Regulation of E2F1-induced apoptosis by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor adenovirus E2 promoter-binding factor (E2F)-1 normally enhances cell-cycle progression, but it also induces apoptosis under certain conditions, including DNA damage and serum deprivation. Although DNA damage facilitates the phosphorylation and stabilization of E2F1 to trigger apoptosis, how serum starvation renders cells vulnerable to E2F1-induced apoptosis remains unclear. Because poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a nuclear enzyme essential for genomic stability and chromatin remodeling, interacts directly with E2F1, we investigated the effects of PARP1 on E2F1-mediated functions in the presence and absence of serum. PARP1 attenuation, which increased E2F1 transactivation, induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest under normal growth conditions, but enhanced E2F1-induced apoptosis in serum-starved cells. Interestingly, basal PARP1 activity was sufficient to modify E2F1 by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which stabilized the interaction between E2F1 and the BIN1 tumor suppressor in the nucleus. Accordingly, BIN1 acted as an RB1-independent E2F1 corepressor. Because E2F1 directly activates the BIN1 gene promoter, BIN1 curbed E2F1 activity through a negative-feedback mechanism. Conversely, when the BIN1-E2F1 interaction was abolished by PARP1 suppression, E2F1 continuously increased BIN1 levels. This is functionally germane, as PARP1-depletion-associated G2/M arrest was reversed by the transfection of BIN1 siRNA. Moreover, PARP-inhibitor-associated anti-transformation activity was compromised by the coexpression of dominant-negative BIN1. Because serum starvation massively reduced the E2F1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, we conclude that the release of BIN1 from hypo-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated E2F1 is a mechanism by which serum starvation promotes E2F1-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Autophagy is a key regulatory process in maintaining cellular homoeostasis via lysosome degradation. Growing evidence reveals that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is involved in the progression of many cardiovascular diseases. This study was undertaken to discuss the role of PARP1 in cardiomyocyte autophagy. Our results demonstrated that PARP1 was activated in response to starvation-induced myocardial autophagy. We identified Forkhead box O (FoxO)3a as a substrate of PARP1. Upon PARP1 activation, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation dissociated histone H1 from FoxO3a target gene promoter and promoted FoxO3a nuclear accumulation and binding activity to the target promoters, resulting in increased expression of autophagy related genes. Activated autophagy by PARP1 impaired mitochondrial metabolism and promoted cardiomyocyte death. And PARP1 silencing or specific inhibitors alleviated the promotion of FoxO3 activity upon starvation or myocardial ischemia, thus suppressing cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis. Together, these data indicate that PARP1-mediated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of FoxO3a plays a key role in cardiomyocyte autophagy. The utilization of PARP1 as a therapeutic target for related cardiovascular diseases would be desirable.
Project description:Farnesoid X receptor ? (FXR) is highly expressed in the liver and regulates the expression of various genes involved in liver repair. In this study, we demonstrated that activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) promoted hepatic cell death by inhibiting the expression of FXR-dependent hepatoprotective genes. PARP1 could bind to and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ate FXR. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation dissociated FXR from the FXR response element (FXRE), present in the promoters of target genes, and suppressed FXR-mediated gene transcription. Moreover, treatment with a FXR agonist attenuated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of FXR and promoted FXR-dependent gene expression. We further established the CCl4-induced acute liver injury model in wild-type and FXR-knockout mice and identified an essential role of FXR poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in CCl4-induced liver injury. Thus, our results identified poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of FXR by PARP1 as a key step in oxidative-stress-induced hepatic cell death. The molecular association between PARP1 and FXR provides new insight into the mechanism, suggesting that inhibition of PARP1 could prevent liver injury.
Project description:Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure and remains a critical problem in medicine. PARP1-dependent poly(ADPribosyl)ation is a key mediator of cellular stress responses and functions in multiple physiological and pathological processes. However, whether it is involved in the process of APAP metabolism remains elusive. In this study, we find that PARP1 is activated in mouse livers after APAP overdose. Pharmacological or genetic manipulations of PARP1 are sufficient to suppress the APAP-induced hepatic toxicity and injury, as well as reduced APAP metabolism. Mechanistically, we identify pregnane X receptor (PXR) as a substrate of PARP1-mediated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PXR in ligand-binding domain activates PXR competitively and solidly, facilitates its recruitment to target gene CYP3A11 promoter, and promotes CYP3A11 gene transcription, thus resulting in increases of APAP pro-toxic metabolism. Additionally, PXR silence antagonizes the effects of PARP1 on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. These results identifies poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PXR by PARP1 as a key step in APAP-induced liver injury. We propose that inhibition of PARP1-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation might represent a novel approach for the treatment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.
Project description:The WD40-repeat protein DDB2 is essential for efficient recognition and subsequent removal of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions by nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, how DDB2 promotes NER in chromatin is poorly understood. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) as a novel DDB2-associated factor. We demonstrate that DDB2 facilitated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of UV-damaged chromatin through the activity of PARP1, resulting in the recruitment of the chromatin-remodeling enzyme ALC1. Depletion of ALC1 rendered cells sensitive to UV and impaired repair of UV-induced DNA lesions. Additionally, DDB2 itself was targeted by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, resulting in increased protein stability and a prolonged chromatin retention time. Our in vitro and in vivo data support a model in which poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DDB2 suppresses DDB2 ubiquitylation and outline a molecular mechanism for PARP1-mediated regulation of NER through DDB2 stabilization and recruitment of the chromatin remodeler ALC1.
Project description:The tumor suppressor bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a corepressor of the transcription factor E2F1 and inhibits cell-cycle progression. BIN1 also curbs cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and increases sensitivity of cancer cells to DNA-damaging therapeutic agents such as cisplatin. However, how BIN1 deficiency, a hallmark of advanced cancer cells, increases cisplatin resistance remains elusive. Here, we report that BIN1 inactivates ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) serine/threonine kinase, particularly when BIN1 binds E2F1. BIN1 + 12A (a cancer-associated BIN1 splicing variant) also inhibited cellular PARylation, but only BIN1 increased cisplatin sensitivity. BIN1 prevented E2F1 from transcriptionally activating the human ATM promoter, whereas BIN1 + 12A did not physically interact with E2F1. Conversely, BIN1 loss significantly increased E2F1-dependent formation of MRE11A/RAD50/NBS1 DNA end-binding protein complex and efficiently promoted ATM autophosphorylation. Even in the absence of dsDNA breaks (DSBs), BIN1 loss promoted ATM-dependent phosphorylation of histone H2A family member X (forming ?H2AX, a DSB biomarker) and mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1, a ?H2AX-binding adaptor protein for DSB repair). Of note, even in the presence of transcriptionally active (i.e. proapoptotic) TP53 tumor suppressor, BIN1 loss generally increased cisplatin resistance, which was conversely alleviated by ATM inactivation or E2F1 reduction. However, E2F2 or E2F3 depletion did not recapitulate the cisplatin sensitivity elicited by E2F1 elimination. Our study unveils an E2F1-specific signaling circuit that constitutively activates ATM and provokes cisplatin resistance in BIN1-deficient cancer cells and further reveals that ?H2AX emergence may not always reflect DSBs if BIN1 is absent.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation.
Project description:Activation of nuclear receptor estrogen receptor ? (ER?) exerts cardiovascular protective effects by modulating the expression of ER? target genes. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PARP1 is a ubiquitous multifunctional nuclear enzyme. In this study, we examined the interplay between PARP1 and ER?, and identified PARP1 as an important regulator of ER?-dependent transcription. We showed that PARP1 could directly bind to ER?, and ER? could be poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated by PARP1. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation increased ER? binding to estrogen response element (ERE) present in the promoter of target genes and promoted ER?-mediated gene transcription. Estradiol, the ligand of ER?, increased PARP enzymatic activity and enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of ER?. Upon treatment with estradiol, ER? binding to ERE- and ER?-dependent gene expression was dramatically increased in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Inhibition of PARP1 by PARP inhibitor or PARP1 siRNA decreased ER? binding to ERE and prevented ER?-dependent gene transcription in VSMCs. Further studies revealed that PARP1 served as an indispensible component for the formation of the ER?-ERE complex by directly interacting with ER?. Thus, our results identify PARP1 as a key regulator of ER? in controlling ER? transactivation.
Project description:The biological functions of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are not well understood. However, it is known that hnRNPs are involved in the regulation of alternative splicing for many genes, including the Ddc gene in Drosophila. Therefore, we first confirmed that poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) interacts with two Drosophila hnRNPs, Squid/hrp40 and Hrb98DE/hrp38, and that this function is regulated by Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG) in vivo. These findings then provided a basis for analyzing the role of pADPr binding to these two hnRNPs in terms of alternative splicing regulation. Our results showed that Parg null mutation does cause poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Squid and hrp38 protein, as well as their dissociation from active chromatin. Our data also indicated that pADPr binding to hnRNPs inhibits the RNA-binding ability of hnRNPs. Following that, we demonstrated that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Squid and hrp38 proteins inhibits splicing of the intron in the Hsr omega-RC transcript, but enhances splicing of the intron in the Ddc pre-mRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates the interaction between hnRNPs and RNA and thus modulates the splicing pathways.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a rapid and transient posttranslational protein modification mostly catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). Fundamental roles of activated PARP1 in DNA damage repair and cellular response pathways are well established; however, the precise mechanisms by which PARP1 is activated independent of DNA damage, and thereby playing a role in expression of inflammatory genes, remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that, in response to LPS or TNF-? exposure, the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl undergoes nuclear translocation and interacts with and phosphorylates PARP1 at the conserved Y829 site. Tyrosine-phosphorylated PARP1 is required for protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of RelA/p65 and NF-?B-dependent expression of proinflammatory genes in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, human monocytic THP1 cells, or mouse lungs. Furthermore, LPS-induced airway lung inflammation was reduced by inhibition of c-Abl activity. The present study elucidated a novel signaling pathway to activate PARP1 and regulate gene expression, suggesting that blocking the interaction of c-Abl with PARP1 or pharmaceutical inhibition of c-Abl may improve the outcomes of PARP1 activation-mediated inflammatory diseases.