MAGeCK enables robust identification of essential genes from genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screens.
ABSTRACT: We propose the Model-based Analysis of Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout (MAGeCK) method for prioritizing single-guide RNAs, genes and pathways in genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screens. MAGeCK demonstrates better performance compared with existing methods, identifies both positively and negatively selected genes simultaneously, and reports robust results across different experimental conditions. Using public datasets, MAGeCK identified novel essential genes and pathways, including EGFR in vemurafenib-treated A375 cells harboring a BRAF mutation. MAGeCK also detected cell type-specific essential genes, including BCR and ABL1, in KBM7 cells bearing a BCR-ABL fusion, and IGF1R in HL-60 cells, which depends on the insulin signaling pathway for proliferation.
Project description:High-throughput CRISPR screens have shown great promise in functional genomics. We present MAGeCK-VISPR, a comprehensive quality control (QC), analysis, and visualization workflow for CRISPR screens. MAGeCK-VISPR defines a set of QC measures to assess the quality of an experiment, and includes a maximum-likelihood algorithm to call essential genes simultaneously under multiple conditions. The algorithm uses a generalized linear model to deconvolute different effects, and employs expectation-maximization to iteratively estimate sgRNA knockout efficiency and gene essentiality. MAGeCK-VISPR also includes VISPR, a framework for the interactive visualization and exploration of QC and analysis results. MAGeCK-VISPR is freely available at http://bitbucket.org/liulab/mageck-vispr .
Project description:Genome-wide screening using CRISPR coupled with nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) is a powerful technology for the systematic evaluation of gene function. Statistically principled analysis is needed for the accurate identification of gene hits and associated pathways. Here, we describe how to perform computational analysis of CRISPR screens using the MAGeCKFlute pipeline. MAGeCKFlute combines the MAGeCK and MAGeCK-VISPR algorithms and incorporates additional downstream analysis functionalities. MAGeCKFlute is distinguished from other currently available tools by its comprehensive pipeline, which contains a series of functions for analyzing CRISPR screen data. This protocol explains how to use MAGeCKFlute to perform quality control (QC), normalization, batch effect removal, copy-number bias correction, gene hit identification and downstream functional enrichment analysis for CRISPR screens. We also describe gene identification and data analysis in CRISPR screens involving drug treatment. Completing the entire MAGeCKFlute pipeline requires ~3 h on a desktop computer running Linux or Mac OS with R support.
Project description:Motivation:Genome-wide clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 screen has been widely used to interrogate gene functions. However, the rules to design better libraries beg further refinement. Results:We found single guide RNA (sgRNA) outliers are characterized by higher G-nucleotide counts, especially in regions distal from the PAM motif and are associated with stronger off-target activities. Furthermore, using non-targeting sgRNAs as negative controls lead to strong bias, which can be mitigated by using sgRNAs targeting multiple 'safe harbor' regions. Custom-designed screens confirmed our findings and further revealed that 19?nt sgRNAs consistently gave the best signal-to-noise ratio. Collectively, our analysis motivated the design of a new genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen library and uncovered some intriguing properties of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Availability and implementation:The MAGeCK workflow is available open source at https://bitbucket.org/liulab/mageck_nest under the MIT license. Supplementary information:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:High-throughput genetic screening based on CRISPR/Cas9 or RNA-interference (RNAi) enables the exploration of genes associated with the phenotype of interest on a large scale. The rapid accumulation of public available genetic screening data provides a wealth of knowledge about genotype-to-phenotype relationships and a valuable resource for the systematic analysis of gene functions. Here we present CRISP-view, a comprehensive database of CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi screening datasets that span multiple phenotypes, including in vitro and in vivo cell proliferation and viability, response to cancer immunotherapy, virus response, protein expression, etc. By 22 September 2020, CRISP-view has collected 10 321 human samples and 825 mouse samples from 167 papers. All the datasets have been curated, annotated, and processed by a standard MAGeCK-VISPR analysis pipeline with quality control (QC) metrics. We also developed a user-friendly webserver to visualize, explore, and search these datasets. The webserver is freely available at http://crispview.weililab.org.
Project description:Two of the main problems of stem cell and regenerative medicine are the exit of pluripotency and differentiation to functional cells or tissues. The answer to these two problems holds great value in the clinical translation of stem cell as well as regenerative medicine research. Although piling researches have revealed the truth about pluripotency maintenance, the mechanisms underlying pluripotent cell self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation into specific cell lineages or tissues are yet to be defined. To this end, we took full advantage of a novel technology, namely, the genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (GeCKO). As an effective way of introducing targeted loss-of-function mutations at specific sites in the genome, GeCKO is able to screen in an unbiased manner for key genes that promote exit from pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) for the first time. In this study, we successfully established a model based on GeCKO to screen the key genes in pluripotency withdrawal. Our strategies included lentiviral package and infection technology, lenti-Cas9 gene knockout technology, shRNA gene knockdown technology, next-generation sequencing, model-based analysis of genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (MAGeCK analysis), GO analysis, and other methods. Our findings provide a novel approach for large-scale screening of genes involved in pluripotency exit and offer an entry point for cell fate regulation research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pooled library CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screening across hundreds of cell lines has identified genes whose disruption leads to fitness defects, a critical step in identifying candidate cancer targets. However, the number of essential genes detected from these monogenic knockout screens is low compared to the number of constitutively expressed genes in a cell. RESULTS:Through a systematic analysis of screen data in cancer cell lines generated by the Cancer Dependency Map, we observe that half of all constitutively expressed genes are never detected in any CRISPR screen and that these never-essentials are highly enriched for paralogs. We investigated functional buffering among approximately 400 candidate paralog pairs using CRISPR/enCas12a dual-gene knockout screening in three cell lines. We observe 24 synthetic lethal paralog pairs that have escaped detection by monogenic knockout screens at stringent thresholds. Nineteen of 24 (79%) synthetic lethal interactions are present in at least two out of three cell lines and 14 of 24 (58%) are present in all three cell lines tested, including alternate subunits of stable protein complexes as well as functionally redundant enzymes. CONCLUSIONS:Together, these observations strongly suggest that functionally redundant paralogs represent a targetable set of genetic dependencies that are systematically under-represented among cell-essential genes in monogenic CRISPR-based loss of function screens.
Project description:CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering has revolutionised high-throughput functional genomic screens. However, recent work has raised concerns regarding the performance of CRISPR-Cas9 screens using TP53 wild-type human cells due to a p53-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) limiting the efficiency of generating viable edited cells. To directly assess the impact of cellular p53 status on CRISPR-Cas9 screen performance, we carried out parallel CRISPR-Cas9 screens in wild-type and TP53 knockout human retinal pigment epithelial cells using a focused dual guide RNA library targeting 852 DDR-associated genes. Our work demonstrates that although functional p53 status negatively affects identification of significantly depleted genes, optimal screen design can nevertheless enable robust screen performance. Through analysis of our own and published screen data, we highlight key factors for successful screens in both wild-type and p53-deficient cells.
Project description:Objective: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor. However, the survival of patients with osteosarcoma has remained unchanged during the past 30 years, owing to a lack of efficient therapeutic targets. Methods: We constructed a kinome-targeting CRISPR-Cas9 library containing 507 kinases and 100 nontargeting controls and screened the potential kinase targets in osteosarcoma. The CRISPR screening sequencing data were analyzed with the Model-based Analysis of Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout (MAGeCK) Python package. The functional data were applied in the 143B cell line through lenti-CRISPR-mediated gene knockout. The clinical significance of kinases in the survival of patients with osteosarcoma was analyzed in the R2: Genomics Analysis and Visualization Platform. Results: We identified 53 potential kinase targets in osteosarcoma. Among these targets, we analyzed 3 kinases, TRRAP, PKMYT1, and TP53RK, to validate their oncogenic functions in osteosarcoma. PKMYT1 and TP53RK showed higher expression in osteosarcoma than in normal bone tissue, whereas TRRAP showed no significant difference. High expression of all 3 kinases was associated with relatively poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma. Conclusions: Our results not only offer potential therapeutic kinase targets in osteosarcoma but also provide a paradigm for functional genetic screening by using a CRISPR-Cas9 library, including target design, library construction, screening workflow, data analysis, and functional validation. This method may also be useful in potentially accelerating drug discovery for other cancer types.
Project description:The simplicity of programming the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated nuclease Cas9 to modify specific genomic loci suggests a new way to interrogate gene function on a genome-wide scale. We show that lentiviral delivery of a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (GeCKO) library targeting 18,080 genes with 64,751 unique guide sequences enables both negative and positive selection screening in human cells. First, we used the GeCKO library to identify genes essential for cell viability in cancer and pluripotent stem cells. Next, in a melanoma model, we screened for genes whose loss is involved in resistance to vemurafenib, a therapeutic RAF inhibitor. Our highest-ranking candidates include previously validated genes NF1 and MED12, as well as novel hits NF2, CUL3, TADA2B, and TADA1. We observe a high level of consistency between independent guide RNAs targeting the same gene and a high rate of hit confirmation, demonstrating the promise of genome-scale screening with Cas9.
Project description:Combinatorial genetic screening using CRISPR-Cas9 is a useful approach to uncover redundant genes and to explore complex gene networks. However, current methods suffer from interference between the single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) and from limited gene targeting activity. To increase the efficiency of combinatorial screening, we employ orthogonal Cas9 enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. We used machine learning to establish S. aureus Cas9 sgRNA design rules and paired S. aureus Cas9 with S. pyogenes Cas9 to achieve dual targeting in a high fraction of cells. We also developed a lentiviral vector and cloning strategy to generate high-complexity pooled dual-knockout libraries to identify synthetic lethal and buffering gene pairs across multiple cell types, including MAPK pathway genes and apoptotic genes. Our orthologous approach also enabled a screen combining gene knockouts with transcriptional activation, which revealed genetic interactions with TP53. The "Big Papi" (paired aureus and pyogenes for interactions) approach described here will be widely applicable for the study of combinatorial phenotypes.