Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013.
ABSTRACT: The Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella received 16,544 human isolates of Salmonella enterica between January 2009 and December 2013. Although 377 different serotypes were identified, the landscape is dominated by S. enterica serovars Typhimurium (55%) and Enteritidis (19%) in a ratio which is inverse to European Union averages. With outbreaks of Salmonella serotypes Ohio, Stanley, and Paratyphi B variant Java as prime examples, 20 serotypes displayed significant fluctuations in this 5-year period. Typhoid strains account for 1.2% of Belgian salmonellosis cases. Large-scale antibiotic susceptibility analyses (n = 4,561; panel of 12 antibiotics) showed declining resistance levels in S. Enteritis and Typhimurium isolates for 8 and 3 tested agents, respectively. Despite low overall resistance to ciprofloxacin (4.4%) and cefotaxime (1.6%), we identified clonal lineages of Salmonella serotypes Kentucky and Infantis displaying rising resistance against these clinically important drugs. Quinolone resistance is mainly mediated by serotype-specific mutations in GyrA residues Ser83 and Asp87 (92.2% not wild type), while an additional ParC_Ser80Ile mutation leads to ciprofloxacin resistance in 95.5% S. Kentucky isolates, which exceeds European averages. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) alleles qnrA1 (n = 1), qnrS (n = 9), qnrD1 (n = 4), and qnrB (n = 4) were found in only 3.0% of 533 isolates resistant to nalidixic acid. In cefotaxime-resistant isolates, we identified a broad range of Ambler class A and C ?-lactamase genes (e.g., bla(SHV-12), blaTEM-52, bla(CTX-M-14), and bla(CTX-M-15)) commonly associated with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, resistance to fluoroquinolones and cefotaxime remains rare in human S. enterica, but clonal resistant serotypes arise, and continued (inter)national surveillance is mandatory to understand the origin and routes of dissemination thereof.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky (S. Kentucky) sequence type 198 has emerged as a global zoonotic pathogen. We explored Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 samples from the broiler chicken supply chain and patients between 2010 and 2016. Here, we collected 180 S. Kentucky isolates from clinical cases and the poultry supply chain. We performed XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. We assessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions and screened for the presence of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). We determined that 63 (35.0%) of the 180 isolates were S. Kentucky ST198. Chinese strains of S. Kentucky ST198 have a high transmission of ciprofloxacin resistance (38/63, 60.3%) and a high risk of multidrug resistance. The quinolone resistance of the S. Kentucky ST198 strain found in China may be due to mutations in its quinolone resistance-determining region. Our study firstly revealed that ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198 strains can undergo cross-host transmission, thereby causing a serious foodborne public health problem in China.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aims of this study were to investigate Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses, to assess the antibiotic resistance profile in avian and human Salmonella isolates, and to evaluate the relationship between avian and human Extended Spectrum ?-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates. Salmonella was screened in different sample matrices collected at thirty-two chicken farms and five slaughterhouses. The human isolates were recovered from clinical specimens at the University Teaching Hospital of Constantine (UTH). All suspected colonies were confirmed by MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time OF light) and serotyped. Susceptibility testing against 13 antibiotics including, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, aztreonam, imipenem, ertapenem, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin, was performed using the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar. ESBL-production was screened by the double-disk synergy test and confirmed by molecular characterization using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification and sequencing of ESBL encoding genes. Clonality of the avian and human strains was performed using the Multi Locus Sequencing Typing method (MLST).<h4>Results</h4>Forty-five isolated avian Salmonella strains and 37 human collected ones were studied. Five S. enterica serotypes were found in avian isolates (mainly Kentucky) and 9 from human ones (essentially Infantis). 51.11% and 26.6% of the avian isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime, respectively, whereas human isolates were less resistant to these antibiotics (13.5% to ciprofloxacin and 16.2% to cefotaxime). Eighteen (12 avian and 6 human) strains were found to produce ESBLs, which were identified as bla <sub>CTX-M-1</sub> (n = 12), bla <sub>CTX-M-15</sub> (n = 5) and bla <sub>TEM</sub> group (n = 8). Interestingly, seven of the ESBL-producing strains (5 avian and 2 human) were of the same ST (ST15) and clustered together, suggesting a common origin.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of the combined phenotypic and genotypic analysis found in this study suggest a close relationship between human and avian strains and support the hypothesis that poultry production may play a role in the spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in the human community within the study region.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovars have been isolated from Colombian broilers and broiler meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of ESBL/pAmpC genes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant Salmonella enterica and the phylogeny of ESBL/pAmpC-carrying Salmonella using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). A total of 260 cefotaxime resistant Salmonella isolates, obtained between 2008 and 2013 from broiler farms, slaughterhouses and retail, were included. Isolates were screened by PCR for ESBL/pAmpC genes. Gene and plasmid subtyping and strain Multi Locus Sequence Typing was performed in silico for a selection of fully sequenced isolates. Core-genome-based analyses were performed per ST encountered. bla CMY-2-like was carried in 168 isolates, 52 carried bla CTX-M-2 group, 7 bla SHV, 5 a combination of bla CMY-2-like-bla SHV and 3 a combination of bla CMY-2-like-bla CTX-M-2 group. In 25 isolates no ESBL/pAmpC genes that were screened for were found. WGS characterization of 36 selected strains showed plasmid-encoded bla CMY-2 in 21, bla CTX-M-165 in 11 and bla SHV-12 in 7 strains. These genes were mostly carried on IncI1/ST12, IncQ1, and IncI1/ST231 plasmids, respectively. Finally, 17 strains belonged to S. Heidelberg ST15, 16 to S. Paratyphi B variant Java ST28, 1 to S. Enteritidis ST11, 1 to S. Kentucky ST152 and 1 to S. Albany ST292. Phylogenetic comparisons with publicly available genomes showed separate clustering of Colombian S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi B var. Java. In conclusion, resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella from Colombian poultry is mainly encoded by bla CMY-2 and bla CTX-M-165 genes. These genes are mostly associated with IncI1/ST12 and IncQ1 plasmids, respectively. Evolutionary divergence is observed between Colombian S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi B var. Java and those from other countries.
Project description:Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Hadar, Kentucky, Virchow, Schwarzengrund, and the monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- were examined for mutations within the quinolone resistance target genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and for plasmid-mediated resistance genes. Differences were observed among the serovars. A novel variant of qnrD, qnrD2, was detected in an S. Hadar isolate.
Project description:We describe the characterization of a novel CTX-M beta-lactamase from Salmonella enterica. Four S. enterica isolates (three of serotype Westhampton and one of serotype Senftenberg) resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftazidime) were recovered in 2004 from living cockles in three supermarkets located in distant geographic areas in France, which got their supplies from the same fishery. The isolates were found to produce a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) belonging to the CTX-M-1 phylogenetic group and named CTX-M-53. The CTX-M-53 beta-lactamase harbored the substitution Asp240Gly, like the CTX-M-15 enzyme, which is specifically implicated in a higher catalytic efficiency against ceftazidime. The bla(CTX-M-53) gene was located on a mobilizable 11-kb plasmid, pWES-1. The complete sequence of pWES-1 revealed the presence of a novel insertion sequence, ISSen2, and an IS26 element upstream and downstream of the bla(CTX-M-53) gene, respectively; however, transposition assays of the bla(CTX-M-53) gene were unsuccessful. IS26 elements may have contributed to the acquisition of the bla(CTX-M-53) gene. Interestingly, the mobilization module of the pWES-1 plasmid was similar to that of quinolone resistance plasmids (carrying the qnrS2 gene) from aquatic sources. Although belonging to two serotypes differentiated on the basis of the O-antigen structure (E1 or E4 groups), the isolates were found to be genetically indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the isolates of serotype Westhampton had a sequence type, ST14, common among isolates of serotype Senftenberg. This is the first characterization of the CTX-M-53 ESBL, which represents an additional ceftazidime-hydrolyzing CTX-M enzyme.
Project description:<i>Salmonella enterica</i> serotype Kentucky is frequently associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and has gained epidemiological importance globally. A retrospective screening was performed to understand the national prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant <i>S</i> Kentucky in China. <i>S. enterica</i> strains (<i>n </i>=<i> </i>15,405) were collected within the frame of two national surveillance networks between 2013 and 2017. Thirty-three <i>S.</i> Kentucky strains were detected in 5 of 10 provinces, and 27 were assigned to sequence type 198 (ST198). The 27 isolates were multidrug resistant, with high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin, and 21 isolates were further resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Phylogenomic analysis classified ST198 isolates into two clades (198.1 and 198.2), and recent occurrences of inter-/intraregion and interhost transmission were identified. Phylogenetic reconstruction with a global collection showed that one subclade of clade 198.2 was clustered with historical strains from Egypt, and the other one was clustered with strains from Southeast Asia. Isolates of clade 198.1 were clustered with strains isolated from North America. The various patterns of mutations detected in quinolone resistance-determining regions of GyrA and ParC are accordant with the phylogenetic structure. These findings indicate that our isolates may have various origins. SGI1 was exclusively detected in isolates of clade 198.2 with a highly mosaic structure, which were mainly identified as SGI1-K derivatives. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes <i>qnrS1</i> and <i>aac(6')-Ib-cr</i> were identified in three isolates, and <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-9</sub> and <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-27</sub> were detected in 20 of 21 ESC-resistant isolates. This is the first report of the genetic and epidemiological characterization for the <i>S</i> Kentucky epidemic clone ST198 in China, warranting the necessity of surveillance for the high-risk clone.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins are the choice for treatment of severe nontyphoidal <i>S. enterica</i> infections in adults. <i>S. enterica</i> serotype Kentucky ST198 has gained epidemiological importance globally, because the clone is frequently resistant to both of these high-level-resistance drug groups. The genetic and epidemiological characterization of <i>S.</i> Kentucky has been well studied in Western countries; however, the information is unclear for China. To fill in the gap, we here did a retrospective screening on a large collection in China, and ST198 isolates were systematically analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. Our study revealed that multidrug-resistant ST198 has spread in five provinces, and the occurrences of interregion and cross-host clonal disseminations were detected. Of note, phylogenomic analysis suggests that the Chinese isolates may have emerged with diverse origins, including Egypt, Southeast Asia, and North America. This study warrants the necessity of surveillance for the high-risk clone to prevent its further dissemination in China.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gastrointestinal infections are a global public health problem. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, exposure to Salmonella through the consumption of unhygienic street food represents a major risk of infection requiring detailed evaluation.<h4>Methods</h4>Between June 2017 and July 2018, we sampled 201 street food stalls, in 11 geographic sectors of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. We checked for Salmonella contamination in 201 sandwiches (one per seller), according to the ISO 6579:2002 standard. All Salmonella isolates were characterized by serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and whole-genome sequencing was performed on a subset of isolates, to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and antimicrobial resistance determinants.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of Salmonella enterica was 17.9% (36/201) and the Salmonella isolates belonged to 16 different serotypes, the most frequent being Kentucky, Derby and Tennessee, with five isolates each. Six Salmonella isolates from serotypes Brancaster and Kentucky were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Whole-genome sequencing revealed that four of these MDR isolates belonged to the emergent S. enterica serotype Kentucky clone ST198-X1 and to an invasive lineage of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis (West African clade).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study reveals a high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in sandwiches sold in Ouagadougou. The presence of MDR Salmonella in food on sale detected in this study is also matter of concern.
Project description:Since its emergence in the beginning of the 90's, multidrug-resistant (MDR) <i>Salmonella enterica</i> subsp<i>. enterica</i> serovar Kentucky has become a significant public health problem, especially in East Africa. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile and the genotypic relatedness of <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky isolated from animal sources in Ethiopia and Kenya (n=19). We also investigated population evolutionary dynamics through phylogenetic and pangenome analyses with additional publicly available <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky ST198 genomes (n=229). All the 19 sequenced <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky isolates were identified as ST198. Among these isolates, the predominant genotypic antimicrobial resistance profile observed in ten (59.7%) isolates included the <i>aac(3)-Id</i>, <i>aadA7</i>, <i>strA</i>-<i>strB</i>, <i>bla</i> <sub>TEM-1B</sub>, <i>sul1</i>, and <i>tet</i>(A) genes, which mediated resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin/spectinomycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline, respectively; and <i>gyr</i>A and <i>par</i>C mutations associated to ciprofloxacin resistance. Four isolates harbored plasmid types Incl1 and/or Col8282; two of them carried both plasmids. <i>Salmonella</i> Pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 to SPI-5) were highly conserved in the 19 sequenced <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky isolates. Moreover, at least one Pathogenicity Island (SPI 1-4, SPI 9 or C63PI) was identified among the 229 public <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky genomes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky ST198 isolates (17/19) stemmed from a single strain that has accumulated ciprofloxacin resistance-mediating mutations. A total of 8,104 different genes were identified in a heterogenic and still open <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky ST198 pangenome. Considering the virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes detected in <i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky, the implications of this pathogen to public health and the epidemiological drivers for its dissemination must be investigated.
Project description:Salmonella enterica, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, may be found in any raw food of animal, vegetable, or fruit origin. Salmonella serovars differ in distribution, virulence, and host specificity. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, though often found in the food supply, is less commonly isolated from ill humans. The multidrug-resistant isolate S. Kentucky CVM29188, isolated from a chicken breast sample in 2003, contains three plasmids (146,811 bp, 101,461 bp, and 46,121 bp), two of which carry resistance determinants (pCVM29188_146 [strAB and tetRA] and pCVM29188_101 [bla(CMY-2) and sugE]). Both resistance plasmids were transferable by conjugation, alone or in combination, to S. Kentucky, Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, and Escherichia coli recipients. pCVM29188_146 shares a highly conserved plasmid backbone of 106 kb (>90% nucleotide identity) with two virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (pAPEC-O1-ColBM and pAPEC-O2-ColV). Shared avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) virulence factors include iutA iucABCD, sitABCD, etsABC, iss, and iroBCDEN. PCR analyses of recent (1997 to 2005) S. Kentucky isolates from food animal, retail meat, and human sources revealed that 172 (60%) contained similar APEC-like plasmid backbones. Notably, though rare in human- and cattle-derived isolates, this plasmid backbone was found at a high frequency (50 to 100%) among S. Kentucky isolates from chickens within the same time span. Ninety-four percent of the APEC-positive isolates showed resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Together, our findings of a resistance-conferring APEC virulence plasmid in a poultry-derived S. Kentucky isolate and of similar resistance/virulence plasmids in most recent S. Kentucky isolates from chickens and, to lesser degree, from humans and cattle highlight the need for additional research in order to examine the prevalence and spread of combined virulence and resistance plasmids in bacteria in agricultural, environmental, and clinical settings.
Project description:We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%), tetracycline (80.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%), chloramphenicol (66.1%), cefotaxime (27.4%). Forty-nine (79.0%) of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for bla(TEM-1b) and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0%) were positive for bla(CTX-M-1-group) and bla(CTX-M-9-group), and all isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of bla(CTX-M-55) within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates.