infiltration was not altered one day but five days after I/R, explaining the late effects of CaMKII deletion on post-I/R remodeling. Other than reported before, we demonstrate that CaMKII is not critically involved in the immediate mechanisms that regulate acute I/R injury but in the process of post-infarct remodeling. We analysed 6 groups in total: 3 groups from wild-type control animals and 3 groups from CaMKII delta/gamma double-KO mice. Sham operated animals served as controls in both wild-type and KO animal groups. 2 different time points in ischia/reperfusion operated animals were investigated: 1 day and 5 days post-surgery.
Project description:Ca(2+)-dependent signaling through CaM Kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin was suggested to contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the relative importance of CaMKII versus calcineurin for adverse cardiac remodeling remained unclear.We generated double-knockout mice (DKO) lacking the 2 cardiac CaMKII genes ? and ? specifically in cardiomyocytes. We show that both CaMKII isoforms contribute redundantly to phosphorylation not only of phospholamban, ryanodine receptor 2, and histone deacetylase 4, but also calcineurin. Under baseline conditions, DKO mice are viable and display neither abnormal Ca(2+) handling nor functional and structural changes. On pathological pressure overload and ?-adrenergic stimulation, DKO mice are protected against cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis. But surprisingly and paradoxically, DKO mice develop cardiac hypertrophy driven by excessive activation of endogenous calcineurin, which is associated with a lack of phosphorylation at the auto-inhibitory calcineurin A site Ser411. Likewise, calcineurin inhibition prevents cardiac hypertrophy in DKO. On exercise performance, DKO mice show an exaggeration of cardiac hypertrophy with increased expression of the calcineurin target gene RCAN1-4 but no signs of adverse cardiac remodeling.We established a mouse model in which CaMKII's activity is specifically and completely abolished. By the use of this model we show that CaMKII induces maladaptive cardiac remodeling while it inhibits calcineurin-dependent hypertrophy. These data suggest inhibition of CaMKII but not calcineurin as a promising approach to attenuate the progression of heart failure.
Project description:c-Jun dimerization protein (JDP2) and Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) are closely related basic leucine zipper proteins. Transgenic mice with cardiac expression of either JDP2 or ATF3 showed maladaptive remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Surprisingly, JDP2 knockout (KO) did not protect the heart following transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Instead, the JDP2 KO mice performed worse than their wild type (WT) counterparts. To test whether the maladaptive cardiac remodeling observed in the JDP2 KO mice is due to ATF3, ATF3 was removed in the context of JDP2 deficiency, referred as double KO mice (dKO). Mice were challenged by TAC, and followed by detailed physiological, pathological and molecular analyses. dKO mice displayed no apparent differences from WT mice under unstressed condition, except a moderate better performance in dKO male mice. Importantly, following TAC the dKO hearts showed low fibrosis levels, reduced inflammatory and hypertrophic gene expression and a significantly preserved cardiac function as compared with their WT counterparts in both genders. Consistent with these data, removing ATF3 resumed p38 activation in the JDP2 KO mice which correlates with the beneficial cardiac function. Collectively, mice with JDP2 and ATF3 double deficiency had reduced maladaptive cardiac remodeling and lower hypertrophy following TAC. As such, the worsening of the cardiac outcome found in the JDP2 KO mice is due to the elevated ATF3 expression. Simultaneous suppression of both ATF3 and JDP2 activity is highly beneficial for cardiac function in health and disease.
Project description:Inflammation accompanies heart failure and is a mediator of cardiac fibrosis. CaMKII? plays an essential role in adverse remodeling and decompensation to heart failure. We postulated that inflammation is the mechanism by which CaMKII? contributes to adverse remodeling in response to nonischemic interventions. We demonstrate that deletion of CaMKII? in the cardiomyocyte (CKO) significantly attenuates activation of NF-?B, expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and macrophage accumulation induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. The inflammasome was activated by Ang II, and this response was also diminished in CKO mice. These events occurred prior to any evidence of Ang II-induced cell death. In addition, CaMKII-dependent inflammatory gene expression and inflammasome priming were observed as early as the third hour of infusion, a time point at which macrophage recruitment was not evident. Inhibition of either the inflammasome or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) signaling attenuated macrophage accumulation, and these interventions, like cardiomyocyte CaMKII? deletion, diminished the fibrotic response to Ang II. Thus, activation of CaMKII? in the cardiomyocyte represents what we believe to be a novel mechanism for initiating inflammasome activation and an inflammatory gene program that leads to macrophage recruitment and ultimately to development of fibrosis.
Project description:Recent studies reported altered DNA methylation in failing human hearts. This may suggest a role for de novo DNA methylation in the development of heart failure. Here, we tested whether cardiomyocyte-specific loss of de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b altered cardiac function and remodeling after chronic left ventricular pressure overload.Mice with specific ablation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b expression in cardiomyocytes were generated by crossing floxed Dnmt3afl and Dnmt3bfl alleles with mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the atrial myosin light chain gene promoter. The efficacy of combined Dnmt3a/3b ablation (DKO) was characterized on cardiomyocyte-specific genomic DNA and mRNA levels. Cardiac phenotyping was carried out without (sham) or with left ventricular pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Under similar conditions, cardiac genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed and DNA methylation levels of promoters of differentially regulated genes were assessed by pyrosequencing.DKO cardiomyocytes showed virtual absence of targeted Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b mRNA transcripts. Cardiac phenotyping revealed no significant differences between DKO and control mice under sham and TAC conditions. Transcriptome analyses identified upregulation of 44 and downregulation of 9 genes in DKO as compared with control sham mice. TAC mice showed similar changes with substantial overlap of regulated genes compared to sham. Promoters of upregulated genes were largely unmethylated in DKO compared to control mice.The absence of cardiac pathology in the presence of the predicted molecular phenotype suggests that de novo DNA methylation in cardiomyocytes is dispensable for adaptive mechanisms after chronic cardiac pressure overload.
Project description:Pathological remodeling of the myocardium is an integral part of the events that lead to heart failure (HF), which involves altered gene expression, disturbed signaling pathways and altered Ca2+ homeostasis and the players involved in this process. Of particular interest is the chronic activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) isoforms in heart, which further aggravate the injury to myocardium. Expression and activity of CaMKII have been found to be elevated in various conditions of stressed myocardium and in different heart diseases in both animal models as well as heart patients. CaMKII is a signaling molecule that regulates many cellular pathways by phosphorylating several proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and relaxation events in heart, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, transcriptional activation of genes related to cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, and arrhythmias. CaMKII is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are elevated under conditions of ischemia-reperfusion injury and in a cyclical manner, CaMKII in turn elevates ROS production. Both ROS and activated CaMKII increase Ca-induced Ca release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, which leads to cardiomyocyte membrane depolarization and arrhythmias. These CaMKII-mediated changes in heart ultimately culminate in dysfunctional myocardium and HF. Genetic studies in animal models clearly demonstrated that inactivation of CaMKII is protective against a variety of stress induced cardiac dysfunctions. Despite significant leaps in understanding the structural details of CaMKII, which is a very complicated and multimeric modular protein, currently there is no specific and potent inhibitor of this enzyme, that can be developed for therapeutic purposes.
Project description:Dysregulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II is closely linked with myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the mechanisms that regulate CaMKII activity are incompletely understood. Here we show that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is essential for preventing cardiac CaMKII hyperactivation. Mice null for cardiac PRMT1 exhibit a rapid progression to dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure within 2 months, accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis. Consistently, PRMT1 is downregulated in heart failure patients. PRMT1 depletion in isolated cardiomyocytes evokes hypertrophic responses with elevated remodeling gene expression, while PRMT1 overexpression protects against pathological responses to neurohormones. The level of active CaMKII is significantly elevated in PRMT1-deficient hearts or cardiomyocytes. PRMT1 interacts with and methylates CaMKII at arginine residues 9 and 275, leading to its inhibition. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII restores contractile function in PRMT1-deficient mice. Thus, our data suggest that PRMT1 is a critical regulator of CaMKII to maintain cardiac function.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy is a major predictor of heart failure and a prevalent disorder with high mortality. Little is known, however, regarding mechanisms governing the transition from stable cardiac hypertrophy to decompensated heart failure. Here, we tested the role of autophagy, a conserved pathway mediating bulk degradation of long-lived proteins and cellular organelles that can lead to cell death. To quantify autophagic activity, we engineered a line of "autophagy reporter" mice and confirmed that cardiomyocyte autophagy can be induced by short-term nutrient deprivation in vivo. Pressure overload induced by aortic banding induced heart failure and greatly increased cardiac autophagy. Load-induced autophagic activity peaked at 48 hours and remained significantly elevated for at least 3 weeks. In addition, autophagic activity was not spatially homogeneous but rather was seen at particularly high levels in basal septum. Heterozygous disruption of the gene coding for Beclin 1, a protein required for early autophagosome formation, decreased cardiomyocyte autophagy and diminished pathological remodeling induced by severe pressure stress. Conversely, Beclin 1 overexpression heightened autophagic activity and accentuated pathological remodeling. Taken together, these findings implicate autophagy in the pathogenesis of load-induced heart failure and suggest it may be a target for novel therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Tilianin is a naturally occurring phenolic compound with a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). The aim of our study was to determine the potential targets and mechanism of action of tilianin against cardiac injury induced by MIRI. An in silico docking model was used in this study for binding mode analysis between tilianin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion- (OGD/R-) injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) injured isolated rat hearts were developed as in vitro and ex vivo models, respectively, which were both treated with tilianin in the absence or presence of a specific CaMKII inhibitor KN93 for target verification and mechanistic exploration. Results demonstrated the ability of tilianin to facilitater the recovery of OGD/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury and the maintenance of cardiac function in I/R-injured hearts. Tilianin interacted with CaMKII? with an efficient binding performance, a favorable binding score, and restraining p-CaMKII and ox-CaMKII expression in cardiomyocytes injured by MIRI. Importantly, inhibition of CaMKII abolished tilianin-mediated recovery of OGD/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury and maintenance of cardiac function in I/R-injured hearts, accompanied by the disability to protect mitochondrial function. Furthermore, the protective effects of tilianin towards mitochondrion-associated proapoptotic and antiapoptotic protein counterbalance and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/nuclear factor- (NF-) ?B-related inflammation suppression were both abolished after pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII. Our investigation indicated that the inhibition of CaMKII-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and JNK/NF-?B inflammation might be considered as a pivotal mechanism used by tilianin to exert its protective effects on MIRI cardiac damage.
Project description:Exercise induces physiological cardiac growth and protects the heart against pathological remodeling. Recent work suggests exercise also enhances the heart's capacity for repair, which could be important for regenerative therapies. While microRNAs are important in certain cardiac pathologies, less is known about their functional roles in exercise-induced cardiac phenotypes. We profiled cardiac microRNA expression in two distinct models of exercise and found microRNA-222 (miR-222) was upregulated in both. Downstream miR-222 targets modulating cardiomyocyte phenotypes were identified, including HIPK1 and HMBOX1. Inhibition of miR-222 in vivo completely blocked cardiac and cardiomyocyte growth in response to exercise while reducing markers of cardiomyocyte proliferation. Importantly, mice with inducible cardiomyocyte miR-222 expression were resistant to adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after ischemic injury. These studies implicate miR-222 as necessary for exercise-induced cardiomyocyte growth and proliferation in the adult mammalian heart and show that it is sufficient to protect the heart against adverse remodeling.