White matter microstructure and the variable adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
ABSTRACT: Changes in cerebral cortical anatomy have been tied to the clinical course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We now ask if alterations in white matter tract microstructure are likewise linked with the adult outcome of childhood ADHD. Seventy-five young adults, 32 with ADHD persisting from childhood and 43 with symptom remission were contrasted against 74 never-affected comparison subjects. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we defined fractional anisotropy, a metric related to white matter microstructure, along with measures of diffusion perpendicular (radial) and parallel (axial) to the axon. Analyses were adjusted for head motion, age and sex, and controlled for multiple comparisons and medication history. Tract-based analyses showed that greater adult inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, was associated with significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the left uncinate (standardized ?=-0.37, t=3.28, p=0.002) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (standardized ?=-0.37, t=3.29, p=0.002). The ADHD group with symptoms persisting into adulthood had significantly lower fractional anisotropy than the never-affected controls in these tracts, differences associated with medium to large effect sizes. By contrast, the ADHD group that remitted by adulthood did not differ significantly from controls. The anomalies were found in tracts that connect components of neural systems pertinent to ADHD, such as attention control (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) and emotion regulation and the processing of reward (the uncinate fasciculus). Change in radial rather than axial diffusivity was the primary driver of this effect, suggesting pathophysiological processes including altered myelination as future targets for pharmacological and behavioral interventions.
Project description:This case series assesses white matter microstructure in 3 adolescents born preterm with nonshunted ventricular dilation secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage. Subjects (ages 12-17 years, gestational age 26-29 weeks, birth weight 825-1624 g) were compared to 3 full-term controls (13-17 years, 39-40 weeks, 3147-3345 g) and 3 adolescents born preterm without ventricular dilation (10-13 years, 26-29 weeks, 630-1673 g). Tractography using a 2 region of interest method reconstructed the following white matter tracts: superior longitudinal/arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and corticospinal tract. Subjects showed increased fractional anisotropy and changes in the pattern of fractional anisotropy along the trajectory of tracts adjacent to the lateral ventricles. Tensor shape at areas of increased fractional anisotropy demonstrated increased linear anisotropy at the expense of planar and spherical anisotropy. These findings suggest increased axonal packing density and straightening of fibers secondary to ventricular enlargement.
Project description:Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD familial liability to white matter microstructure.We used refined DTI tractography methods to examine MD, FA, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) of the anterior thalamic radiation, cingulum, corticospinal tract, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major, forceps minor, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus in children and adolescents with ADHD (n = 56), unaffected siblings of ADHD probands (n = 31), and healthy controls (n = 17).Subjects with ADHD showed significantly higher MD than controls in the anterior thalamic radiation, forceps minor, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Unaffected siblings of subjects with ADHD displayed similar differences in MD as subjects with ADHD. Although none of the tested tracts showed a significant effect of FA, the tracts with elevated MD likewise displayed elevated AD both in subjects with ADHD and in unaffected siblings. Differences in RD between subjects with ADHD, unaffected siblings, and controls were not as widespread as differences in MD and AD.Our findings suggest that disruptions in white matter microstructure occur in several large white matter pathways in association with ADHD and indicate a familial liability for the disorder. Furthermore, MD may reflect these abnormalities more sensitively than FA.
Project description:Using diffusion tensor tractography, we quantified the microstructural changes in the association, projection, and commissural compact white matter pathways of the human brain over the lifespan in a cohort of healthy right-handed children and adults aged 6-68 years. In both males and females, the diffusion tensor radial diffusivity of the bilateral arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, corticospinal, somatosensory tracts, and the corpus callosum followed a U-curve with advancing age; fractional anisotropy in the same pathways followed an inverted U-curve. Our study provides useful baseline data for the interpretation of data collected from patients.
Project description:Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood.
Project description:Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate microstructural changes of major white matter (WM) tracts in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Method: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained from 24 subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), including 13 subjects with VCI-no dementia (VCIND) and 11 subjects with normal cognition (as a control group). A tract-based spatial statistics approach was performed to investigate WM microstructure in VCIND by integrating multiple indices including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), which are intra-voxel metrics, and local diffusion homogeneity (LDH), which is an inter-voxel metric. Results: The VCIND group had decreased FA and increased MD values throughout widespread WM areas predominately in the corpus callosum, bilateral internal capsule/corona radiata/posterior thalamic radiation/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and right inferior/superior longitudinal fasciculus. There was a slight discrepancy between the distribution of areas with decreased FA and LDH. The FA, MD and LDH values were significantly correlated with cognitive test results. According to a WM tract atlas, 10 major tracts were identified as tracts of interest in which three diffusion metrics simultaneously differed between groups, including bilateral anterior thalamic radiation, forceps minor, right corticospinal tract, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, and bilateral uncinate fasciculus. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated the feasibility of using diffusion metrics along the forceps minor and left anterior thalamic radiation for separating two groups. Conclusion: The results suggest WM microstructural abnormalities contribute to cognitive impairments in SIVD patients. DTI parameters may be potential biomarkers for detecting VCIND from SIVD.
Project description:The right hemisphere of the human brain is known to be involved in processes underlying emotion and social cognition. Clinical neuropsychology investigations and brain lesion studies have linked a number of personality and social disorders to abnormal white matter (WM) integrity in the right hemisphere. Here, we tested the hypothesis that interpersonal competencies are associated with integrity of WM tracts in the right hemisphere of healthy young adults. Thirty-one participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning. Fractional anisotropy was used to quantify water diffusion. After the scanning session, participants completed the Adolescent Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire. Fractional anisotropy was subsequently correlated with Adolescent Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire scores using tract-based spatial statistics. Higher interpersonal competencies are related to higher WM integrity in several major tracts of the right hemisphere, in specific the uncinate fasciculus, the cingulum, the forceps minor, the infero-fronto occipital fasciculus, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results provide the first direct analysis of the neuroanatomical basis of interpersonal competencies and young adult self-reported skills in social contexts.
Project description:We investigated whether HIV disease severity was associated with alterations in structural brain connectivity, and whether those alterations in turn were associated with cognitive deficits in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV).PHIV youth (n = 40) from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) (mean age: 16?±?2 years) were included to evaluate how current and past disease severity measures (recent/nadir CD4%; peak viral load) relate to white matter microstructure within PHIV youth. PHIV youth were compared with 314 controls from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition and Genetics (PING) study.Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography were utilized to assess white matter microstructure. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine whether microstructure alterations contributed to relationships between higher disease severity and specific cognitive domains in PHIV youth.Whole brain fractional anisotropy was reduced, but radial and mean diffusivity were increased in PHIV compared with control youth. Within PHIV youth, more severe past HIV disease was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy of the right inferior fronto-occipital (IFO) and left uncinate tracts; elevated mean diffusivity of the F minor; and increased streamlines comprising the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Associations of higher peak viral load with lower working memory performance were partly mediated by reductions in right IFO fractional anisotropy levels.Our findings suggest that PHIV youth have a higher risk of alterations in white matter microstructure than typically developing youth, and certain alterations are related to past disease severity. Further, white matter alterations potentially mediate associations between HIV disease and working memory.
Project description:The present study investigated functional connectivity and white matter integrity of the fronto-parietal network (FPN) to reveal the neural mechanisms that underlie late-life depression (LLD). Fifty patients with LLD and 40 non-depressed controls were included in the study. A multi-parametric approach was used by applying independent component analysis (ICA) to estimate functional connectivity of the FPN and by applying tract-based spatial statistics to examine white-matter integrity in tracts to the FPN. Patients with LLD exhibited functional abnormalities in the right inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal gyrus and lower white matter fractional anisotropy in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, and uncinate fasciculus. Alterations of functional connectivity and white matter fractional anisotropy in these regions were negatively correlated with the severity of symptomatic anxiety in LLD patients. The right inferior frontal gyrus might be a crucial hub in transferring information between these abnormal regions. Significant correlations were found between anxiety symptoms and brain alterations, suggesting that impairments in the FPN network might be involved in symptomatic anxiety in elderly individuals with depression.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESES:In adults, type 2 diabetes and obesity have been associated with structural brain changes, even in the absence of dementia. Some evidence suggested similar changes in adolescents with type 2 diabetes but comparisons with a non-obese control group have been lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in microstructure of gray and white matter between adolescents with type 2 diabetes, obese adolescents and healthy weight adolescents. METHODS:Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 15 adolescents with type 2 diabetes, 21 obese adolescents and 22 healthy weight controls. Volumetric differences in the gray matter between the three groups were examined using voxel based morphology, while tract based spatial statistics was used to examine differences in the microstructure of the white matter. RESULTS:Adolescents with type 2 diabetes and obese adolescents had reduced gray matter volume in the right hippocampus, left putamen and caudate, bilateral amygdala and left thalamus compared to healthy weight controls. Type 2 diabetes was also associated with significant regional changes in fractional anisotropy within the corpus callosum, fornix, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left uncinate, left internal and external capsule. Fractional anisotropy reductions within these tracts were explained by increased radial diffusivity, which may suggest demyelination of white matter tracts. Mean diffusivity and axial diffusivity did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION:Our data shows that adolescent obesity alone results in reduced gray matter volume and that adolescent type 2 diabetes is associated with both white and gray matter abnormalities.
Project description:Antisocial behavior (AB), including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the <i>structural</i> connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.