Genomic epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Italy and novel insights into the origin and global evolution of its resistance to carbapenem antibiotics.
ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae is at the forefront of antimicrobial resistance for Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, as strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems are widely reported. The worldwide diffusion of these strains is of great concern due to the high morbidity and mortality often associated with K. pneumoniae infections in nosocomial environments. We sequenced the genomes of 89 K. pneumoniae strains isolated in six Italian hospitals. Strains were selected based on antibiotypes, regardless of multilocus sequence type, to obtain a picture of the epidemiology of K. pneumoniae in Italy. Thirty-one strains were carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, 29 were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, and 29 were susceptible to the aforementioned antibiotics. The genomes were compared to all of the sequences available in the databases, obtaining a data set of 319 genomes spanning the known diversity of K. pneumoniae worldwide. Bioinformatic analyses of this global data set allowed us to construct a whole-species phylogeny, to detect patterns of antibiotic resistance distribution, and to date the differentiation between specific clades of interest. Finally, we detected an ? 1.3-Mb recombination that characterizes all of the isolates of clonal complex 258, the most widespread carbapenem-resistant group of K. pneumoniae. The evolution of this complex was modeled, dating the newly detected and the previously reported recombination events. The present study contributes to the understanding of K. pneumoniae evolution, providing novel insights into its global genomic characteristics and drawing a dated epidemiological scenario for this pathogen in Italy.
Project description:Sequence type 258 (ST258) is the most widespread multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae strain worldwide. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two colistin-resistant MDR K. pneumoniae ST258 clinical strains isolated from hospital patients in Italy. These strains are resistant to ?-lactams, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, carbapenems, and colistin.
Project description:Background:Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections have caused major concern and posed a global threat to public health. As blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes are the most widely reported carbapenem resistant genes in K. pneumonia, it is crucial to study the prevalence and geographical distribution of these two genes for further understanding of their transmission mode and mechanism. Purpose:Here, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains from a tertiary hospital and from 1579 genomes available in the NCBI database, and further analyzed the possible core structure of blaKPC-2 or blaNDM-1 genes among global genome data. Materials and Methods:K. pneumoniae strains from a tertiary hospital in China during 2013-2018 were collected and their antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 28 antibiotics was determined. Whole-genome sequencing of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains was used to investigate the genetic characterization. The phylogenetic relationships of these strains were investigated through pan-genome analysis. The epidemiology and distribution of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes in K. pneumoniae based on 1579 global genomes and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains from hospital were analyzed using bioinformatics. The possible core structure carrying blaKPC-2 or blaNDM-1 genes was investigated among global data. Results:A total of 19 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were isolated in a tertiary hospital. All isolates had a multi-resistant pattern and eight kinds of resistance genes. The phylogenetic analysis showed all isolates in the hospital were dominated by two lineages composed of ST11 and ST25, respectively. ST11 and ST25 were the major ST type carrying blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes, respectively. Among 1579 global genomes data, 147 known ST types (1195 genomes) have been identified, while ST258 (23.6%) and ST11 (22.1%) were the globally prevalent clones among the known ST types. Genetic environment analysis showed that the ISKpn7-dnaA/ISKpn27 -blaKPC-2-ISkpn6 and blaNDM-1-ble-trpf-nagA may be the core structure in the horizontal transfer of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 , respectively. In addition, DNA transferase (hin) may be involved in the horizontal transfer or the expression of blaNDM-1 . Conclusion:There was clonal transmission of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in the tertiary hospital in China. The prevalence and distribution of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 varied by countries and were driven by different transposons carrying the core structure. This study shed light on the genetic environment of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 and offered basic information about the mechanism of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae dissemination.
Project description:A Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate showing moderate to high-level imipenem and meropenem resistance was investigated. The MICs of both drugs were 16 microg/ml. The beta-lactamase activity against imipenem and meropenem was inhibited in the presence of clavulanic acid. The strain was also resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. Isoelectric focusing studies demonstrated three beta-lactamases, with pIs of 7.2 (SHV-29), 6.7 (KPC-1), and 5.4 (TEM-1). The presence of bla(SHV) and bla(TEM) genes was confirmed by specific PCRs and DNA sequence analysis. Transformation and conjugation studies with Escherichia coli showed that the beta-lactamase with a pI of 6.7, KPC-1 (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-1), was encoded on an approximately 50-kb nonconjugative plasmid. The gene, bla(KPC-1), was cloned in E. coli and shown to confer resistance to imipenem, meropenem, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam. The amino acid sequence of the novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, showed 45% identity to the pI 9.7 carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, Sme-1, from Serratia marcescens S6. Hydrolysis studies showed that purified KPC-1 hydrolyzed not only carbapenems but also penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. KPC-1 had the highest affinity for meropenem. The kinetic studies also revealed that clavulanic acid and tazobactam inhibited KPC-1. An examination of the outer membrane proteins of the parent K. pneumoniae strain demonstrated that the strain does not express detectable levels of OmpK35 and OmpK37, although OmpK36 is present. We concluded that carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae strain 1534 is mainly due to production of a novel Bush group 2f, class A, carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, although alterations in porin expression may also play a role.
Project description:In Italy, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) strains are highly endemic and KPC producing CC258 is reported as the widely predominating clone. In Palermo, Italy, previous reports have confirmed this pattern. However, recent preliminary findings suggest that an epidemiological change is likely ongoing towards a polyclonal KPC-Kp spread. Here we present the results of molecular typing of 94 carbapenem non susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates detected during 2014 in the three different hospitals in Palermo, Italy.Ninety-four consecutive, non replicate carbapenem non susceptible isolates were identified in the three largest acute general hospitals in Palermo, Italy, in the six-month period March-August 2014. They were characterized by PCR for β-lactam, aminoglycoside and plasmid mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genetic determinants. The mgrB gene of the colistin resistant isolates was amplified and sequenced. Clonality was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Eight non-CC258 sequence types (STs) were identified accounting for 60% of isolates. In particular, ST307 and ST273 accounted for 29% and 18% of isolates. CC258 isolates were more frequently susceptible to gentamicin and non-CC258 isolates to amikacin. Colistin non susceptibility was found in 42% of isolates. Modifications of mgrB were found in 32 isolates.Concurrent clonal expansion of some STs and lateral transmission of genetic resistance determinants are likely producing a thorough change of the KPC-Kp epidemiology in Palermo, Italy. In our setting mgrB inactivation proved to substantially contribute to colistin resistance. Our findings suggest the need to continuously monitor the KPC-Kp epidemiology and to assess by a nationwide survey the possible shifting towards a polyclonal epidemic.
Project description:We report here Klebsiella pneumoniae strains carrying chromosomal bla NDM-1 in Thailand. The genomes of these two isolates include a 160-kbp insertion containing bla NDM-1, which is almost identical to that in the IncHI1B-like plasmid. Further analysis indicated that IS5-mediated intermolecular transposition and Tn3 transposase-mediated homologous recombination resulted in the integration of bla NDM-1 into the chromosome from an IncHI1B-like plasmid. The spread of this type of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may threaten public health and warrants further monitoring.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae, pose an urgent threat in health facilities in the United States and worldwide. K. pneumoniae isolates classified as sequence type 258 (ST258) by multilocus sequence typing are largely responsible for the global spread of KPC. A recent comparative genome study revealed that ST258 K. pneumoniae strains are two distinct genetic clades; however, the molecular origin of ST258 largely remains unknown, and our understanding of the evolution of the two genetic clades is incomplete. Here we compared the genetic structures and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distributions in the core genomes of strains from two ST258 clades and other STs (ST11, ST442, and ST42). We identified an ~1.1-Mbp region on ST258 genomes that is homogeneous to that of ST442, while the rest of the ST258 genome resembles that of ST11. Our results suggest ST258 is a hybrid clone--80% of the genome originated from ST11-like strains and 20% from ST442-like strains. Meanwhile, we sequenced an ST42 strain that carries the same K-antigen-encoding capsule polysaccharide biosynthesis gene (cps) region as ST258 clade I strains. Comparison of the cps-harboring regions between the ST42 and ST258 strains (clades I and II) suggests the ST258 clade I strains evolved from a clade II strain as a result of cps region replacement. Our findings unravel the molecular evolution history of ST258 strains, an important first step toward the development of diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine strategies to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae. IMPORTANCE:Recombination events and replacement of chromosomal regions have been documented in various bacteria, and these events have given rise to successful pathogenic clones. Here we used comparative genomic analyses to discover that the ST258 K. pneumoniae genome is a hybrid--80% of the chromosome is homologous to ST11 strains, while the remaining 20% is homologous to that of ST442. Meanwhile, a recent study indicated that ST258 strains can be segregated into two ST258 clades, with distinct capsule polysaccharide gene (cps) regions. Our analysis suggests ST258 clade I strains evolved from clade II through homologous recombination of cps region. Horizontal transfer of the cps region appears to be a key element driving the molecular diversification in K. pneumoniae strains. These findings not only extend our understanding of the molecular evolution of ST258 but are an important step toward the development of effective control and treatment strategies for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae is a promising industrial microorganism as well as a major human pathogen. The recent emergence of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae has posed a serious threat to public health worldwide, emphasizing a dire need for novel therapeutic means against drug-resistant K. pneumoniae Despite the critical importance of genetics in bioengineering, physiology studies, and therapeutic-means development, genome editing, in particular, the highly desirable scarless genetic manipulation in K. pneumoniae, is often time-consuming and laborious. Here, we report a two-plasmid system, pCasKP-pSGKP, used for precise and iterative genome editing in K. pneumoniae By harnessing the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 genome cleavage system and the lambda Red recombination system, pCasKP-pSGKP enabled highly efficient genome editing in K. pneumoniae using a short repair template. Moreover, we developed a cytidine base-editing system, pBECKP, for precise C?T conversion in both the chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes by engineering the fusion of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC1 and a Cas9 nickase. By using both the pCasKP-pSGKP and the pBECKP tools, the bla KPC-2 gene was confirmed to be the major factor that contributed to the carbapenem resistance of a hypermucoviscous carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strain. The development of the two editing tools will significantly facilitate the genetic engineering of K. pneumoniae IMPORTANCE Genetics is a key means to study bacterial physiology. However, the highly desirable scarless genetic manipulation is often time-consuming and laborious for the major human pathogen K. pneumoniae We developed a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing method and a cytidine base-editing system, enabling rapid, highly efficient, and iterative genome editing in both industrial and clinically isolated K. pneumoniae strains. We applied both tools in dissecting the drug resistance mechanism of a hypermucoviscous carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strain, elucidating that the bla KPC-2 gene was the major factor that contributed to the carbapenem resistance of the hypermucoviscous carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strain. Utilization of the two tools will dramatically accelerate a wide variety of investigations in diverse K. pneumoniae strains and relevant Enterobacteriaceae species, such as gene characterization, drug discovery, and metabolic engineering.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The enhancing incidence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP)-mediated infections in Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University in 2017 is the motivation behind this investigation to study gene phenotypes and resistance-associated genes of emergence regarding the CRKP strains. In current study, seven inpatients are enrolled in the hospital with complete treatments. The carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae whole genome is sequenced using MiSeq short-read and Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology. Prophages are identified to assess genetic diversity within CRKP genomes. RESULTS:The investigation encompassed eight CRKP strains that collected from the patients enrolled as well as the environment, which illustrate that blaKPC-2 is responsible for phenotypic resistance in six CRKP strains that K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST11) is informed. The plasmid with IncR, ColRNAI and pMLST type with IncF[F33:A-:B-] co-exist in all ST11 with KPC-2-producing CRKP strains. Along with carbapenemases, all K. pneumoniae strains harbor two or three extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing genes. fosA gene is detected amongst all the CRKP strains. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers are indicated and validated among all CRKP strains, providing valuable clues for distinguishing carbapenem-resistant strains from conventional K. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS:ST11 is the main CRKP type, and blaKPC-2 is the dominant carbapenemase gene harbored by clinical CRKP isolates from current investigations. The SNP markers detected would be helpful for characterizing CRKP strain from general K. pneumoniae. The data provides insights into effective strategy developments for controlling CRKP and nosocomial infection reductions.
Project description:Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a major problem worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, most notably isolates classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258, have emerged as an important cause of hospital deaths. ST258 isolates are predominantly multidrug resistant, and therefore infections caused by them are difficult to treat. It is not known why the ST258 lineage is the most prevalent cause of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae infections in the United States and other countries. Here we tested the hypothesis that carbapenem-resistant ST258 K. pneumoniae is a single genetic clone that has disseminated worldwide. We sequenced to closure the genomes of two ST258 clinical isolates and used these genomes as references for comparative genome sequencing of 83 additional clinical isolates recovered from patients at diverse geographic locations worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis of the SNPs in the core genome of these isolates revealed that ST258 K. pneumoniae organisms are two distinct genetic clades. This unexpected finding disproves the single-clone hypothesis. Notably, genetic differentiation between the two clades results from an ∼ 215-kb region of divergence that includes genes involved in capsule polysaccharide biosynthesis. The region of divergence appears to be a hotspot for DNA recombination events, and we suggest that this region has contributed to the success of ST258 K. pneumoniae. Our findings will accelerate research on novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine strategies designed to prevent and/or treat infections caused by multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The pathogenic spectrum of bloodstream infections (BSIs) varies across regions. Monitoring the pathogenic profile and antimicrobial resistance is a prerequisite for effective therapy, infection control and for strategies aimed to counter antimicrobial resistance. The pathogenic spectrum of BSIs in blood cultures was analysed, focusing on the resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in Aljouf region. METHODS:This descriptive cross-sectional study analysed the culture reports of all non-duplicate blood samples collected from January 1 to December 31, 2019. Antibiograms of A. baumannii, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were analysed for antibiotic resistance. The frequency and percentages of multi-drug, extensively-drug, pan-drug and carbapenem resistance were calculated. RESULTS:Of the 222 bloodstream infections, 62.2% and 36.4% were caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Most BSIs occurred in patients aged ?60 years (59.5%). Among the 103 isolates of the studied Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), 47.6%, 38.8%, and 2.9% were multi-drug, extensively drug and pan-drug resistant respectively. 46% of K. pneumoniae isolates were carbapenemase producers. Resistance to gentamycin, 1st-4th generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems was observed for A. baumannii. More than 70% of E. coli isolates were resistant to 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a resistance rate of >60% to imipenems. CONCLUSIONS:Gram-negative bacteria dominate BSIs, with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae most frequently detected in this region. Resistant GNB infections make it challenging to treat geriatric patients. Regional variations in antimicrobial resistance should be continually monitored.