Mitochondrial ADCK3 employs an atypical protein kinase-like fold to enable coenzyme Q biosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: The ancient UbiB protein kinase-like family is involved in isoprenoid lipid biosynthesis and is implicated in human diseases, but demonstration of UbiB kinase activity has remained elusive for unknown reasons. Here, we quantitatively define UbiB-specific sequence motifs and reveal their positions within the crystal structure of a UbiB protein, ADCK3. We find that multiple UbiB-specific features are poised to inhibit protein kinase activity, including an N-terminal domain that occupies the typical substrate binding pocket and a unique A-rich loop that limits ATP binding by establishing an unusual selectivity for ADP. A single alanine-to-glycine mutation of this loop flips this coenzyme selectivity and enables autophosphorylation but inhibits coenzyme Q biosynthesis in vivo, demonstrating functional relevance for this unique feature. Our work provides mechanistic insight into UbiB enzyme activity and establishes a molecular foundation for further investigation of how UbiB family proteins affect diseases and diverse biological pathways.
Project description:Muscle coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10) or ubiquinone) deficiency has been identified in more than 20 patients with presumed autosomal-recessive ataxia. However, mutations in genes required for CoQ(10) biosynthetic pathway have been identified only in patients with infantile-onset multisystemic diseases or isolated nephropathy. Our SNP-based genome-wide scan in a large consanguineous family revealed a locus for autosomal-recessive ataxia at chromosome 1q41. The causative mutation is a homozygous splice-site mutation in the aarF-domain-containing kinase 3 gene (ADCK3). Five additional mutations in ADCK3 were found in three patients with sporadic ataxia, including one known to have CoQ(10) deficiency in muscle. All of the patients have childhood-onset cerebellar ataxia with slow progression, and three of six have mildly elevated lactate levels. ADCK3 is a mitochondrial protein homologous to the yeast COQ8 and the bacterial UbiB proteins, which are required for CoQ biosynthesis. Three out of four patients tested showed a low endogenous pool of CoQ(10) in their fibroblasts or lymphoblasts, and two out of three patients showed impaired ubiquinone synthesis, strongly suggesting that ADCK3 is also involved in CoQ(10) biosynthesis. The deleterious nature of the three identified missense changes was confirmed by the introduction of them at the corresponding positions of the yeast COQ8 gene. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis shows that ADCK3 belongs to the family of atypical kinases, which includes phosphoinositide and choline kinases, suggesting that ADCK3 plays an indirect regulatory role in ubiquinone biosynthesis possibly as part of a feedback loop that regulates ATP production.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coq8 is a member of the ancient UbiB atypical protein kinase family. Coq8, and its orthologs UbiB, ABC1, ADCK3, and ADCK4, are required for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q in yeast, E. coli, A. thaliana, and humans. Each Coq8 ortholog retains nine highly conserved protein kinase-like motifs, yet its functional role in coenzyme Q biosynthesis remains mysterious. Coq8 may function as an ATPase whose activity is stimulated by coenzyme Q intermediates and phospholipids. A key yeast point mutant expressing Coq8-A197V was previously shown to result in a coenzyme Q-less, respiratory deficient phenotype. The A197V substitution occurs in the crucial Ala-rich protein kinase-like motif I of yeast Coq8. Here we show that long-term cultures of mutants expressing Coq8-A197V produce spontaneous revertants with the ability to grow on medium containing a non-fermentable carbon source. Each revertant is shown to harbor a secondary intragenic suppressor mutation within the COQ8 gene. The intragenic suppressors restore the synthesis of coenzyme Q. One class of the suppressors fully restores the levels of coenzyme Q and key Coq polypeptides necessary for the maintenance and integrity of the high-molecular mass CoQ synthome (also termed complex Q), while the other class provides only a partial rescue. Mutants harboring the first class of suppressors grow robustly under respiratory conditions, while mutants containing the second class grow more slowly under these conditions. Our work provides insight into the function of this important yet still enigmatic Coq8 family.
Project description:Autosomal recessive ataxias are a clinically diverse group of syndromes that in some cases are caused by mutations in genes with roles in the DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation or mitochondrial function. One of these ataxias, known as Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia Type-2 (ARCA-2, also known as SCAR9/COQ10D4; OMIM: #612016), arises due to mutations in the ADCK3 gene. The product of this gene (ADCK3) is an atypical kinase that is thought to play a regulatory role in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis. Although much work has been performed on the S. cerevisiae orthologue of ADCK3, the cellular and biochemical role of its mammalian counterpart, and why mutations in this gene lead to human disease is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ADCK3 localises to mitochondrial cristae and is targeted to this organelle via the presence of an N-terminal localisation signal. Consistent with a role in CoQ10 biosynthesis, ADCK3 deficiency decreased cellular CoQ10 content. In addition, endogenous ADCK3 was found to associate in vitro with recombinant Coq3, Coq5, Coq7 and Coq9, components of the CoQ10 biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, cell lines derived from ARCA-2 patients display signs of oxidative stress, defects in mitochondrial homeostasis and increases in lysosomal content. Together, these data shed light on the possible molecular role of ADCK3 and provide insight into the cellular pathways affected in ARCA-2 patients.
Project description:The UbiB protein kinase-like (PKL) family is widespread, comprising one-quarter of microbial PKLs and five human homologs, yet its biochemical activities remain obscure. COQ8A (ADCK3) is a mammalian UbiB protein associated with ubiquinone (CoQ) biosynthesis and an ataxia (ARCA2) through unclear means. We show that mice lacking COQ8A develop a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia linked to Purkinje cell dysfunction and mild exercise intolerance, recapitulating ARCA2. Interspecies biochemical analyses show that COQ8A and yeast Coq8p specifically stabilize a CoQ biosynthesis complex through unorthodox PKL functions. Although COQ8 was predicted to be a protein kinase, we demonstrate that it lacks canonical protein kinase activity in trans. Instead, COQ8 has ATPase activity and interacts with lipid CoQ intermediates, functions that are likely conserved across all domains of life. Collectively, our results lend insight into the molecular activities of the ancient UbiB family and elucidate the biochemical underpinnings of a human disease.
Project description:Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q) is a lipid electron and proton carrier in the electron transport chain. In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae eleven genes, designated COQ1 through COQ9, YAH1 and ARH1, have been identified as being required for Q biosynthesis. One of these genes, COQ8 (ABC1), encodes an atypical protein kinase, containing six (I, II, III, VIB, VII, and VIII) of the twelve motifs characteristically present in canonical protein kinases. Here we characterize seven distinct Q-less coq8 yeast mutants and show that unlike the coq8 null mutant, each maintained normal steady-state levels of the Coq8 polypeptide. The phosphorylation states of Coq polypeptides were determined with two-dimensional gel analyses. Coq3p, Coq5p, and Coq7p were phosphorylated in a Coq8p-dependent manner. Expression of a human homolog of Coq8p, ADCK3(CABC1) bearing an amino-terminal yeast mitochondrial leader sequence, rescued growth of yeast coq8 mutants on medium containing a nonfermentable carbon source and partially restored biosynthesis of Q(6). The phosphorylation state of several of the yeast Coq polypeptides was also rescued, indicating a profound conservation of yeast Coq8p and human ADCK3 protein kinase function in Q biosynthesis.
Project description:Human COQ8A (ADCK3) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coq8p (collectively COQ8) are UbiB family proteins essential for mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis. However, the biochemical activity of COQ8 and its direct role in CoQ production remain unclear, in part due to lack of known endogenous regulators of COQ8 function and of effective small molecules for probing its activity in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that COQ8 possesses evolutionarily conserved ATPase activity that is activated by binding to membranes containing cardiolipin and by phenolic compounds that resemble CoQ pathway intermediates. We further create an analog-sensitive version of Coq8p and reveal that acute chemical inhibition of its endogenous activity in yeast is sufficient to cause respiratory deficiency concomitant with CoQ depletion. Collectively, this work defines lipid and small-molecule modulators of an ancient family of atypical kinase-like proteins and establishes a chemical genetic system for further exploring the mechanistic role of COQ8 in CoQ biosynthesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Disorders related to dysfunction of coenzyme (CoQ<sub>10</sub>) metabolism, including AarF domain containing kinase 3 gene (ADCK3) mutations, have received attention due to the potential for response to CoQ<sub>10</sub> supplementation.<h4>Methods</h4>We describe two new cases of neurological syndromes due to ADCK3 mutations that obtained striking benefit from CoQ10, and a third who did not. We also review 20 cases from the literature in which responses to CoQ10 were documented out of all 38 previously reported cases.<h4>Results</h4>Despite the remarkable responses in some cases with ataxia and movement disorders (myoclonus, dystonia, tremor), overall, we were not able to identify variables that predicted response to CoQ<sub>10</sub> supplementation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Based on our experience and data from the literature, we recommend a minimum of 10?mg/kg/day of ubiquinone with titration up to 15?mg/kg/day, maintained at least for 6 months in order to obtain or exclude potential benefit from therapy.
Project description:Interactions between ?-helices within the hydrophobic environment of lipid bilayers are integral to the folding and function of transmembrane proteins; however, the major forces that mediate these interactions remain debated, and our ability to predict these interactions is still largely untested. We recently demonstrated that the frequent transmembrane association motif GASright, the GxxxG-containing fold of the glycophorin A dimer, is optimal for the formation of extended networks of C?-H hydrogen bonds, supporting the hypothesis that these bonds are major contributors to association. We also found that optimization of C?-H hydrogen bonding and interhelical packing is sufficient to computationally predict the structure of known GASright dimers at near atomic level. Here, we demonstrate that this computational method can be used to characterize the structure of a protein not previously known to dimerize, by predicting and validating the transmembrane dimer of ADCK3, a mitochondrial kinase. ADCK3 is involved in the biosynthesis of the redox active lipid, ubiquinone, and human ADCK3 mutations cause a cerebellar ataxia associated with ubiquinone deficiency, but the biochemical functions of ADCK3 remain largely undefined. Our experimental analyses show that the transmembrane helix of ADCK3 oligomerizes, with an interface based on an extended Gly-zipper motif, as predicted by our models. The data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that optimization of C?-H hydrogen bonding is an important factor in the association of transmembrane helices. This work also provides a structural foundation for investigating the role of transmembrane association in regulating the biological activity of ADCK3.
Project description:The autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. The large number of ARCA genes leads to delay and difficulties obtaining an exact diagnosis in many patients and families. Ubiquinone (CoQ10) deficiency is one of the potentially treatable causes of ARCAs as some patients respond to CoQ10 supplementation. The AarF domain containing kinase 3 gene (ADCK3) is one of several genes associated with CoQ10 deficiency. ADCK3 encodes a mitochondrial protein which functions as an electron-transfer membrane protein complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC).We report two siblings from a consanguineous Pakistani family who presented with cerebellar ataxia and severe myoclonus from adolescence. Whole exome sequencing and biochemical assessment of fibroblasts were performed in the index patient.A novel homozygous frameshift mutation in ADCK3 (p.Ser616Leufs*114), was identified in both siblings. This frameshift mutation results in the loss of the stop codon, extending the coding protein by 81 amino acids. Significant CoQ10 deficiency and reduced MRC enzyme activities in the index patient's fibroblasts suggested that the mutant protein may reduce the efficiency of mitochondrial electron transfer. CoQ10 supplementation was initiated following these genetic and biochemical analyses. She gained substantial improvement in myoclonic movements, ataxic gait and dysarthric speech after treatment.This study highlights the importance of diagnosing ADCK3 mutations and the potential benefit of treatment for patients. The identification of this new mutation broadens the phenotypic spectrum associated with ADCK3 mutations and provides further understanding of their pathogenic mechanism.
Project description:Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or Q8) is a redox active lipid which functions in the respiratory electron transport chain and plays a crucial role in energy-generating processes. In both Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the yigP gene is located between ubiE and ubiB, all three being likely to constitute an operon. In this work, we showed that the uncharacterized yigP gene was involved in Q8 biosynthesis in both strains, and we have renamed it ubiJ. Under aerobic conditions, an ubiJ mutant was found to be impaired for Q8 biosynthesis and for growth in rich medium but did not present any defect anaerobically. Surprisingly, the C-terminal 50 amino acids, predicted to interact with lipids, were sufficient to restore Q8 biosynthesis and growth of the ubiJ mutant. Salmonella ubiE and ubiB mutants were impaired in Q8 biosynthesis and in respiration using different electron acceptors. Moreover, ubiE, ubiJ, and ubiB mutants were all impaired for Salmonella intracellular proliferation in macrophages. Taken together, our data establish an important role for UbiJ in Q8 biosynthesis and reveal an unexpected link between Q8 and virulence. They also emphasize that Salmonella organisms in an intracellular lifestyle rely on aerobic respiration to survive and proliferate within macrophages.